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1.
Nat Microbiol ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686027

RESUMO

Plant-derived lignans, consumed daily by most individuals, are thought to protect against cancer and other diseases1; however, their bioactivity requires gut bacterial conversion to enterolignans2. Here, we dissect a four-species bacterial consortium sufficient for all five reactions in this pathway. A single enzyme (benzyl ether reductase, encoded by the gene ber) was sufficient for the first two biotransformations, variable between strains of Eggerthella lenta, critical for enterolignan production in gnotobiotic mice and unique to Coriobacteriia. Transcriptional profiling (RNA sequencing) independently identified ber and genomic loci upregulated by each of the remaining substrates. Despite their low abundance in gut microbiomes and restricted phylogenetic range, all of the identified genes were detectable in the distal gut microbiomes of most individuals living in northern California. Together, these results emphasize the importance of considering strain-level variations and bacterial co-occurrence to gain a mechanistic understanding of the bioactivation of plant secondary metabolites by the human gut microbiome.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661293

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The role of PI type Z heterozygotes and additional, rare variant genotypes in the gene encoding α1-antitrypsin (SERPINA1) in determining the COPD risk and severity is controversial. OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively evaluate the effects of rare SERPINA1 variants on lung function and emphysema phenotypes in subjects with significant tobacco smoke exposure using deep gene resequencing and α1-antitrypsin concentrations. METHODS: DNA samples from 1,693 non-Hispanic Whites, 385 African Americans, and 90 Hispanics with ≥20 pack-years smoking were resequenced for the identification of rare variants (allele frequency<0.05) in 16.9kB of SERPINA1. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: White PI Z heterozygotes confirmed by sequencing (MZ, N=74) had lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 (p=0.007), FEV1/FVC (p=0.003), and greater CT-based emphysema (p=0.02) compared to 1,411 Whites without PI Z, S, or additional, rare variants denoted as VR. PI Z-containing compound heterozygotes (ZS/ZVR, N=7) had lower FEV1/FVC (p=0.02) and FEF25-75% (p=0.009). 19 Whites heterozygote for five non-S/Z coding variants associated with lower α1-antitrypsin had greater CT-based emphysema compared to those without rare variants. In African Americans, a 5' untranslated region insertion (rs568223361) associated with lower α1-antitrypsin and functional small airways disease (p=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In this integrative deep sequencing study of SERPINA1 with α1-antitrypsin concentrations in a heavy smoker and COPD cohort, we confirmed the effects of PI Z heterozygote and compound heterozygote genotypes. We demonstrate the cumulative effects of multiple SERPINA1 variants on α1-antitrypsin deficiency, lung function, and emphysema, thus, significantly increasing the frequency of SERPINA1 variation associated with respiratory disease in at-risk smokers.

3.
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep ; 19(10): 45, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486903

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Asthma is a common inflammatory airway disease, which affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Although conventional drugs are effective for most of the patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, they are less effective for patients with difficult-to-treat or severe asthma. Identification of asthma endotypes and biomarkers will lead to more precise approaches to treat asthma. RECENT FINDINGS: Asthma subphenotypes and endotypes have been described based on clinical variables and sputum granulocytes. A recent asthma endotype study has been summarized based on the combination of T2 (FeNO) and non-T2 (IL-6) biomarkers. Discovery of potential biomarkers for asthma has been discussed in the context of omics approaches. Current biologic drugs for asthma have been summarized, and the future direction of precise treatment of asthma has been suggested. This review provides a concise overview of the current state of subphenotypes, endotypes, biomarkers, omics approaches, and biologic drugs in asthma.

