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1.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 412(30): 8313-8324, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011839

RESUMO

Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the main metabolite of glyphosate (GLYP) and phosphonic acids in detergents. GLYP is a synthetic herbicide frequently used worldwide alone or together with its analog glufosinate (GLUF). The general public can be exposed to these potentially harmful chemicals; thus, sensitive methods to monitor them in humans are urgently required to evaluate health risks. We attempted to simultaneously detect GLYP, AMPA, and GLUF in human urine by high-resolution accurate-mass liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HRAM LC-MS) before and after derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (Fmoc-Cl) or 1-methylimidazole-sulfonyl chloride (ImS-Cl) with several urine pre-treatment and solid phase extraction (SPE) steps. Fmoc-Cl derivatization achieved the best combination of method sensitivity (limit of detection; LOD) and accuracy for all compounds compared to underivatized urine or ImS-Cl-derivatized urine. Before derivatization, the best steps for GLYP involved 0.4 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) pre-treatment followed by SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 37 pg/mL), for AMPA involved no EDTA pre-treatment and no SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 20 pg/mL) or 0.2-0.4 mM EDTA pre-treatment with no SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 19-21 pg/mL), and for GLUF involved 0.4 mM EDTA pre-treatment and no SPE pre-cleanup (LOD 7 pg/mL). However, for these methods, accuracy was sufficient only for AMPA (101-105%), while being modest for GLYP (61%) and GLUF (63%). Different EDTA and SPE treatments prior to Fmoc-Cl derivatization resulted in high sensitivity for all analytes but satisfactory accuracy only for AMPA. Thus, we conclude that our HRAM LC-MS method is suited for urinary AMPA analysis in cross-sectional studies.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Chr17q12-21.2 region is the strongest and most consistently associated region with asthma susceptibility. The functional genes or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are not obvious due to linkage disequilibrium. OBJECTIVES: We sought to comprehensively investigate whole-genome sequence and RNA sequence from human bronchial epithelial cells to dissect functional genes/SNPs for asthma severity in the Severe Asthma Research Program. METHODS: Expression quantitative trait loci analysis (n = 114), correlation analysis (n = 156) of gene expression and asthma phenotypes, and pathway analysis were performed in bronchial epithelial cells and replicated. Genetic association for asthma severity (426 severe vs 531 nonsevere asthma) and longitudinal asthma exacerbations (n = 273) was performed. RESULTS: Multiple SNPs in gasdermin B (GSDMB) associated with asthma severity (odds ratio, >1.25) and longitudinal asthma exacerbations (P < .05). Expression quantitative trait loci analyses identified multiple SNPs associated with expression levels of post-GPI attachment to proteins 3, GSDMB, or gasdermin A (3.1 × 10-9 

3.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 696-708, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649918

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors influence chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk, but the individual variants that have been identified have small effects. We hypothesised that a polygenic risk score using additional variants would predict COPD and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We constructed a polygenic risk score using a genome-wide association study of lung function (FEV1 and FEV1/forced vital capacity [FVC]) from the UK Biobank and SpiroMeta. We tested this polygenic risk score in nine cohorts of multiple ethnicities for an association with moderate-to-severe COPD (defined as FEV1/FVC <0·7 and FEV1 <80% of predicted). Associations were tested using logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, height, smoking pack-years, and principal components of genetic ancestry. We assessed predictive performance of models by area under the curve. In a subset of studies, we also studied quantitative and qualitative CT imaging phenotypes that reflect parenchymal and airway pathology, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FINDINGS: The polygenic risk score was associated with COPD in European (odds ratio [OR] per SD 1·81 [95% CI 1·74-1·88] and non-European (1·42 [1·34-1·51]) populations. Compared with the first decile, the tenth decile of the polygenic risk score was associated with COPD, with an OR of 7·99 (6·56-9·72) in European ancestry and 4·83 (3·45-6·77) in non-European ancestry cohorts. The polygenic risk score was superior to previously described genetic risk scores and, when combined with clinical risk factors (ie, age, sex, and smoking pack-years), showed improved prediction for COPD compared with a model comprising clinical risk factors alone (AUC 0·80 [0·79-0·81] vs 0·76 [0·75-0·76]). The polygenic risk score was associated with CT imaging phenotypes, including wall area percent, quantitative and qualitative measures of emphysema, local histogram emphysema patterns, and destructive emphysema subtypes. The polygenic risk score was associated with a reduced lung growth pattern. INTERPRETATION: A risk score comprised of genetic variants can identify a small subset of individuals at markedly increased risk for moderate-to-severe COPD, emphysema subtypes associated with cigarette smoking, and patterns of reduced lung growth. FUNDING: US National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Capacidade Vital
4.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 12(8): 630-643, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678871

