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1.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 605: 330-341, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329982

RESUMO

The photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutant by carbon-based materials is still a challenge. Herein, xylose-derived carbon dots (X-CDs) and chitosan-derived CDs (C-CDs) were synthesized by heteroatoms-doping strategy. Although there is almost no difference in fluorescence emission behaviors, the two types of CDs demonstrated different advantages in photocatalysis and peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation. Comparative research revealed that the X-CDs with doping of heteroatom S was superior in the separation of electron-hole pairs, resulting in a higher catalytic performance, while the S, N co-doped C-CDs can only exhibit high photocatalytic reactivity when they were coupled with PMS. The underlying reason is that the N-related functional groups with strong electron-donating property weakened the electron-trapping capacity of S-related energy level, but surface state resulting from this doping structures were conducive to promoting photo-generated electron transfer from C-CDs to PMS and played the primary role in organic oxidation. Thanks to the doping effect, both the X-CDs and C-CDs/PMS system displayed high photocatalytic performance for methylene blue removal under sunlight irradiation, showing almost 100% degradation efficiency in a 30 min period. The present study provides a valuable insight for the synthesis of CDs-based catalysts but also establishes a very promising catalytic oxidation system.

2.
Inflammation ; 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792688

RESUMO

Intestinal inflammation is a common disease which can further lead to inflammatory bowel disease and even intestinal cancer. The increasing focus has come to the role of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in various bowel diseases. Hence, this study was designed to explore the specific role of SCFA in intestinal inflammation. In vivo and in vitro models of intestinal inflammation were constructed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection in mice and LPS treatment on intestinal epithelial cells. A possible regulatory mechanism involving SCFA, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPB), microRNA-145 (miR-145), and dual-specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6) in intestinal inflammation was verified by ChIP assay and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. To evaluate the effects of SCFA on LPS-treated intestinal epithelial cells, the expression of relevant genes and inflammatory factors (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1ß) were determined. Last, the role of SCFA in vivo was explored through the scoring of disease activity index (DAI) and observation of colonic histology of LPS-treated mice. SCFA decreased the CEBPB expression in mouse colon tissues and small intestine epithelial cells induced by LPS. Furthermore, CEBPB could bind to the miR-145 promoter to inhibit its expression, thereby promoting the expression of DUSP6. In addition, SCFA improved the DAI, colonic histology, and the expression of serum inflammatory factors in LPS-treated mice and cells, noting that SCFA alleviated intestinal inflammation in vitro and in vivo. To sum up, SCFA inhibited DUSP6 by upregulating miR-145 through CEBPB repression and thus prevented the development of intestinal inflammation.

3.
Psychogeriatrics ; 2021 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is common in patients with multimorbidity, but little is known about the relationship between depression and multimorbidity. The purpose of our research was to investigate multimorbidity patterns and their association with depression in a sample of older people covered by long-term care insurance in Shanghai, China. METHOD: This was a population-based cross-sectional study, with 1871 participants aged ≥60 years old who are covered by Shanghai long-term care insurance. Multimorbidity was defined as the presence of two or more chronic diseases at the same time. We collected information on chronic conditions using a self-reported medical history, and we used the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) to evaluate depressive symptoms. Patterns of multimorbidity were identified with exploratory factor analysis, using oblimin rotation. Logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship between multimorbidity patterns and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: Among the participants, the prevalence of multimorbidity was 64.7%, and the prevalence of depression was 64.6%. Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), and cataracts showed strong associations with depression when co-occurring with other conditions. Three patterns of multimorbidity were identified: a musculoskeletal pattern, cardiometabolic pattern, and degenerative disease pattern. Among these, the cardiometabolic (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.223; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.102, 1.357) and degenerative disease (AOR 1.185; 95% CI 1.071, 1.311) patterns were associated with a higher risk of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Two of three multimorbidity patterns were found to be associated with depression. Physical and psychological dimensions require greater attention in the care of older adults who are covered by long-term care insurance.

