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1.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 259(3): 567-574, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Following the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, the easing of strict measures to reduce its spread has led to a resurgence of cases in many countries at both the national and local level. This article addresses how guidance for ophthalmologists on managing patients with retinal disease receiving intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during the pandemic should be adapted to the local epidemic pressure, with more or less stringent measures implemented according to the ebb and flow of the pandemic. METHODS: The Vision Academy's membership of international retinal disease experts analyzed guidance for anti-VEGF intravitreal injections during the COVID-19 pandemic and graded the recommendations according to three levels of increasing epidemic pressure. The revised recommendations were discussed, refined, and voted on by the 14-member Vision Academy Steering Committee for consensus. RESULTS: Protocols to minimize the exposure of patients and healthcare staff to COVID-19, including use of personal protective equipment, physical distancing, and hygiene measures, should be routinely implemented and intensified according to local infection rates and pressure on the hospital/clinic or healthcare system. In areas with many COVID-19-positive clusters, additional measures including pre-screening of patients, postponement of non-urgent appointments, and simplification of complex intravitreal anti-VEGF regimens should be considered. Treatment prioritization for those at greatest risk of irreversible vision loss should be implemented in areas where COVID-19 cases are increasing exponentially and healthcare resources are strained. CONCLUSION: Consistency in monitoring of local infection rates and adjustment of clinical practice accordingly will be required as we move forward through the COVID-19 era. Ophthalmologists must continue to carefully weigh the risk-benefits to minimize the exposure of patients and healthcare staff to COVID-19, ensure that patients receive sight-saving treatment, and avoid the potential long-term impact of prolonged treatment postponement.

2.
Bioorg Chem ; 108: 104635, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484940

RESUMO

Eleven undescribed quinolone alkaloids, pesimquinolones I-S (1-4 and 6-12), as well as eleven known congeners (5 and 13-22), were isolated from the solid culture broth of the fungus Penicillium simplicissimum. Their chemical structures with absolute configurations were established by a combination of NMR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and modified Mosher's methods. Pesimquinolones I-K (1-3) represent the first examples of natural occurring quinolone alkaloids that possess a 6/6/6/6 tetracyclic ring system. The anti-inflammatory activities of selected compounds on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in adherent cells were evaluated. Compounds 1 and 2 showed suppressive effects on the production of NO, with IC50 values of 10.13 and 8.10 µM, respectively.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
4.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2020 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377611

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of monthly and pro re nata (PRN, guided by visual acuity stabilization and disease activity criteria) ranibizumab regimens in Chinese patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). METHODS: This double-masked study randomized nAMD patients (1:1) to ranibizumab monthly from baseline to Month (M) 11 to a PRN regimen from M12 to M23 (monthly group, n = 167) versus ranibizumab three monthly doses followed by a PRN regimen up to M23 (PRN group, n = 166). Subgroups were assessed based on the presence/absence of PCV (indicated by indocyanine green angiography). RESULTS: Of 334 randomized patients, 41.7% had PCV at baseline. Mean average best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) change from M3 to M4 through M12 was 3.3 letters with monthly and 1.7 letters with PRN (mean difference: 1.6; 95% CI: -2.95, -0.20, primary end-point). Mean change in BCVA from baseline (monthly/PRN, 53.8/53.7) to M12 and M24 was 12.3 and 11.3 letters in monthly and 9.6 and 9.3 letters in PRN group. Corresponding values for patients with PCV/without PCV were 12.7/12.1 letters (M12) and 12.3/10.6 letters (M24) in monthly and 9.4/9.4 letters (M12) and 9.7/8.7 letters (M24) in PRN groups. The mean number of injections was 11.4 (monthly) and 8.2 (PRN) from Day 1 to M11 and 4.8 (monthly) and 5.0 (PRN) from M12 to M23. No new safety findings were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The study results support the use of either ranibizumab monthly or PRN regimens in Chinese patients with nAMD, regardless of presence of PCV.