5.
Subst Use Misuse ; : 1-8, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31244365

RESUMO

Background: Areca nut (AN) chewing causes oral cancer. AN cessation programs are the most effective approach to reduce AN chewing induced cancers but require biomarkers to determine program compliance and success. Objectives: To explore chemical markers for short- and long-term AN exposure using non-invasively collected saliva, buccal cells (BCs), and scalp hair of chewers. Methods: Saliva was collected from a male chewer before and up to 2 days after AN chewing. Saliva was separated into supernatant and pellet (BCs) then analyzed by spectrophotometry and liquid chromatography (LC) with UV/VIS detection. Scalp hair was collected from four chewers and analyzed for areca alkaloids using direct analysis in real time-tandem mass spectrometry (DART-MSMS). Results: The red pigmented saliva after chewing showed no valuable signals when either the saliva supernatant or pellet (BCs) were analyzed by spectrophotometry. Saliva analysis by LC-UV/VIS showed diagnostically valuable signals at 488 nm up to 5 and 24 h post chewing in the supernatant and pellet, respectively. DART-MSMS analysis detected two of the four AN specific alkaloids (arecoline and arecaidine) in male but none in female hair. Conclusions/Importance: LC-UV/VIS analysis of the red pigments extracted from saliva and BCs after AN chewing showed distinct signals up to 24 h post chewing while DART-MSMS analysis in BCs and scalp hair showed selective signals of AN alkaloids for several weeks or months after AN exposure. Chemical hair treatment might prevent detection of areca alkaloids in hair. AN cessation trials and other programs now have essential tools for bioverification.

7.
JCI Insight ; 4(8)2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30996135

RESUMO

Bacterial permeability family member A1 (BPIFA1), also known as short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1), is a protein involved in the antiinflammatory response. The goal of this study was to determine whether BPIFA1 expression in asthmatic airways is regulated by genetic variations, altering epithelial responses to type 2 cytokines (e.g., IL-13). Nasal epithelial cells from patients with mild to severe asthma were collected from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program centers, genotyped for rs750064, and measured for BPIFA1. To determine the function of rs750064, cells were cultured at air-liquid interface and treated with IL-13 with or without recombinant human BPIFA1 (rhBPIFA1). Noncultured nasal cells with the rs750064 CC genotype had significantly less BPIFA1 mRNA expression than the CT and TT genotypes. Cultured CC versus CT and TT cells without stimulation maintained less BPIFA1 expression. With IL-13 treatment, CC genotype cells secreted more eotaxin-3 than CT and TT genotype cells. Also, rhBPIFA1 reduced IL-13-mediated eotaxin-3. BPIFA1 mRNA levels negatively correlated with serum IgE and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Baseline FEV1% levels were lower in the asthma patients with the CC genotype (n = 1,016). Our data suggest that less BPIFA1 in asthma patients with the CC allele may predispose them to greater eosinophilic inflammation, which could be attenuated by rhBPIFA1 protein therapy.

8.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
9.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
10.
Cell Rep ; 26(9): 2509-2520.e4, 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30811997

RESUMO

Human enteroids-epithelial spheroids derived from primary gastrointestinal tissue-are a promising model to study pathogen-epithelial interactions. However, accessing the apical enteroid surface is challenging because it is enclosed within the spheroid. We developed a technique to reverse enteroid polarity such that the apical surface everts to face the media. Apical-out enteroids maintain proper polarity and barrier function, differentiate into the major intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) types, and exhibit polarized absorption of nutrients. We used this model to study host-pathogen interactions and identified distinct polarity-specific patterns of infection by invasive enteropathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium targets IEC apical surfaces for invasion via cytoskeletal rearrangements, and Listeria monocytogenes, which binds to basolateral receptors, invade apical surfaces at sites of cell extrusion. Despite different modes of entry, both pathogens exit the epithelium within apically extruding enteroid cells. This model will enable further examination of IECs in health and disease.

11.
Cell ; 175(7): 1972-1988.e16, 2018 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550791

RESUMO

In vitro cancer cultures, including three-dimensional organoids, typically contain exclusively neoplastic epithelium but require artificial reconstitution to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment (TME). The co-culture of primary tumor epithelia with endogenous, syngeneic tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) as a cohesive unit has been particularly elusive. Here, an air-liquid interface (ALI) method propagated patient-derived organoids (PDOs) from >100 human biopsies or mouse tumors in syngeneic immunocompetent hosts as tumor epithelia with native embedded immune cells (T, B, NK, macrophages). Robust droplet-based, single-cell simultaneous determination of gene expression and immune repertoire indicated that PDO TILs accurately preserved the original tumor T cell receptor (TCR) spectrum. Crucially, human and murine PDOs successfully modeled immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) with anti-PD-1- and/or anti-PD-L1 expanding and activating tumor antigen-specific TILs and eliciting tumor cytotoxicity. Organoid-based propagation of primary tumor epithelium en bloc with endogenous immune stroma should enable immuno-oncology investigations within the TME and facilitate personalized immunotherapy testing.