4.
Appl Opt ; 60(30): 9358-9364, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807072

RESUMO

The design, fabrication, and demonstration of a planar two-dimensional-crossed reflective diffractive grating are proposed to construct a novel optical configuration, to the best of our knowledge, potentially applied for atom cooling and trapping in a magneto-optical trap. Based on the proposed single-beam single-exposure scheme by means of an orthogonal two-axis Lloyd's mirrors interferometer, we rapidly patterned a ∼1µm period grating capable of providing a uniform intensity of the diffracted beams. The key structural parameters of the grating including the array square hole's width and depth were determined, aiming at providing a high energy of the diffracted beams to perform the atom cooling and trapping. To guarantee the diffracted beams to be overlapped possibly, we adopted a polarized beam splitter to guide the optical path of the incident and zero-order diffracted beams. Therefore, one zero-order diffracted beam with a retroreflected mode and four first-order diffracted beams with appropriate optical path constructed a three-dimensional optical configuration of three orthogonal pairs of counterpropagating beams. Finally, three pairs of the counterpropagating cooling laser beams with 9 mm diameter and >10% diffraction efficiencies were achieved, and the circular polarization chirality, purity, and compensation of the desired diffracted beams are further evaluated, which preliminarily validated a high applicability for the magneto-optical trap system.

5.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(46): 13904-13915, 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34775761

RESUMO

Theanine (N-ethyl-γ-l-glutamine) is a special nonprotein amino acid that contributes to the umami taste and health function of tea. Although recent studies on tea breeding have focused on albino tea because of its umami taste, a factor of higher theanine concentration, the mechanism of biosynthesis of l-theanine is still unclear. In this study, four glutamine synthetase genes (CsGSs) were obtained and functionally characterized by overexpressing them in Arabidopsis. The enzyme activities of the purified CsGS proteins from Escherichia coli were detected. The results showed that CsGSs have a dual function in the synthesis of glutamine and theanine in vivo and in vitro. Interestingly, l-theanine was abundantly synthesized in the tender shoots of "Huabai 1". In the white tender shoots, the cytosol CsGS1.2 might exhibit increased expression to compensate for decreasing levels of chloroplast CsGS2, which plays a vital role in high accumulation of theanine in "Huabai 1". In addition, CsGS2 was most likely the key l-theanine synthases in green tissues of tea. The present findings will provide basis for and considerably broaden the scope of understanding the function of CsGSs and the mechanism of l-theanine accumulation in the tender shoots of "Huabai 1", and will be useful for breeding and screening tea with high l-theanine content.


Assuntos
Camellia sinensis , Glutamato-Amônia Ligase/genética , Glutamatos , Glutamina , Melhoramento Vegetal , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
6.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 587, 2021 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34674657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have explored patterns of physical activity (PA) and examined their relationship with depression among community-dwelling older adults. We aimed to identify the patterns of PA through a person-centered analytical approach and examine the association between quantity and patterns of PA, and depression among community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey study in the Minhang district, Shanghai, China, in August 2019, and used a self-administered questionnaire to collect data through home visits. The total sample included 2525 older adults. This study used the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) to assess the quantity of PA in older adults. Depression was evaluated with the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify subpopulations by shared item response patterns. Logistic regressions were performed to estimate the relationship between PASE score, patterns of PA, and depression. An exploratory analysis of joint levels and patterns of PA effects on depression was based on sample subgroups with combinations of levels and patterns of PA. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio for combined subgroups. RESULTS: Four latent classes were identified: "domestic types," "athletic types," "gardening/caring types," and "walkers." PASE scores and patterns of PA both were associated with depression. Older adults who were the most active (PASE quartile: 75-100%) and the athletic types had the strongest significant association with depression (OR = 0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.65), followed by those who were the most active (PASE quartile: 75-100%) and the walkers (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.14-0.57) when compared with older adults with the least activity (PASE quartile: 0-25%) and domestic types. CONCLUSION: This study suggests both the quantity and patterns of physical activity are associated with depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older adults. Population-level intervention should encourage community-dwelling older adults to increase their quantity of PA to reduce the risk of depression. Athletics and walkers are recommended. To develop individual-level tailored interventions, more attention should be paid to older adults who are highly engaged in gardening/caring for others.