5.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 5042356, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344637

RESUMO

Background: Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor(SFT)/hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is an aggressive malignant tumor originating from the intracranial vasculature. Angiomatous meningioma (AM) is a benign tumor with a good prognosis. The imaging manifestations of the two are very similar. Thus, novel noninvasive diagnostic method is urgently needed in clinical practice. Texture analysis and model building through machine learning may have good prospects. Aim: To evaluate whether a 3D-MRI texture feature model could be used to differentiate malignant intracranial SFT/HPC from AM. Method: A total of 97 patients with SFT/HPC and 95 with AM were included in this study. Patients from each group were randomly divided into the train (70%) and test (30%) sets. ROIs were drawn along the edge of the tumor on each section of T1WI, T2WI, and contrasted T1WI using ITK-SNAP software. The segmented image was imported into the AK software for texture feature extraction, and the 3D ROI signal intensity histograms of T1WI, T2WI, and contrasted T1WI were automatically obtained along with all the parameters. Modeling was performed using the language R. Confusion matrix was used to analyze the accuracy of the model. ROC curve was constructed to assess the grading ability of the logistic regression model. Results: After Lasso dimension reduction, 5, 9, and 7 texture features were extracted from T1WI, T2WI, and contrasted T1WI, respectively; additional 8 texture features were extracted from the combined sequence for modeling. The ROC analyses on four models resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.885 (sensitivity 76.1%, specificity 87.9%) for T1WI model, 0.918 (73.1%, 95.5%) for T2WI model, 0.815 (55.2%, 93.9%) for contrasted T1WI model, and 0.959 (92.5%, 84.8%) for the combined sequence model and were enough to correctly distinguish the two groups in 71.2%, 81.4%, 69.5%, and 83.1% of cases in test set, respectively. Conclusions: The radiological model based on texture features could be used to differentiate SFT/HPC from AM.

6.
Cell Death Dis ; 11(11): 995, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33219221

RESUMO

Adrenocortical carcinoma is one of the aggressive malignancies and it originates from the cortex of adrenal gland. Dysregulation of long non-coding RNA plays important roles in the development of adrenocortical carcinoma. Here, we found that lncRNA ASB16-AS1 was down-regulated in adrenocortical carcinoma and ASB16-AS1 functions as tumor suppressor in vitro and in vivo. We then found that IGF1R and CDK6 are regulated by ASB16-AS1 in adrenocortical carcinoma cells by transcriptome RNA sequencing. ASB16-AS1 associates with RNA-binding protein HuR (ELAVL1) as revealed by RNA pull-down following mass spectrometry. Also, ASB16-AS1 inhibits HuR expression post-translationally by promoting its ubiquitination. ASB16-AS1 regulates IGF1R and CDK6 mRNA expression through RNA-binding protein HuR. We then found that inhibition of ASB16-AS1 attenuates the binding of ubiquitin E3 ligase BTRC to HuR and subsequently inhibits HuR protein unbiquitination and degradation. BTRC knock-down could reverse the effect of AB16-AS1 on HuR, CDK6, and IGF1R levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate that ASB16-AS1 regulates adrenocortical carcinoma cell proliferation and tackling the level of ASB16-AS1 may be developed to treat adrenocortical carcinoma.

7.
Bioanalysis ; 12(23): 1681-1688, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33179532

RESUMO

Aim: GW788388 is a selective and orally active TGF-ß1 receptor inhibitor that shows potent activity in renal fibrosis. We aimed to establish and validate a simple and sensitive ultra-performance LC-MS/MS method for the determination of GW788388 in plasma samples. Methodology & results: GW788388 in rat plasma was processed with protein precipitation method and then separated on a C18 column. The calibration curve presented a good linearity in the range of 1.0-1200 ng/ml, with satisfactory accuracy (relative error, [-17.5% < relative error <11.7%) and precision (CV <8.9%) for all quality control samples. After oral administration, GW788388 was absorbed quickly and reached a peak concentration of 595.3 ± 60.2 ng/ml after 20 min. Conclusion: The validated method provides a quantification method of GW788388 in rat plasma in detail, and can be utilized to successfully describe the pharmacokinetic profile of GW788388.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146832