Assuntos
Modelos Imunológicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Organoides/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Proteínas de Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Organoides/patologia
12.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(6): 1249-1258, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541089

RESUMO

Background: Previous in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that enzymes that synthesize and metabolize vitamin D are magnesium dependent. Recent observational studies found that magnesium intake significantly interacted with vitamin D in relation to vitamin D status and risk of mortality. According to NHANES, 79% of US adults do not meet their Recommended Dietary Allowance of magnesium. Objectives: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that magnesium supplementation differentially affects vitamin D metabolism dependent on baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration. Methods: The study included 180 participants aged 40-85 y and is a National Cancer Institute independently funded ancillary study, nested within the Personalized Prevention of Colorectal Cancer Trial (PPCCT), which enrolled 250 participants. The PPCCT is a double-blind 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial conducted in the Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Doses for both magnesium and placebo were customized based on baseline dietary intakes. Subjects were randomly assigned to treatments using a permuted-block randomization algorithm. Changes in plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 [25(OH)D2], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3] were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results: The relations between magnesium treatment and plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, and 24,25(OH)2D3 were significantly different dependent on the baseline concentrations of 25(OH)D, and significant interactions persisted after Bonferroni corrections. Magnesium supplementation increased the 25(OH)D3 concentration when baseline 25(OH)D concentrations were close to 30 ng/mL, but decreased it when baseline 25(OH)D was higher (from ∼30 to 50 ng/mL). Magnesium treatment significantly affected 24,25(OH)2D3 concentration when baseline 25(OH)D concentration was 50 ng/mL but not 30 ng/mL. On the other hand, magnesium treatment increased 25(OH)D2 as baseline 25(OH)D increased. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that optimal magnesium status may be important for optimizing 25(OH)D status. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03265483.


Assuntos
Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Estado Nutricional , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , 24,25-Di-Hidroxivitamina D 3/sangue , 25-Hidroxivitamina D 2/sangue , Idoso , Calcifediol/sangue , Calcitriol/sangue , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ergocalciferóis/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Rim/fisiopatologia , Deficiência de Magnésio/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos , Deficiência de Vitamina D/fisiopatologia
13.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 134, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30068317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to identify genetic loci associated with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC and FEV1, and develop a multi-gene predictive model for lung function in COPD. METHODS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC and FEV1 was performed in 1645 non-Hispanic White European descent smokers. RESULTS: A functional rare variant in SERPINA1 (rs28929474: Glu342Lys) was significantly associated with post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC (p = 1.2 × 10- 8) and FEV1 (p = 2.1 × 10- 9). In addition, this variant was associated with COPD (OR = 2.3; p = 7.8 × 10- 4) and severity (OR = 4.1; p = 0.0036). Heterozygous subjects (CT genotype) had significantly lower lung function and higher percentage of COPD and more severe COPD than subjects with the CC genotype. 8.6% of the variance of post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC can be explained by SNPs in 10 genes with age, sex, and pack-years of cigarette smoking (P <  2.2 × 10- 16). CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to show genome-wide significant association of rs28929474 in SERPINA1 with lung function. Of clinical importance, heterozygotes of rs28929474 (4.7% of subjects) have significantly reduced pulmonary function, demonstrating a major impact in smokers. The multi-gene model is significantly associated with CT-based emphysema and clinical outcome measures of severity. Combining genetic information with demographic and environmental factors will further increase the predictive power for assessing reduced lung function and COPD severity.