Assuntos
Depressão , Vida Independente , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Humanos
7.
Microsyst Nanoeng ; 7: 31, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34567745

RESUMO

Periodic microscale array structures play an important role in diverse applications involving photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. A polarized holographic lithography system is proposed for patterning high-uniformity microscale two-dimensional crossed-grating structures with periodic tunability. Orthogonal two-axis Lloyd's mirror interference and polarization modulation produce three sub-beams, enabling the formation of two-dimensional crossed-grating patterns with wavelength-comparable periods by a single exposure. The two-dimensional-pattern period can also be flexibly tuned by adjusting the interferometer spatial positioning. Polarization states of three sub-beams, defining the uniformity of the interference fringes, are modulated at their initial-polarization states based on a strict full polarization tracing model in a three-dimensional space. A polarization modulation model is established considering two conditions of eliminating the unexpected interference and providing the desired identical interference intensities. The proposed system is a promising approach for fabricating high-uniformity two-dimensional crossed gratings with a relatively large grating period range of 500-1500 nm. Moreover, our rapid and stable approach for patterning period-tunable two-dimensional-array microstructures with high uniformity could be applicable to other multibeam interference lithography techniques.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34561801

RESUMO

Residential greenness exposure has been linked to a number of physical and mental disorders. Nevertheless, evidence on the association between greenness and geriatric depression was limited and focused on developed countries. This study was aimed to investigate whether the relationship between residential greenness exposure and geriatric depression exists among the elderly with long-term care insurance (LTCI) in Shanghai, China. In 2018, a total of 1066 LTCI elderly from a cross-sectional survey completed a questionnaire in Shanghai. Residential greenness indicators, including normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), were calculated from the Landsat 8 imagery data in different buffers (100-m, 300-m, and 500-m). Mediation analysis by perceived social support was conducted to explore potential mechanisms underlying the associations. In the fully adjusted model, one IQR increase of NDVI and SAVI in the 300-m buffer size was associated with an 11.9% (PR: 0.881, 95% CI: 0.795, 0.977) and 14.7% (PR: 0.853, 95% CI: 0.766, 0.949) lower prevalence of geriatric depression, respectively. Stronger association was observed in the elderly with lower education level, living in non-central area, and lower family monthly income. Perceived social support significantly mediated 40.4% of the total effect for NDVI 300-m buffer and 40.3% for SAVI 300-m buffer to the greenness-depression association, respectively. Our results indicate the importance of residential greenness exposure to geriatric depression, especially for the elderly with lower education level, living in non-central area, and lower family monthly income. Perceived social support might mediate the association. Well-designed longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm our findings and investigate the underlying mechanisms.

9.
AIDS Care ; : 1-8, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581229

RESUMO

Few large studies evaluated the effects of time trends on virologic suppression in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in China. To address this, An retrospective observational longitudinal study was conducted. We examined annual trends in the rate of virologic suppression, the viral load at the time of virologic suppression, and other determinants of virologic suppression in Zhejiang Province, China in PLWHA between January 2013 and July 2018. Patients who received a treatment regimen for at least 24 weeks were included. Virologic suppression was defined as VL ≤50 copies/mL. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were used to adjust for covariates. We included 16,265 patients with 45023 tests. The proportion of patients who experienced an unsuccessful virologic outcome decreased continuously throughout the observation period (18.14% to 6.64%). Time was significantly negatively associated with detectable VL (all ORs <1). Other factors were positively associated with detectable VL, including patients <30 years of age, single, non-adherent to treatment, and with a follow-up CD4 count <200 cells/µL. Patients infected through homosexual transmission and those with a longer ART duration were more likely to reach virologic suppression. We demonstrated outstanding time trend improvements in the virological outcomes of PLWHA in China.

10.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 1003-1008, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565101

RESUMO

This study described the trend and distribution of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Hexi Corridor region of Gansu. The CHD mortality rates from 2006-2015 were obtained through the Death Reporting System of Gansu Centers for Disease Control (CDC) for 2006-2015. The overall mortality rate of CHD in the Hexi Corridor showed a decreasing trend, increasing in winter and spring and lowest in summer. The CHD mortality rate was higher in men than in women (P < 0.05) and increased with age (P < 0.05). The mortality rate was higher in rural areas than in urban areas (P < 0.05). A ten-year mortality rate trend analysis showed that CHD mortality rate in women has significantly decreased. Specifically, women aged 18-39 years experienced increased There was little change in CHD mortality among women aged 40-59 years, and a declined in CHD mortality among women 60 years and older and women in urban areas. Further analysis showed that in the 18-39-year-old and 40-59-year-old groups and in urban areas, CHD mortality rate was higher in men than in women (P < 0.05). From 2006 to 2015, the mortality rate of CHD in the Hexi Corridor of Gansu was lower than in the national average, but in certain populations such as men, young and middle-aged group and rural areas, the CHD mortality rate was gradually increased. There has been a gradual and progressive decline in CHD mortality rate compared to the rising trend in China. This is due to fewer risk factors in the region, effective drug treatment and improvements in environmental pollution. However, there is still a need to enhance the experience of effective prevention and control for specific subgroups such as men, young people and rural residents, and to take appropriate measures to prevent the occurrence of CHD.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , População Rural , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254502, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255775

