Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 96
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Evol Appl ; 15(3): 471-483, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35386402

RESUMO

On the coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM maize, the isolation distance plays an important role in controlling the transgenic flow. In this study, maize gene flow model was used to quantify the MTD0.1% and MTD1% in the main maize-planting regions of China; those were the maximum threshold distance for the gene flow frequency equal to or lower than 1% and 0.1%. The model showed that the extreme MTD1% and MTD0.1% were 187 and 548 m, respectively. The regions of northern China and the coastal plain, including Hainan crop winter-season multiplication base, showed a significantly high risk for maize gene flow, while the west-south of China was the largest low-risk areas. Except for a few sites, the isolation distance of 500 m could yield a seed purity of better than 0.1% and meet the production needs of breeder seeds. The parameters of genetic competitiveness (cp) were introduced to assess the effects of hybrid compatibility between the donor and recipient. The results showed that hybrid incompatibility could minimize the risk. When cp = 0.05, MTD1% and MTD0.1% could be greatly reduced within 19 m and 75 m. These data were helpful to provide scientific data to set the isolation distance between GM and non-GM maize and select the right place to produce the hybrid maize seeds.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328469

RESUMO

Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins are a large protein family in higher plants and play important roles during seed development. Most reported PPR proteins function in mitochondria. However, some PPR proteins localize to more than one organelle; functional characterization of these proteins remains limited in maize (Zea mays L.). Here, we cloned and analyzed the function of a P-subfamily PPR protein, PPR278. Loss-function of PPR278 led to a lower germination rate and other defects at the seedling stage, as well as smaller kernels compared to the wild type. PPR278 was expressed in all investigated tissues. Furthermore, we determined that PPR278 is involved in the splicing of two mitochondrial transcripts (nad2 intron 4 and nad5 introns 1 and 4), as well as RNA editing of C-to-U sites in 10 mitochondrial transcripts. PPR278 localized to the nucleus, implying that it may function as a transcriptional regulator during seed development. Our data indicate that PPR278 is involved in maize seed development via intron splicing and RNA editing in mitochondria and has potential regulatory roles in the nucleus.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Zea mays , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Íntrons/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Splicing de RNA/genética , RNA Mitocondrial/genética , RNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 13(3)2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35328010

RESUMO

Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) causes maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD), which is a viral disease that significantly affects maize yields worldwide. Plants tolerate stress through transcriptional reprogramming at the alternative splicing (AS), transcriptional, and fusion gene (FG) levels. However, it is unclear whether and how AS and FG interfere with transcriptional reprogramming in MRDD. In this study, we performed global profiling of AS and FG on maize response to RBSDV and compared it with transcriptional changes. There are approximately 1.43 to 2.25 AS events per gene in maize infected with RBSDV. GRMZM2G438622 was only detected in four AS modes (A3SS, A5SS, RI, and SE), whereas GRMZM2G059392 showed downregulated expression and four AS events. A total of 106 and 176 FGs were detected at two time points, respectively, including six differentially expressed genes and five differentially spliced genes. The gene GRMZM2G076798 was the only FG that occurred at two time points and was involved in two FG events. Among these, 104 GOs were enriched, indicating that nodulin-, disease resistance-, and chloroplastic-related genes respond to RBSDV stress in maize. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying post-transcriptional and transcriptional regulation of maize response to RBSDV stress.


Assuntos
Reoviridae , Zea mays , Processamento Alternativo/genética , Fusão Gênica , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Vírus de Plantas , Reoviridae/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
Int J Gen Med ; 15: 1619-1635, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210833

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to explore the (1) clinical effects of the modified Masquelet technique, whose improved Masquelet technique innovates the in vitro plasticity of the bone cement module and prefabricated hollow design, and the Kirschner wire external fixation-assisted autologous bone transplantation technique in the treatment of segmental metacarpophalangeal bone defects and (2) the differences between the two techniques. METHODS: The clinical data of 32 patients with segmental metacarpophalangeal bone defects (15 patients treated with the modified Masquelet technique and 17 patients treated with the self-made Kirschner wire external fixation technique) admitted to our department between January 2012 and January 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The postoperative bone healing time, hand function, and complications were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable; there were no significant differences in age, sex, length of bone defect, and time from injury to operation between the two groups (P > 0.05). All patients were followed up with for 6-24 months (average = 13.7 months), and all patients with segmental metacarpophalangeal bone defects achieved fracture healing. The postoperative hospital stay, fracture healing time, functionary scores of the affected limb, and incidence of severe complications were better in the modified group than in the external fixation group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Compared with the Kirschner wire external fixation stent assisted autologous bone transplantation, the improved Masquelet technique has the advantages of simple operation, fast healing, accurate effect, wide indications, and less complications, making it more worthy of clinical promotion.