RESUMO

The recent advent of robust methods to grow human tissues as 3D organoids allows us to recapitulate the 3D architecture of tumors in an in vitro setting and offers a new orthogonal approach for drug discovery. However, organoid culturing with extracellular matrix to support 3D architecture has been challenging for high-throughput screening (HTS)-based drug discovery due to technical difficulties. Using genetically engineered human colon organoids as a model system, here we report our effort to miniaturize such 3D organoid culture with extracellular matrix support in high-density plates to enable HTS. We first established organoid culturing in a 384-well plate format and validated its application in a cell viability HTS assay by screening a 2036-compound library. We further miniaturized the 3D organoid culturing in a 1536-well ultra-HTS format and demonstrated its robust performance for large-scale primary compound screening. Our miniaturized organoid culturing method may be adapted to other types of organoids. By leveraging the power of 3D organoid culture in a high-density plate format, we provide a physiologically relevant screening platform to model tumors to accelerate organoid-based research and drug discovery.

5.
Drug Test Anal ; 12(6): 846-852, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100408

RESUMO

Native circulating oxytocin (OT) levels in non-pregnant/non-lactating/non-medicated humans are very low (≤ 8 pg/mL). The lower limit of detection (LLOD) of our previous liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method (10-25 pg/mL) precluded their quantification in serum and urine. Thus, we sought to improve the LC-MS sensitivity of OT measurements in these matrices by hydrophobic tagging and solid phase extraction (SPE). In the former approach, OT was reduced then alkylated with N-alkyl acetamide (C12, C14, C16, and C18) tags or derivatized using sulfonyl chloride-based reagents. In the latter approach, native OT in serum and urine was concentrated by offline SPE using gradient acetonitrile washings after first crashing with acetonitrile. Peak urinary eluate fractions were further concentrated online then analyzed by orbitrap-based LC-MS with electrospray ionization. All hydrophobic OT derivatives had lower sensitivity than native OT. Washing with a water-acetonitrile gradient during SPE improved the LLOD of OT in spiked serum to 2.5 pg/mL, while adding a subsequent online-concentration step improved the LLOD in spiked urine to 1-5 pg/mL and allowed us to detect OT in urine from lactating women. We were unable to improve the sensitivity of OT measurements by hydrophobic tagging or by derivatization using sulfonyl chloride-based reagents. However, we were successful in improving the sensitivity of native OT measurements in serum and urine 2- and 5-fold, respectively, from our previous orbitrap-based LC-MS method. Offline SPE was mandatory for both matrices and a subsequent online-concentration step was required for urine.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226928, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914456

RESUMO

Secreted R-spondin1-4 proteins (RSPO1-4) orchestrate stem cell renewal and tissue homeostasis by potentiating Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. RSPOs induce the turnover of negative Wnt regulators RNF43 and ZNRF3 through a process that requires RSPO interactions with Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptors (LGRs), or through an LGR-independent mechanism that is enhanced by RSPO binding to heparin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). Here, we describe the engineering of 'surrogate RSPOs' that function independently of LGRs to potentiate Wnt signaling on cell types expressing a target surface marker. These bispecific proteins were generated by fusing an RNF43- or ZNRF3-specific single chain antibody variable fragment (scFv) to the immune cytokine IL-2. Surrogate RSPOs mimic the function of natural RSPOs by crosslinking the extracellular domain (ECD) of RNF43 or ZNRF3 to the ECD of the IL-2 receptor CD25, which sequesters the complex and results in highly selective amplification of Wnt signaling on CD25+ cells. Furthermore, surrogate RSPOs were able substitute for wild type RSPO in a colon organoid growth assay when intestinal stem cells were transduced to express CD25. Our results provide proof-of-concept for a technology that may be adapted for use on a broad range of cell- or tissue-types and will open new avenues for the development of Wnt-based therapeutics for regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Colo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/metabolismo , Trombospondinas/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Sítios de Ligação , Colo/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Especificidade de Órgãos , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/química , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/imunologia
7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(5): 540-554, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661293