RESUMO

Planting soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in tea gardens decreased soil pH in theory but increased it in practice. This controversy was addressed in this study by treating the tea garden soil consecutively with different parts of a soybean cover crop: aboveground soybean (ASB) parts, underground soybean (USB) root residues, and the whole soybean (WSB) plants. In comparison with the control, the soil pH increased significantly after the third ASB and WSB treatments, but there was no significant change in the soil pH in the USB treatment. Concordantly, the soil exchangeable acidity decreased significantly and the soil exchangeable bases increased significantly in the ASB and WSB treatments. The exchangeable acidity increased in the USB treatment, but the amount of the increased acidity was less than that of the increased bases in the ASB treatment, resulting in a net increase in the exchangeable bases in the WSB treatment. Soybean planting and covering also increased the microbial richness and abundance significantly, which led to significantly more soil organic matters. Exchangeable K+ and Mg2+, and soil organic matters played significantly positive roles and exchangeable Al3+ played negative roles in improving soil pH. Our data suggest that consecutive plantings of soybean cover crop increase the pH of the acidified tea garden soil.


Assuntos
Soja/metabolismo , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
12.
Opt Express ; 29(14): 21113-21128, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265905

RESUMO

We investigate a novel two-channel grating encoder that can perform simultaneous measurements of six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) motions of two adjacent sub-components of synthetic-aperture optics such as pulse-compression gratings(PCGs) and telescope-primary mirrors. The grating encoder consists of a reading head and two separate gratings, which are attached to the back of the sub-components, respectively. The reading head is constructed such that there two identical optical probes can share the same optical components. The two probes are guided to hit each of the two gratings and can detect six-DOF motions simultaneously and independently. For each probe, the incident beam propagates through both a three-axes grating interferometry module and a three-axes diffraction integrated autocollimator-module, which detects translational and rotational movement, respectively. By combining the two modules it is possible to perform six-DOF measurement for a single point. The common-path configuration of the two probes enable identical responses to environmental variation, which ensures high accuracy.

13.
J Hazard Mater ; 411: 125034, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858080

RESUMO

Carbon frameworks (CFs) derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been produced as adsorbents of toluene. To further obtain optimum hierarchical porous carbon structure of CFs, different treatment temperatures were applied to a typical kind of MOFs (ZIF-8). The adsorption capacity of the toluene of hierarchical porous CFs obtained from ZIF-8 under 1100 °C (CF-1100, adsorption capacity of 208.5 mg/g) was higher than that of other carbonization temperature and MOFs. Impressively, the adsorbent CF-1100 also exhibited strong hydrophobicity, low desorption temperature, and good selectivity to toluene. The adsorption capacity decreased by only 10.4% under wet condition compared with the dry condition, standing on the top of the recently reported adsorbents. The impressive adsorption performance of CF-1100 is attributed to the larger specific surface area (1024 m2/g) and pore volume (0.497 cm3/g), newly generated micropores (pore width is 0.6-0.8 nm) and mesopores (pore width above 10 nm), and carbonaceous structure with higher degree of graphitization. Based on the adequate adsorption performance, CF-1100 coated quartz crystal microbalances as sensor also showed a high sensitivity of 0.4004 Hz/ppm and small relative standard deviations of 1.0745% for toluene sensing. This contribution provides a foundation for optimizing potential adsorbents and sensing materials for air pollution abatement.

14.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(13): 4886-4890, 2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761241

RESUMO

Pinnigorgiols B and E are 9,11-secosteroids with a unique tricyclic γ-diketone framework. Herein, we report the first synthesis of these natural products from inexpensive, commercially available ergosterol. This synthesis features a semipinacol rearrangement and an acyl radical cyclization/hemiketalization cascade; the latter efficiently assembled the tricyclic γ-diketone skeleton, with two rings and three contiguous stereogenic centers being formed in a single step.