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the functional and structural outcomes of intravitreal conbercept monotherapy using a "3 + pro re nata (PRN)" regimen in treatment-naïve subjects with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) up to 12 months. METHODS: Thirty subjects (30 eyes) with PCV participated in this interventional, retrospective study. All subjects received intravitreal injections of 0.5 mg (0.05 ml) conbercept using a "3 + PRN" regimen for 12 months. The changes in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters, polyp lesion area, and regression rate were evaluated at baseline, month 3, and month 12. RESULTS: At the study end-point, BCVA improved significantly from 52.80 ± 17.17 ETDRS letters at baseline to 62.20 ± 18.96 letters (P < 0.001), with a mean gain of 9.40 ± 14.97 letters. The central retinal thickness (CRT) significantly reduced from 454.93 ± 147.31 µm at baseline to 308.73 ± 106.80 µm (P < 0.001) at end-point, and the total macular volume (TMV) decreased from 9.51 ± 1.04 mm3 at baseline to 8.32 ± 0.84 mm3 at end-point (P < 0.001). The mean volume of pigment epithelial detachment (PED) decreased from 0.73 ± 0.97 mm3 at baseline to 0.48 ± 0.71 mm3 (P < 0.05) at month 3. At month 12, the mean volume of PED was 0.57 ± 0.80 mm3 (P > 0.05 compared to baseline). After the 3-monthly loading injections, 6 eyes (20.0%) showed complete polyp regression, whereas a total of 19 eyes (63.5%) showed complete regression at month 12. The average injections given per subject were 7.70 ± 1.81. CONCLUSION: Intravitreal conbercept using the "3 + PRN" regimen was effective in the treatment of PCV.

9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 7161027, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33102589

RESUMO

Retinal neovascularization (RNV) is an important pathological feature of vitreoretinopathy that can lead to severe vision loss. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of ephrin-A5 (Efna5) in RNV and to explore its mechanism. The expression pattern and biological significance of Efna5 were investigated in a mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The expression of Efna5 and downstream signaling pathway members was determined by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and western blot analyses. shRNA was used to knockdown Efna5 in the retina of the OIR mouse model. Retinal flat mounts were performed to evaluate the impact of Efna5 silencing on the RNV process. We found that the Efna5 was greatly upregulated in the retina of OIR mice. Elevated Efna5 mainly colocalized with the retinal vessels and endothelial cells. We then showed that knockdown of Efna5 in OIR mouse retinas using lentivirus-mediated shRNA markedly decreased the expression of Efna5 and reduced the retinal neovascularization and avascular retina area. We further showed hypoxia stimulation dramatically increased both total and phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 and the phosphorylation levels of Akt in OIR mice. More importantly, knockdown of Efna5 could inhibit the p-Akt and p-ERK signaling pathways. Our results suggested that Efna5 may regulate the RNV. This study suggests that Efna5 was significantly upregulated in the retina of OIR mice and closely involved in the pathological retinal angiogenesis.

10.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 250, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933559

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously reported a novel clinically distinguishable subtype of congenital scoliosis (CS), namely, TBX6-associated congenital scoliosis (TACS). We further developed the TBX6-associated CS risk score (TACScore), a multivariate phenotype-based model to predict TACS according to the patient's clinical manifestations. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether using the TACScore as a screening method prior to performing whole-exome sequencing (WES) is more cost-effective than using WES as the first-line genetic test for CS. METHODS: We retrospectively collected the molecular data of 416 CS patients in the Deciphering disorders Involving Scoliosis and COmorbidities (DISCO) study. A decision tree was constructed to estimate the cost and the diagnostic time required for the two alternative strategies (TACScore versus WES). Bootstrapping simulations and sensitivity analyses were performed to examine the distributions and robustness of the estimates. The economic evaluation considered both the health care payer and the personal budget perspectives. RESULTS: From the health care payer perspective, the strategy of using the TACScore as the primary screening method resulted in an average cost of $1074.2 (95%CI: $1044.8 to $1103.5) and an average diagnostic duration of 38.7d (95%CI: 37.8d to 39.6d) to obtain a molecular diagnosis for each patient. In contrast, the corresponding values were $1169.6 (95%CI: $1166.9 to $1172.2) and 41.4d (95%CI: 41.1d to 41.7d) taking WES as the first-line test (P < 0.001). From the personal budget perspective, patients who were predicted to be positive by the TACScore received a result with an average cost of $715.1 (95%CI: $594.5 to $835.7) and an average diagnostic duration of 30.4d (95%CI: 26.3d to 34.6d). Comparatively, the strategy of WES as the first-line test was estimated to have significantly longer diagnostic time with an average of 44.0d (95%CI: 43.2d to 44.9d), and more expensive with an average of $1193.4 (95%CI: $1185.5 to $1201.3) (P < 0.001). In 100% of the bootstrapping simulations, the TACScore strategy was significantly less costly and more time-saving than WES. The sensitivity analyses revealed that the TACScore strategy remained cost-effective even when the cost per WES decreased to $8.8. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective study provides clinicians with economic evidence to integrate the TACScore into clinical practice. The TACScore can be considered a cost-effective tool when it serves as a screening test prior to performing WES.