14.
Drug Test Anal ; 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091853

RESUMO

Oxytocin (OT) is a neurohormone that has gained interest recently due to its emerging role in cognition and social/emotional behaviors, including possibly depression and autism. OT is commonly measured using enzyme- or radio-based immunoassays (RIA, ELISA), which lack specificity or are complicated to perform and involve hazardous radioactive material. We have developed a high resolution accurate-mass (HRAM) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method that separates interferences and selectively and accurately quantitates native OT from human serum, urine, and saliva after solid phase extraction. The doubly protonated OT ion m/z 562.25503 was selected for quantitation due its high signal intensity. With our method lower limit of detection (LLOD) of 5-25 pg/mL, we measured native OT in serum from pregnant women (16-24 pg/mL) and rats (350 pg/mL), and in serum, urine, and saliva from a healthy male after intranasal (IN) OT application of 100 IU and 20 IU and from a healthy post-menopausal female after IN OT application of 100 IU. Peak levels were detected in serum, urine, and saliva 15-30 minutes after each dose then decreased to below detection limits 1-2 hours thereafter. We were unable to detect native OT in serum from non-pregnant/non-lactating/non-medicated women due to levels known to occur below 5 pg/mL. The fast elimination of OT we found is in excellent agreement with the pharmacokinetics of OT in other studies. The effects on the central nervous system occurring after IN OT administration remains to be determined.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1485, 2018 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662124

RESUMO

Cohesin is a multi-subunit nuclear protein complex that coordinates sister chromatid separation during cell division. Highly frequent somatic mutations in genes encoding core cohesin subunits have been reported in multiple cancer types. Here, using a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening approach to identify host dependency factors and novel innate immune regulators of rotavirus (RV) infection, we demonstrate that the loss of STAG2, an important component of the cohesin complex, confers resistance to RV replication in cell culture and human intestinal enteroids. Mechanistically, STAG2 deficiency results in spontaneous genomic DNA damage and robust interferon (IFN) expression via the cGAS-STING cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway. The resultant activation of JAK-STAT signaling and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression broadly protects against virus infections, including RVs. Our work highlights a previously undocumented role of the cohesin complex in regulating IFN homeostasis and identifies new therapeutic avenues for manipulating the innate immunity.

16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 20(8): 985-992, 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182761

RESUMO

Introduction: Sugars are major constituents and additives in traditional tobacco products, but little is known about their content or related toxins (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) liquids. This study quantified levels of sugars and aldehydes in e-cigarette liquids across brands, flavors, and nicotine concentrations (n = 66). Methods: Unheated e-cigarette liquids were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and enzymatic test kits. Generalized linear models, Fisher's exact test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed sugar, aldehyde, and nicotine concentration associations. Results: Glucose, fructose and sucrose levels exceeded the limits of quantification in 22%, 53% and 53% of the samples. Sucrose levels were significantly higher than glucose [χ2(1) = 85.9, p < .0001] and fructose [χ2(1) = 10.6, p = .001] levels. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein levels exceeded the limits of quantification in 72%, 84%, and 75% of the samples. Acetaldehyde levels were significantly higher than formaldehyde [χ2(1) = 11.7, p = .0006] and acrolein [χ2(1) = 119.5, p < .0001] levels. Differences between nicotine-based and zero-nicotine labeled e-cigarette liquids were not statistically significant for sugars or aldehydes. We found significant correlations between formaldehyde and fructose (-0.22, p = .004) and sucrose (-0.25, p = .002) and acrolein and fructose (-0.26, p = .0006) and sucrose (-0.21, p = .0006). There were no significant correlations between acetaldehyde and any of the sugars or any of the aldehydes and glucose. Conclusions: Sugars and related aldehydes were identified in unheated e-cigarette liquids and their composition may influence experimentation in naïve users and their potential toxicity. Implications: The data can inform the regulation of specific flavor constituents in tobacco products as a strategy to protect young people from using e-cigarettes, while balancing FDA's interest in how these emerging products could potentially benefit adult smokers who are seeking to safely quit cigarette smoking. The data can also be used to educate consumers about ingredients in products that may contain nicotine and inform future FDA regulatory policies related to product standards and accurate and comprehensible labeling of e-cigarette liquids.