15.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 959-966, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33727872

RESUMO

Background: China has the largest population of patients with dementia worldwide, no assessment of illiterate old population's dementia knowledge, attitudes, stigma have been conducted so far in China. Aim: This study focused on the impact of education on knowledge, attitudes, and stigma related to dementia. Methods: The community-based sample used in this study was recruited using multi-stage random sampling from residents aged ≥60 years registered in Shanghai. We used the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30) to identify depression, and the Ascertain Dementia 8 questionnaire (AD8) for evaluating participants' cognitive impairment. Knowledge, Attitude, Belief, and Practice scale, Perceptions Regarding Investigational Screening for Memory in Primary Care (PRISM-PC) were used for measuring dementia knowledge, attitudes, stigma. We separated the population into illiterate and literate group, propensity score matching based on age, sex, depression, and cognitive impairment. We calculated the difference of knowledge, attitudes, and stigma related to dementia between illiterate and literate groups. Results: Two thousand five hundred and eighteen participants completed the survey. After propensity score matching, 186 pairs of matched participants left. The overall correct rate of dementia knowledge was 70.34%. The illiterate group had a lower percentage of correct answers for each knowledge item. The item "Dementia is not a disease, it is forgetfulness due to aging" had the lowest accuracy rate in both groups (38.71% vs. 50.54%, p=0.022). Illiterate older adults were less accepting of dementia than literate older adults. The majority of participants did not agree that: "There is no need to visit a doctor when older people have memory loss, difficulty communicating, or finding words" (56.99% vs. 68.28%). Illiterate older adults had higher scores for the items assessing stigma toward dementia than literate older adults. Conclusion: Dementia-related knowledge and attitudes among community-dwelling older adults in Shanghai may be related to literacy.

16.
Opt Express ; 29(4): 6271-6281, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726152

RESUMO

Dual-comb spectroscopy (DCS) is an emerging and promising spectrometric technique with high resolution, high sensitivity, broad spectral range, and fast acquisition speed. For the recovery of the information encoded on comb modes without resolution loss, two continuous wave lasers are commonly utilized as optical intermedia to track the real-time jitter of dual-comb interferograms. This paper presents a simplified error correction method based on single optical intermedium for quasi-free-running fiber DCS. This method combines the strengths of conventional optical referencing and self-referencing error correction. We acquired whole P branch H13C14N transmittance spectra in the near infrared as a demonstration. In contrast to that of conventional dual intermedium error correction, the standard deviation of our method was merely 0.01 over the 4 THz spectral range. Our method provides a balanced and practical postprocessing routine for high-performance mode-resolved DCS applications.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 418, 2021 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional disability and multimorbidity are common among older people. However, little is known about the relationship between functional disability and different multimorbidity combinations. We aimed to identify multimorbidity patterns and explore the associations between these patterns and functional disability. METHODS: We investigated a multi-stage random sample of 1871 participants aged ≥60 years and covered by long-term care insurance in Shanghai, China. Multimorbidity was defined as the simultaneous presence of two or more chronic diseases in an individual. Participants completed scales to assess basic and instrumental activities of daily living (BADL and IADL, respectively). Multimorbidity patterns were identified via exploratory factor analysis. Binary logistic regression models were used to determine adjusted associations between functional disability and number and patterns of multimorbidity. RESULTS: Multimorbidity was present in 74.3% of participants. The prevalence of BADL disability was 50.7% and that of IADL disability was 90.7%. There was a strong association between multimorbidity and disability. We identified three multimorbidity patterns: musculoskeletal, cardio-metabolic, and mental-degenerative diseases. The cardio-metabolic disease pattern was associated with both BADL (OR 1.28, 95%CI 1.16-1.41) and IADL (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.19-1.68) disability. The mental-degenerative disease pattern was associated with BADL disability (OR 1.55, 95%CI 1.40-1.72). CONCLUSIONS: Multimorbidity and functional disability are highly prevalent among older people covered by long-term care insurance in Shanghai, and distinct multimorbidity patterns are differentially associated with functional disability. Appropriate long-term healthcare and prevention strategies for older people may help reduce multimorbidity, maintain functional ability, and improve health-related quality of life.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Multimorbidade , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Seguro de Assistência de Longo Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572805