11.
Org Lett ; 22(17): 7041-7046, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841036

RESUMO

Terreuspyridine (1), the first 3,5-demethylorsellinic acid (DMOA) derived meroterpenoid alkaloid, was isolated from the fungus Aspergillus terreus, which represents a new type of meroterpenoid possessing an unexpected tetracyclic 6/6/6/6 architecture. The structure of 1 with absolute configuration was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. Biogenetically, it was proposed to be derived from the fusion of a DMOA-meroterpenoid and a glutamate. Terreuspyridine (1) exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against the BChE with an IC50 value of 16.4 µM.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 59(17): 12471-12485, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32786395

RESUMO

To study the effect of a stable radical on the photophysical properties of a phosphorescent Pt(II) coordination framework and the intramolecular magnetic interaction between radical ligands in the N^N Pt(II) bisacetylide complexes, we prepared a series of N^N Pt(II) bis(acetylide) complexes with oxoverdazyl radical acetylide ligands. The linker between the Pt(II) center and the spin carrier was systematically varied, to probe the effect on the sign and magnitude of the spin exchange interactions between the radical ligands and photophysical properties. The complexes were studied with steady-state and femtosecond/nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) computations. The transient absorption spectral studies show that the doublet excited state of the radicals are short-lived (τD ≈ 2 ps) and nonfluorescent. Moreover, the intrinsic long-lived triplet excited state (τT = 1.2 µs) of the Pt(II) coordination center was efficiently quenched by the radical (τT = 6.9 ps for one representative radical Pt(II) complex). The intramolecular magnetic interaction between the radical ligands through the diamagnetic Pt(II) atom was studied with temperature-dependent EPR spectroscopy; antiferromagnetic exchange interaction (-J S1S2, J = -5.4 ± 0.1 cm-1) for the complex with the shortest radical-radical distance through bridge fragments was observed. DFT computations give similar results for the sign and magnitude of the J values. For complexes with larger inter-radical distance, however, very weak coupling between the radical ligands was observed (|J| < 0.7 cm-1). Our results are useful for the study of the effect of a radical on the photophysical properties of the phosphorescent transition-metal complexes.

13.
Biomolecules ; 10(9)2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825264

RESUMO

An effective feature extraction method is key to improving the accuracy of a prediction model. From the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, which includes 13,487 genes, we obtained microarray gene expression data for 238 samples from colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and normal samples. Twelve gene modules were obtained by weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) on 173 samples. By calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) between the characteristic genes of each module and colorectal cancer, we obtained a key module that was highly correlated with CRC. We screened hub genes from the key module by considering module membership, gene significance, and intramodular connectivity. We selected 10 hub genes as a type of feature for the classifier. We used the variational autoencoder (VAE) for 1159 genes with significantly different expressions and mapped the data into a 10-dimensional representation, as another type of feature for the cancer classifier. The two types of features were applied to the support vector machines (SVM) classifier for CRC. The accuracy was 0.9692 with an AUC of 0.9981. The result shows a high accuracy of the two-step feature extraction method, which includes obtaining hub genes by WGCNA and a 10-dimensional representation by variational autoencoder (VAE).

14.
J Bioinform Comput Biol ; 18(5): 2050030, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32825808

RESUMO

In addition to tumor cells, a large number of immune cells are found in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of cancer patients. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells play an important role in tumor progression and patient outcome. We improved the relative proportion estimation algorithm of immune cells based on RNA-seq gene expression profiling and solved the multiple linear regression model by support vector regression ([Formula: see text]-SVR). These steps resulted in increased robustness of the algorithm and more accurate calculation of the relative proportion of different immune cells in cancer tissues. This method was applied to the analysis of infiltrating immune cells based on 41 pairs of colorectal cancer tissues and normal solid tissues. Specifically, we compared the relative fractions of six types of immune cells in colorectal cancer tissues to those found in normal solid tissue samples. We found that tumor tissues contained a higher proportion of CD8 T cells and neutrophils, while B cells and monocytes were relatively low. Our pipeline for calculating immune cell proportion using gene expression profile data can be freely accessed from GitHub at https://github.com/gutmicrobes/EICS.git.