RESUMO

Rationale: The role of PI (protease inhibitor) type Z heterozygotes and additional rare variant genotypes in the gene encoding alpha-1 antitrypsin, SERPINA1 (serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A, member 1), in determining chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risk and severity is controversial.Objectives: To comprehensively evaluate the effects of rare SERPINA1 variants on lung function and emphysema phenotypes in subjects with significant tobacco smoke exposure using deep gene resequencing and alpha-1 antitrypsin concentrations.Methods: DNA samples from 1,693 non-Hispanic white individuals, 385 African Americans, and 90 Hispanics with ≥20 pack-years smoking were resequenced for the identification of rare variants (allele frequency < 0.05) in 16.9 kB of SERPINA1.Measurements and Main Results: White PI Z heterozygotes confirmed by sequencing (MZ; n = 74) had lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 (P = 0.007), FEV1/FVC (P = 0.003), and greater computed tomography-based emphysema (P = 0.02) compared with 1,411 white individuals without PI Z, S, or additional rare variants denoted as VR. PI Z-containing compound heterozygotes (ZS/ZVR; n = 7) had lower FEV1/FVC (P = 0.02) and forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase (P = 0.009). Nineteen white heterozygotes for five non-S/Z coding variants associated with lower alpha-1 antitrypsin had greater computed tomography-based emphysema compared with those without rare variants. In African Americans, a 5' untranslated region insertion (rs568223361) was associated with lower alpha-1 antitrypsin and functional small airway disease (P = 0.007).Conclusions: In this integrative deep sequencing study of SERPINA1 with alpha-1 antitrypsin concentrations in a heavy smoker and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease cohort, we confirmed the effects of PI Z heterozygote and compound heterozygote genotypes. We demonstrate the cumulative effects of multiple SERPINA1 variants on alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, lung function, and emphysema, thus significantly increasing the frequency of SERPINA1 variation associated with respiratory disease in at-risk smokers.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Enfisema Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/epidemiologia , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Focalização Isoelétrica , Masculino , Fluxo Máximo Médio Expiratório , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/metabolismo , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Capacidade Vital , alfa 1-Antitripsina/metabolismo
9.
Nat Microbiol ; 5(1): 56-66, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686027

RESUMO

Plant-derived lignans, consumed daily by most individuals, are thought to protect against cancer and other diseases1; however, their bioactivity requires gut bacterial conversion to enterolignans2. Here, we dissect a four-species bacterial consortium sufficient for all five reactions in this pathway. A single enzyme (benzyl ether reductase, encoded by the gene ber) was sufficient for the first two biotransformations, variable between strains of Eggerthella lenta, critical for enterolignan production in gnotobiotic mice and unique to Coriobacteriia. Transcriptional profiling (RNA sequencing) independently identified ber and genomic loci upregulated by each of the remaining substrates. Despite their low abundance in gut microbiomes and restricted phylogenetic range, all of the identified genes were detectable in the distal gut microbiomes of most individuals living in northern California. Together, these results emphasize the importance of considering strain-level variations and bacterial co-occurrence to gain a mechanistic understanding of the bioactivation of plant secondary metabolites by the human gut microbiome.

10.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 19(10): 45, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486903

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a common inflammatory airway disease, which affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Although conventional drugs are effective for most of the patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, they are less effective for patients with difficult-to-treat or severe asthma. Identification of asthma endotypes and biomarkers will lead to more precise approaches to treat asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Asthma subphenotypes and endotypes have been described based on clinical variables and sputum granulocytes. A recent asthma endotype study has been summarized based on the combination of T2 (FeNO) and non-T2 (IL-6) biomarkers. Discovery of potential biomarkers for asthma has been discussed in the context of omics approaches. Current biologic drugs for asthma have been summarized, and the future direction of precise treatment of asthma has been suggested. This review provides a concise overview of the current state of subphenotypes, endotypes, biomarkers, omics approaches, and biologic drugs in asthma.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
11.
Subst Use Misuse ; : 1-8, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244365

RESUMO

Background: Areca nut (AN) chewing causes oral cancer. AN cessation programs are the most effective approach to reduce AN chewing induced cancers but require biomarkers to determine program compliance and success. Objectives: To explore chemical markers for short- and long-term AN exposure using non-invasively collected saliva, buccal cells (BCs), and scalp hair of chewers. Methods: Saliva was collected from a male chewer before and up to 2 days after AN chewing. Saliva was separated into supernatant and pellet (BCs) then analyzed by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography (LC) with UV/VIS detection. Scalp hair was collected from four chewers and analyzed for areca alkaloids using direct analysis in real time-tandem mass spectrometry (DART-MSMS). Results: The red pigmented saliva after chewing showed no valuable signals when either the saliva supernatant or pellet (BCs) were analyzed by spectrophotometry. Saliva analysis by LC-UV/VIS showed diagnostically valuable signals at 488 nm up to 5 and 24 h post chewing in the supernatant and pellet, respectively. DART-MSMS analysis detected two of the four AN specific alkaloids (arecoline and arecaidine) in male but none in female hair. Conclusions/Importance: LC-UV/VIS analysis of the red pigments extracted from saliva and BCs after AN chewing showed distinct signals up to 24 h post chewing while DART-MSMS analysis in BCs and scalp hair showed selective signals of AN alkaloids for several weeks or months after AN exposure. Chemical hair treatment might prevent detection of areca alkaloids in hair. AN cessation trials and other programs now have essential tools for bioverification.

