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Springerplus ; 5(1): 2004, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27933260


INTRODUCTION: Beijing subway line 14 includes four stations and approximately 2.8 km of tunnels between the Dongfengbeiqiao and Jingshunlu areas of the city. Due to the surface and underground space limitations of this section, a double-track running tunnel instead of two single-track running tunnels was adopted to connect the two stations. The double-track tunnels were excavated by a 10.22 m diameter earth pressure balance (EPB) shield. It was the first time that an EPB shield more than 10 m in diameter was used in Beijing subway construction. CASE DESCRIPTION: The shield, which passes underneath densely built-up areas of the city and is equipped with a spoke-type cutterhead, with balance between the ground pressure and the earth chamber pressure at the tunnel face, is of great importance. Referring to experiences gained in the EPB shield tunneling, attention was paid to the function of soil conditioning and simultaneous backfilling grouting of the shield, and some special designs were considered in manufacturing the machine. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: In addition to the agitating rods welded to the cutterhead, two independently driven agitators were added to fully mix everything in the earth chamber. Independent pipelines were arranged for injecting different conditioning agents. Indoor tests in combination with field tests were conducted to find suitable additives and injection ratios of the additives, and determine the mix ratio of the two-component grout for simultaneous backfilling grouting. A scheme was employed for simultaneously injecting the bentonite slurry at 8% concentration and the foam liquid at 5% concentration to condition the excavated soil. The cement-sodium silicate grout was adopted to fill the tail void and the injection volume per ring was 14.1-15.3 m3. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of the shield and evaluation of the corresponding tunneling technologies are introduced in terms of the shield tunneling induced ground surface settlements. The success of the project is of great significance to Beijing subway construction and underground space utilization. The findings serve as a useful reference for similar projects.

Springerplus ; 5: 527, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27186491


INTRODUCTION: China's largest cities like Beijing and Shanghai have seen a sharp increase in subway network development as a result of the rapid urbanization in the last decade. The cities are still expanding their subway networks now, and many shield tunnels are being or will be constructed in close proximity to the existing operational subway tunnels. The execution plans for the new nearby shield tunnel construction calls for the development of a safety control framework-a set of control standards and best practices to help organizations manage the risks involved. CASE DESCRIPTION: Typical case studies and relevant key technical parameters are presented with a view to presenting the resulting safety control framework. The framework, created through collaboration among the relevant parties, addresses and manages the risks in a systematic way based on actual conditions of each tunnel crossing construction. The framework consists of six parts: (1) inspecting the operational subway tunnels; (2) deciding allowed movements of the existing tunnels and tracks; (3) simulating effects of the shield tunneling on the existing tunnels; (4) doing preparation work; (5) monitoring design and information management; and (6) measures and activation mechanism of the countermeasures. The six components are explained and demonstrated in detail. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: In the end, discussions made involve construction and post-construction settlement of the operational tunnel, application of the remedial grouting to rectify excessive settlements of the operational tunnel, and use of the innovative tool of the optical fiber measurement for tunnel movement monitoring. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the construction movement of the tunnel can be controlled within 15 mm when the shield machine is <7 m in excavation diameter. The post-construction settlement of the tunnel buried in the very soft ground is much greater than its construction settlement, and last several years until reaching a final stable state. Two cases are outlined to demonstrate the feasibility of using the remedial grouting to reduce the long-term settlement of the operational tunnels. The more and more segmental tunnels being constructed, there is an increasing need of the optical fiber measurement for tunnel movement monitoring in the near future.