15.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 8(10): e1453, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital scoliosis (CS) is a spinal deformity due to vertebral malformations. Although insufficiency of TBX6 dosage contributes to a substantial proportion of CS, the molecular etiology for the majority of CS remains largely unknown. TBX6-mediated genes involved in the process of somitogenesis represent promising candidates. METHODS: Individuals affected with CS and without a positive genetic finding were referred to this study. Proband-only exome sequencing (ES) were performed on the recruited individuals, followed by analysis of TBX6-mediated candidate genes, namely MEOX1, MEOX2, MESP2, MYOD1, MYF5, RIPPLY1, and RIPPLY2. RESULTS: A total of 584 patients with CS of unknown molecular etiology were recruited. After ES analysis, protein-truncating variants in RIPPLY1 and MYF5 were identified from two individuals, respectively. In addition, we identified five deleterious missense variants (MYOD1, n = 4; RIPPLY2, n = 1) in TBX6-mediated genes. We observed a significant mutational burden of MYOD1 in CS (p = 0.032) compared with the in-house controls (n = 1854). Moreover, a potential oligogenic disease-causing mode was proposed based on the observed mutational co-existence of MYOD1/MEOX1 and MYOD1/RIPPLY1. CONCLUSION: Our study characterized the mutational spectrum of TBX6-mediated genes, prioritized core candidate genes/variants, and provided insight into a potential oligogenic disease-causing mode in CS.

16.
Ophthalmic Res ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781454

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The association between age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and asthma is controversial. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-ß), which plays a critical role in asthma, has been extensively studied with regard to its function in choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of TGF-ß and the possible mechanism of CNV formation complicated with asthma and to explore the effect of a TGF-ß inhibitor on CNV development in asthma mouse models. METHODS: Laser-induced CNV and ovalbumin-induced asthma mouse models were divided into five groups: control group, acute asthma group, chronic asthma group, inhibitor-treated acute asthma group, and inhibitor-treated chronic asthma group. The gene expression patterns of angiogenic cytokines, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and inflammasomes in the control group, acute asthma group and chronic asthma group were detected using a QuantiGene Plex 6.0 Reagent System. Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA) and histology of CNV lesions stained with haematoxylin-eosin (HE) were performed to evaluate CNV formation. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were used to assess TGF-ß1, TGF-ß2, and VEGF expression and Smad2/3, AKT, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 signal transduction and phosphorylation in retinal and choroidal tissue from each group. RESULTS: In this study, we verified that laser treatment led to more CNV and vascular leakage in asthmatic mice than that in control mice. The changes were particularly notable in the chronic asthma group. The respective TGF-ß1, VEGF, and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (p-Smad2/3) mRNA and protein levels in retinal and choroidal tissue were significantly upregulated in both the acute and chronic asthma groups. After injection of a TGF-ß inhibitor, a distinct decline in VEGF, TGF-ß1, and p-Smad2/3 protein and mRNA levels was observed, and the mean CNV area also decreased. CONCLUSION: We provide new evidence that asthma could be a risk factor for CNV development via the TGF-ß1/Smad signalling pathway. A TGF-ß inhibitor can be applied as a useful, adjunctive therapeutic strategy for preventing CNV formation in asthmatic patients.

17.
J Med Genet ; 2020 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381727

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-onset scoliosis (EOS), defined by an onset age of scoliosis less than 10 years, conveys significant health risk to affected children. Identification of the molecular aetiology underlying patients with EOS could provide valuable information for both clinical management and prenatal screening. METHODS: In this study, we consecutively recruited a cohort of 447 Chinese patients with operative EOS. We performed exome sequencing (ES) screening on these individuals and their available family members (totaling 670 subjects). Another cohort of 13 patients with idiopathic early-onset scoliosis (IEOS) from the USA who underwent ES was also recruited. RESULTS: After ES data processing and variant interpretation, we detected molecular diagnostic variants in 92 out of 447 (20.6%) Chinese patients with EOS, including 8 patients with molecular confirmation of their clinical diagnosis and 84 patients with molecular diagnoses of previously unrecognised diseases underlying scoliosis. One out of 13 patients with IEOS from the US cohort was molecularly diagnosed. The age at presentation, the number of organ systems involved and the Cobb angle were the three top features predictive of a molecular diagnosis. CONCLUSION: ES enabled the molecular diagnosis/classification of patients with EOS. Specific clinical features/feature pairs are able to indicate the likelihood of gaining a molecular diagnosis through ES.