13.
JCI Insight ; 4(8)2019 04 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996135

RESUMO

Bacterial permeability family member A1 (BPIFA1), also known as short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1), is a protein involved in the antiinflammatory response. The goal of this study was to determine whether BPIFA1 expression in asthmatic airways is regulated by genetic variations, altering epithelial responses to type 2 cytokines (e.g., IL-13). Nasal epithelial cells from patients with mild to severe asthma were collected from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program centers, genotyped for rs750064, and measured for BPIFA1. To determine the function of rs750064, cells were cultured at air-liquid interface and treated with IL-13 with or without recombinant human BPIFA1 (rhBPIFA1). Noncultured nasal cells with the rs750064 CC genotype had significantly less BPIFA1 mRNA expression than the CT and TT genotypes. Cultured CC versus CT and TT cells without stimulation maintained less BPIFA1 expression. With IL-13 treatment, CC genotype cells secreted more eotaxin-3 than CT and TT genotype cells. Also, rhBPIFA1 reduced IL-13-mediated eotaxin-3. BPIFA1 mRNA levels negatively correlated with serum IgE and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Baseline FEV1% levels were lower in the asthma patients with the CC genotype (n = 1,016). Our data suggest that less BPIFA1 in asthma patients with the CC allele may predispose them to greater eosinophilic inflammation, which could be attenuated by rhBPIFA1 protein therapy.

14.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
15.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
16.
Cell Rep ; 26(9): 2509-2520.e4, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811997

RESUMO

Human enteroids-epithelial spheroids derived from primary gastrointestinal tissue-are a promising model to study pathogen-epithelial interactions. However, accessing the apical enteroid surface is challenging because it is enclosed within the spheroid. We developed a technique to reverse enteroid polarity such that the apical surface everts to face the media. Apical-out enteroids maintain proper polarity and barrier function, differentiate into the major intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) types, and exhibit polarized absorption of nutrients. We used this model to study host-pathogen interactions and identified distinct polarity-specific patterns of infection by invasive enteropathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium targets IEC apical surfaces for invasion via cytoskeletal rearrangements, and Listeria monocytogenes, which binds to basolateral receptors, invade apical surfaces at sites of cell extrusion. Despite different modes of entry, both pathogens exit the epithelium within apically extruding enteroid cells. This model will enable further examination of IECs in health and disease.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/microbiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Diferenciação Celular , Polaridade Celular , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Humanos , Listeria monocytogenes/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Esferoides Celulares/citologia , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/microbiologia
17.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(1): 119-128, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091853

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT) is a neurohormone that has gained interest recently due to its emerging role in cognition and social/emotional behaviors, including possibly depression and autism. OT is commonly measured using enzyme- or radio-based immunoassays (RIA, ELISA), which lack specificity or are complicated to perform and involve hazardous radioactive material. We have developed a high resolution accurate-mass (HRAM) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method that separates interferences and selectively and accurately quantitates native OT from human serum, urine, and saliva after solid phase extraction. The doubly protonated OT ion m/z 562.25503 was selected for quantitation due its high signal intensity. With our method lower limit of detection (LLOD) of 5-25 pg/mL, we measured native OT in serum from pregnant women (16-24 pg/mL) and rats (350 pg/mL), and in serum, urine, and saliva from a healthy male after intranasal (IN) OT application of 100 IU and 20 IU and from a healthy post-menopausal female after IN OT application of 100 IU. Peak levels were detected in serum, urine, and saliva 15-30 minutes after each dose then decreased to below detection limits 1-2 hours thereafter. We were unable to detect native OT in serum from non-pregnant/non-lactating/non-medicated women due to levels known to occur below 5 pg/mL. The fast elimination of OT we found is in excellent agreement with the pharmacokinetics of OT in other studies. The effects on the central nervous system occurring after IN OT administration remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Ocitocina/sangue , Ocitocina/urina , Saliva/química , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/urina , Líquidos Corporais/química , Líquidos Corporais/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Saliva/metabolismo , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/normas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas
18.
Cell ; 175(7): 1972-1988.e16, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550791