RESUMO

Dual-comb spectroscopy has been an infusive spectroscopic tool for gas detection due to its high resolution, high sensitivity, and fast acquisition speed over a broad spectral range without any mechanical scanning components. However, the complexity and cost of high-performance dual-comb spectroscopy are still high for field-deployed applications. To solve this problem, we propose a simple frequency domain post-processing method by extracting the accurate position of a specific absorption line frame by frame. After aligning real-time spectra and averaging for one second, the absorbance spectrum of H13C14N gas in the near-infrared is obtained over 1.1 THz spectral range. By using this method, the standard deviation of residual error is only ~0.002, showing great agreement with the conventional correction method. In addition, the spectral resolution is improved from 13.4 GHz to 4.3 GHz compared to direct spectrum averaging. Our method does not require a specially designed common-mode suppression comb, rigorous frequency control system, or complicated computational algorithm, providing a cost-effective scheme for field-deployed Doppler-limited spectroscopy applications.

19.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(3): 366-379, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462436

RESUMO

Mitochondria are believed to have originated ~2.5 billion years ago. As well as energy generation in cells, mitochondria have a role in defence against bacterial pathogens. Despite profound changes in mitochondrial morphology and functions following bacterial challenge, whether intracellular bacteria can hijack mitochondria to promote their survival remains elusive. We report that Listeria monocytogenes-an intracellular bacterial pathogen-suppresses LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) by modulation of mitochondrial Ca2+ (mtCa2+) signalling in order to survive inside cells. Invasion of macrophages by L. monocytogenes induced mtCa2+ uptake through the mtCa2+ uniporter (MCU), which in turn increased acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) production by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Acetylation of the LAP effector Rubicon with acetyl-CoA decreased LAP formation. Genetic ablation of MCU attenuated intracellular bacterial growth due to increased LAP formation. Our data show that modulation of mtCa2+ signalling can increase bacterial survival inside cells, and highlight the importance of mitochondrial metabolism in host-microbial interactions.


Assuntos
Sinalização do Cálcio , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/antagonistas & inibidores , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fagocitose , Acetilcoenzima A/metabolismo , Acetilação , Animais , Proteínas Relacionadas à Autofagia/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio/genética , Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Listeria monocytogenes/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Camundongos , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/metabolismo , Mutação , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo
20.
Neurosurg Rev ; 44(5): 2755-2765, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409764

RESUMO

At present, limited data exists to discuss the characteristics of suprasellar arachnoid cysts (SACs). The aim of this study is to elucidate the relationship between characteristics of cysts and outcomes, quantitatively analyze improvement in hydrocephalus, and evaluate the risk factors for the prognosis of SACs treated by endoscope. From June 2002 to 2017 December, 247 cases of SACs treated by endoscope in Beijing Tiantan Hospital were included in this study. The severity of hydrocephalus was evaluated by Evans' index (EI). The results showed that the slit-valve and the transparent/thin membrane were noted in 86.2% and 76.5% of overall patients, respectively, and the distribution differences among age-groups were statistically significant (p < 0.01). After a mean follow-up duration of 73.1 months, 18 patients underwent a reoperation. Ventriculocystostomy (VC) (hazard ratio (HR), 3.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2-9.47; p = 0.024) and history of treatment (HR, 3.98; 95% CI, 1.31-12.31; p = 0.015) were adverse factors for reoperation rate. MRI at 1-year follow-up revealed mean decreases of 78.4% and 9.13% in cyst size and EI. No paraventricular edema was an adverse factor associated with the improvement in hydrocephalus (HR, 11.22; 95% CI, 5.43-23.18; p < 0.01). These results indicated that ventriculocystocisternostomy (VCC) and no history of treatment is favorable factors for prognosis of SACs treated by endoscope. If feasible, VCC is the optimal choice for SACs. Slit-valve phenomenon and transparent/thin membrane are correlated with age but did not influence the outcomes of endoscopic fenestration. The mechanism for the expansion of cysts may be different between child and adult patients. Paraventricular edema is a favorable factor for the improvement in hydrocephalus after endoscopic surgery.


Assuntos
Cistos Aracnóideos , Hidrocefalia , Adulto , Cistos Aracnóideos/diagnóstico , Cistos Aracnóideos/epidemiologia , Cistos Aracnóideos/cirurgia , Criança , Endoscopia , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiologia , Hidrocefalia/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Resultado do Tratamento
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