17.
Lancet Respir Med ; 5(12): 956-967, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29146301

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased concentrations of eosinophils in blood and sputum in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been associated with increased frequency of exacerbations, reduced lung function, and corticosteroid responsiveness. We aimed to assess whether high eosinophil concentrations in either sputum or blood are associated with a severe COPD phenotype, including greater exacerbation frequency, and whether blood eosinophils are predictive of sputum eosinophils. METHODS: We did a multicentre observational study analysing comprehensive baseline data from SPIROMICS in patients with COPD aged 40-80 years who had a smoking history of at least 20 pack-years, recruited from six clinical sites and additional subsites in the USA between Nov 12, 2010, and April 21, 2015. Inclusion criteria for this analysis were SPIROMICS baseline visit data with complete blood cell counts and, in a subset, acceptable sputum counts. We stratified patients on the basis of blood and sputum eosinophil concentrations and compared their demographic characteristics, as well as results from questionnaires, clinical assessments, and quantitative CT (QCT). We also analysed whether blood eosinophil concentrations reliably predicted sputum eosinophil concentrations. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01969344). FINDINGS: Of the 2737 patients recruited to SPIROMICS, 2499 patients were smokers and had available blood counts, and so were stratified by mean blood eosinophil count: 1262 patients with low (<200 cells per µL) and 1237 with high (≥200 cells per µL) blood eosinophil counts. 827 patients were eligible for stratification by mean sputum eosinophil percentage: 656 with low (<1·25%) and 171 with high (≥1·25%) sputum eosinophil percentages. The high sputum eosinophil group had significantly lower median FEV1 percentage predicted than the low sputum eosinophil group both before (65·7% [IQR 51·8-81·3] vs 75·7% [59·3-90·2], p<0·0001) and after (77·3% [63·1-88·5] vs 82·9% [67·8-95·9], p=0·001) bronchodilation. QCT density measures for emphysema and air trapping were significantly higher in the high sputum eosinophil group than the low sputum eosinophil group. Exacerbations requiring corticosteroids treatment were more common in the high versus low sputum eosinophil group (p=0·002). FEV1 percentage predicted was significantly different between low and high blood eosinophil groups, but differences were less than those observed between the sputum groups. The high blood eosinophil group had slightly increased airway wall thickness (0·02 mm difference, p=0·032), higher St George Respiratory Questionnaire symptom scores (p=0·037), and increased wheezing (p=0·018), but no evidence of an association with COPD exacerbations (p=0·35) or the other indices of COPD severity, such as emphysema measured by CT density, COPD assessment test scores, Body-mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise index, or Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage. Blood eosinophil counts showed a weak but significant association with sputum eosinophil counts (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0·64, p<0·0001), but with a high false-discovery rate of 72%. INTERPRETATION: In a large, well characterised cohort of former and current smoking patients with a broad range of COPD severity, high concentrations of sputum eosinophils were a better biomarker than high concentrations of blood eosinophils to identify a patient subgroup with more severe disease, more frequent exacerbations, and increased emphysema by QCT. Blood eosinophils alone were not a reliable biomarker for COPD severity or exacerbations, or for sputum eosinophils. Clinical trials targeting eosinophilic inflammation in COPD should consider assessing sputum eosinophils. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.