RESUMO

In vitro cancer cultures, including three-dimensional organoids, typically contain exclusively neoplastic epithelium but require artificial reconstitution to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment (TME). The co-culture of primary tumor epithelia with endogenous, syngeneic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as a cohesive unit has been particularly elusive. Here, an air-liquid interface (ALI) method propagated patient-derived organoids (PDOs) from >100 human biopsies or mouse tumors in syngeneic immunocompetent hosts as tumor epithelia with native embedded immune cells (T, B, NK, macrophages). Robust droplet-based, single-cell simultaneous determination of gene expression and immune repertoire indicated that PDO TILs accurately preserved the original tumor T cell receptor (TCR) spectrum. Crucially, human and murine PDOs successfully modeled immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with anti-PD-1- and/or anti-PD-L1 expanding and activating tumor antigen-specific TILs and eliciting tumor cytotoxicity. Organoid-based propagation of primary tumor epithelium en bloc with endogenous immune stroma should enable immuno-oncology investigations within the TME and facilitate personalized immunotherapy testing.


Assuntos
Modelos Imunológicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Organoides/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Organoides/patologia
19.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(6): 1249-1258, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541089

RESUMO

Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that enzymes that synthesize and metabolize vitamin D are magnesium dependent. Recent observational studies found that magnesium intake significantly interacted with vitamin D in relation to vitamin D status and risk of mortality. According to NHANES, 79% of US adults do not meet their Recommended Dietary Allowance of magnesium. Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that magnesium supplementation differentially affects vitamin D metabolism dependent on baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration. Methods: The study included 180 participants aged 40-85 y and is a National Cancer Institute independently funded ancillary study, nested within the Personalized Prevention of Colorectal Cancer Trial (PPCCT), which enrolled 250 participants. The PPCCT is a double-blind 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial conducted in the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Doses for both magnesium and placebo were customized based on baseline dietary intakes. Subjects were randomly assigned to treatments using a permuted-block randomization algorithm. Changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3] were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The relations between magnesium treatment and plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, and 24,25(OH)2D3 were significantly different dependent on the baseline concentrations of 25(OH)D, and significant interactions persisted after Bonferroni corrections. Magnesium supplementation increased the 25(OH)D3 concentration when baseline 25(OH)D concentrations were close to 30 ng/mL, but decreased it when baseline 25(OH)D was higher (from ∼30 to 50 ng/mL). Magnesium treatment significantly affected 24,25(OH)2D3 concentration when baseline 25(OH)D concentration was 50 ng/mL but not 30 ng/mL. On the other hand, magnesium treatment increased 25(OH)D2 as baseline 25(OH)D increased. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that optimal magnesium status may be important for optimizing 25(OH)D status. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03265483.


Assuntos
Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , 24,25-Di-Hidroxivitamina D 3/sangue , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Idoso , Calcifediol/sangue , Calcitriol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ergocalciferóis/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Magnésio/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia
20.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 134, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify genetic loci associated with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC and FEV1, and develop a multi-gene predictive model for lung function in COPD. METHODS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC and FEV1 was performed in 1645 non-Hispanic White European descent smokers. RESULTS: A functional rare variant in SERPINA1 (rs28929474: Glu342Lys) was significantly associated with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC (p = 1.2 × 10- 8) and FEV1 (p = 2.1 × 10- 9). In addition, this variant was associated with COPD (OR = 2.3; p = 7.8 × 10- 4) and severity (OR = 4.1; p = 0.0036). Heterozygous subjects (CT genotype) had significantly lower lung function and higher percentage of COPD and more severe COPD than subjects with the CC genotype. 8.6% of the variance of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC can be explained by SNPs in 10 genes with age, sex, and pack-years of cigarette smoking (P <  2.2 × 10- 16). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to show genome-wide significant association of rs28929474 in SERPINA1 with lung function. Of clinical importance, heterozygotes of rs28929474 (4.7% of subjects) have significantly reduced pulmonary function, demonstrating a major impact in smokers. The multi-gene model is significantly associated with CT-based emphysema and clinical outcome measures of severity. Combining genetic information with demographic and environmental factors will further increase the predictive power for assessing reduced lung function and COPD severity.


Assuntos
Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Fumantes , alfa 1-Antitripsina/genética
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