18.
Eye (Lond) ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the risk factors associated with retinal detachment recurrence after first vitrectomy in high myopic eyes with macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD). METHODS: Patients with high myopic eyes with MHRD who underwent pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil (SO) tamponade with a follow-up period more than 12 months and more than 3 months after SO removal were included in this retrospective study. Logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors associated with retinal re-detachment. RESULTS: A total of 45 eyes from 43 patients were included in this study (11 male and 34 female patients). The retinal re-detachment rate after the first removal of silicon oil was 35.5% (16/45) in a mean postoperative follow-up time of 35.64 ± 32.94 months. Complete macular atrophy on fundus photography (odds ratio (OR) = 17.021, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 2.218-130.609, p = 0.006) was a risk factor for MHRD after SO removal, while internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling (OR = 0.091, 95% CI: 0.013-0.633, p = 0.015) and duration of SO tamponade (OR = 0.667, 95% CI: 0.454-0.980, p = 0.039) were protective factors. CONCLUSION: For high myopic eyes with MHRD, complete macular atrophy was a significant risk factor for retinal re-detachment after silicon oil removal. ILM peeling and the duration of silicon oil tamponade were protective factors.

19.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 115, 2020 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460719

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a skeletal disorder characterized by delayed and irregular ossification of the epiphyses and early-onset osteoarthritis. At least 66% of the reported autosomal dominant MED (AD-MED) cases are caused by COMP mutations. METHODS: We recruited a four-generation Chinese family with early-onset hip osteoarthritis, flatfoot, brachydactyly, and mild short stature. An assessment of the family history, detailed physical examinations, and radiographic evaluations were performed on the proband and other family members, followed by the performance of whole-exome sequencing (WES). The pathogenicity of the candidate mutation was also analyzed. RESULTS: An AD-MED family with 10 affected members and 17 unaffected members was recruited. The main radiographic findings were symmetrical changes in the dysplastic acetabulum and femoral heads, irregular contours of the epiphyses, a shortened femoral neck, and flatfoot. Lower bone density was also observed in the ankle joints, wrist joints, and knees, as well as irregular vertebral end plates. In the proband, we identified the missense mutation c.1153G > T (p. Asp385Tyr), located in exon 11 of the COMP gene. This mutation was assessed as 'pathogenic' because of its low allele frequency and its high likelihood of co-segregation with disease in the reported family. Sanger sequencing validated the novel heterozygous mutation c.1153G > T (p. Asp385Tyr) in exon 11 of COMP in all affected individuals in the family. CONCLUSIONS: Our results underlined a key role of the Asp385 amino acid in the protein function of COMP and confirmed the pathogenicity of the COMP (c.1153G > T; p. Asp385Tyr) mutation in AD-MED disease. We have therefore expanded the known mutational spectrum of COMP and revealed new phenotypic information for AD-MED.


Assuntos
Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/genética , Família , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/diagnóstico , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Osso e Ossos/diagnóstico por imagem , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Proteína de Matriz Oligomérica de Cartilagem/química , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Moleculares , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Conformação Proteica , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
20.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(7): 1143-1149, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347340

RESUMO

Felty's syndrome (FS) is a deforming disease, characterized by the triad of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), neutropenia, and splenomegaly. Currently, FS patients are treated mainly with immunosuppressants, such as methotrexate and glucocorticoids, which however are not suitable to some patients and may cause severe side effects. Here we report a clinical FS case that was treated with Tocilizumab (TCZ) successfully. The patient had symmetrical swelling and pain of multiple joints, deformity of elbow joints with obvious morning stiffness. Joint color Doppler ultrasound showed synovial hyperplasia and bone erosion of wrist and proximal interphalangeal joints and CT scan suggested splenomegaly. Further examination showed neutropenia and anemia, a high titer of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies, positive p-ANCA, and elevated IgA and IgG. After treating with TCZ, the patient has been relieved of clinical symptoms. His spleen has recovered to normal size. The absolute neutrophil count (ANC) tended to be stable, and joint erosion did not deteriorate. We have reviewed the literatures on FS treatment with biological agents and found only a few reports using TNF-α antagonist and rituximab treating FS, but none with TCZ. So, it is the first time to report a successful FS case treated with TCZ. This case suggests that the TCZ may be a new choice for FS treatment, under the condition of closely monitoring the ANC.

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