Assuntos
Eosinófilos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Escarro/citologia , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Curva ROC , Escarro/imunologia
18.
Respir Res ; 18(1): 180, 2017 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood biomarkers are increasingly used to stratify high risk chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients; however, there are fewer studies that have investigated multiple biomarkers and replicated in multiple large well-characterized cohorts of susceptible current and former smokers. METHODS: We used two MSD multiplex panels to measure 9 cytokines and chemokines in 2123 subjects from COPDGene and 1117 subjects from SPIROMICS. These biomarkers included: interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, eotaxin/CCL-11, eotaxin-3/CCL-26, and thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC)/CCL-17. Regression models adjusted for clinical covariates were used to determine which biomarkers were associated with the following COPD phenotypes: airflow obstruction (forced expiratory flow at 1 s (FEV1%) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC), chronic bronchitis, COPD exacerbations, and emphysema. Biomarker-genotype associations were assessed by genome-wide association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). RESULTS: Eotaxin and IL-6 were strongly associated with airflow obstruction and accounted for 3-5% of the measurement variance on top of clinical variables. IL-6 was associated with progressive airflow obstruction over 5 years and both IL-6 and IL-8 were associated with progressive emphysema over 5 years. None of the biomarkers were consistently associated with chronic bronchitis or COPD exacerbations. We identified one novel SNP (rs9302690 SNP) that was associated with CCL17 plasma measurements. CONCLUSION: When assessing smoking related pulmonary disease, biomarkers of inflammation such as IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and eotaxin may add additional modest predictive value on top of clinical variables alone. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COPDGene (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02445183 ). Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) ( ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 01969344 ).


Assuntos
Quimiocinas/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia
19.
Nature ; 545(7653): 234-237, 2017 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28467818

RESUMO

Wnt proteins modulate cell proliferation and differentiation and the self-renewal of stem cells by inducing ß-catenin-dependent signalling through the Wnt receptor frizzled (FZD) and the co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 to regulate cell fate decisions and the growth and repair of several tissues. The 19 mammalian Wnt proteins are cross-reactive with the 10 FZD receptors, and this has complicated the attribution of distinct biological functions to specific FZD and Wnt subtype interactions. Furthermore, Wnt proteins are modified post-translationally by palmitoylation, which is essential for their secretion, function and interaction with FZD receptors. As a result of their acylation, Wnt proteins are very hydrophobic and require detergents for purification, which presents major obstacles to the preparation and application of recombinant Wnt proteins. This hydrophobicity has hindered the determination of the molecular mechanisms of Wnt signalling activation and the functional importance of FZD subtypes, and the use of Wnt proteins as therapeutic agents. Here we develop surrogate Wnt agonists, water-soluble FZD-LRP5/LRP6 heterodimerizers, with FZD5/FZD8-specific and broadly FZD-reactive binding domains. Similar to WNT3A, these Wnt agonists elicit a characteristic ß-catenin signalling response in a FZD-selective fashion, enhance the osteogenic lineage commitment of primary mouse and human mesenchymal stem cells, and support the growth of a broad range of primary human organoid cultures. In addition, the surrogates can be systemically expressed and exhibit Wnt activity in vivo in the mouse liver, regulating metabolic liver zonation and promoting hepatocyte proliferation, resulting in hepatomegaly. These surrogates demonstrate that canonical Wnt signalling can be activated by bi-specific ligands that induce receptor heterodimerization. Furthermore, these easily produced, non-lipidated Wnt surrogate agonists facilitate functional studies of Wnt signalling and the exploration of Wnt agonists for translational applications in regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Wnt/agonistas , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células , Receptores Frizzled/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Hepatócitos/citologia , Hepatomegalia/metabolismo , Hepatomegalia/patologia , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Intestinos/citologia , Ligantes , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Proteína-5 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Proteína-6 Relacionada a Receptor de Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Moleculares , Organoides/citologia , Organoides/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Solubilidade , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos
20.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1422: 33-40, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27246020

RESUMO

Conventional in vitro analysis of gastrointestinal epithelium usually relies on two-dimensional (2D) culture of epithelial cell lines as monolayer on impermeable surfaces. However, the lack of context of differentiation and tissue architecture in 2D culture can hinder the faithful recapitulation of the phenotypic and morphological characteristics of native epithelium. Here, we describe a robust long-term three-dimensional (3D) culture methodology for gastrointestinal culture, which incorporates both epithelial and mesenchymal/stromal components into a collagen-based air-liquid interface 3D culture system. This system allows vigorously expansion of primary gastrointestinal epithelium for over 60 days as organoids with both proliferation and multilineage differentiation, indicating successful long-term intestinal culture within a microenvironment accurately recapitulating the stem cell niche.


Assuntos
Intestinos/citologia , Organoides/citologia , Pâncreas/citologia , Estômago/citologia , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos
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