6.
Integr Zool ; 2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35060680

RESUMO

Tens of thousands of demoiselle cranes' crossing the Himalayas to the Indian subcontinent have been reported for decades, but their exact spring migration route remained a mystery until our previous study found they made a detour in spring along the western edge of the Himalayas and crossed the Mongolian Plateau to their breeding areas based on satellite telemetry of 3 birds. To corroborate the loop migration pattern and explore whether demoiselle crane's loop migration route is shaped by time- and energy-minimization strategies in spring and autumn and how the temporal and spatial variation of environmental conditions contribute to crane's selection of migration routes, we tracked 11 satellite-tagged demoiselle cranes from their breeding area in China and Russia, simulated 2 pseudo migration routes, and then compared the environmental conditions, time, and energy cost between true and pseudo routes in the same season. Results show that demoiselles' spring migration obeyed time-minimization hypothesis, avoiding the colder Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, benefited by abundant food and higher thermal and orographic uplift along the route; autumn migration follows energy-minimization hypothesis with the shorter route. Our research will contribute to uncover the mechanical reasons why demoiselle crane avoids crossing the giant barrier of the Himalayas in spring, and shapes a loop migration route.

7.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 170: 160-170, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34891072

RESUMO

Abiotic stress is the main factor that severely limits crop growth and yield. NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) transcription factors play an important role in dealing with various abiotic stresses. Here, we discovered the ZmSNAC13 gene in drought-tolerant maize lines by RNA-seq analysis and verified its function in Arabidopsis thaliana. First, its gene structure showed that ZmSNAC13 had a typical NAC domain and a highly variable C-terminal. There were multiple cis-acting elements related to stress in its promoter region. Overexpression of ZmSNAC13 resulted in enhanced tolerances to drought and salt stresses in Arabidopsis, characterized by a reduction in the water loss rate, a sustained effective photosynthesis rate, and increased cell membrane stability in leaves under drought conditions. Transcriptome analysis showed that a large number of differentially expressed genes regulated by overexpression of ZmSNAC13 were identified, and the main drought tolerance regulatory pathways involved were the ABA pathway and MAPK cascade signaling pathway. Overexpression of ZmSNAC13 promoted the expression of genes, such as PYL9 and DREB3, thereby enhancing tolerance to adverse environments. Adaptability, while restraining genes expression such as WRKY53 and MPK3, facilitates regulation of senescence in Arabidopsis and improves plant responses to adversity. Therefore, ZmSNAC13 is promising gene of interest for use in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Secas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
8.
Conserv Biol ; 36(2): e13808, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313356

RESUMO

Anthropogenic impacts have reduced natural areas but increased the area of anthropogenic landscapes. There is debate about whether anthropogenic landscapes (e.g., farmlands, orchards, and fish ponds) provide alternatives to natural habitat and under what circumstances. We considered whether anthropogenic landscapes can mitigate population declines for waterbirds. We collected data on population trends and biological traits of 1203 populations of 579 species across the planet. Using Bayesian generalized linear mixed models, we tested whether the ability of a species to use an anthropogenic landscape can predict population trends of waterbird globally and of species of conservation concern. Anthropogenic landscapes benefited population maintenance of common but not less-common species. Conversely, the use of anthropogenic landscapes was associated with population declines for threatened species. Our findings delineate some limitations to the ability of anthropogenic landscapes to mitigate population declines, suggesting that the maintenance of global waterbird populations depends on protecting remaining natural areas and improving the habitat quality in anthropogenic landscapes. Article impact statement: Protecting natural areas and improving the quality of anthropogenic landscapes as habitat are both needed to achieve effective conservation.


Efectos de los Paisajes Antropogénicos sobre la Conservación de Poblaciones de Aves Acuáticas Resumen Los impactos antropogénicos han reducido las áreas naturales, pero han incrementado el área de los paisajes antropogénicos. Existe un debate sobre si los paisajes antropogénicos (p. ej.: campos de cultivo, huertos, estanques de peces) proporcionan alternativas al hábitat natural y bajo cuáles circunstancias. Consideramos si los paisajes antropogénicos pueden mitigar las declinaciones poblacionales de las aves acuáticas. Recolectamos datos sobre las tendencias poblacionales y las características biológicas de 1203 poblaciones de 579 especies de aves de todo el mundo. Mediante modelos bayesianos generalizados lineales mixtos, analizamos si la habilidad de una especie para usar un paisaje antropogénico puede pronosticar las tendencias poblacionales de las aves acuáticas a nivel mundial y de las especies de interés para la conservación. Los paisajes antropogénicos beneficiaron a la conservación de las poblaciones de especies comunes, pero no para las especies menos comunes. Por otro lado, el uso de paisajes antropogénicos estuvo asociado con las declinaciones poblacionales en las especies amenazadas. Nuestros descubrimientos delinean algunas limitaciones que tienen los paisajes antropogénicos para mitigar las declinaciones poblacionales, lo que sugiere que la conservación mundial de las poblaciones de aves acuáticas depende de la protección de las áreas naturales remanentes y del mejoramiento de la calidad del hábitat en los paisajes antropogénicos.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Dinâmica Populacional
9.
Plant Dis ; 106(1): 65-72, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132596

RESUMO

Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is caused by a virus and seriously affects maize quality and yield worldwide. MRDD can be most effectively controlled with disease-resistant hybrids of corn. Here, MRDD-resistant (Qi319) and -susceptible (Ye478) parental inbred maize lines and their 314 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) that were derived from a cross between them were evaluated across three environments. A stable resistance QTL, qMrdd2, was identified and mapped using best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) values to a 0.55-Mb region between the markers MK807 and MK811 on chromosome 2 (B73 RefGen_v3) and was found to explain 8.6 to 11.0% of the total phenotypic variance in MRDD resistance. We validated the effect of qMrdd2 using a chromosome segment substitution line (CSSL) that was derived from a cross between maize inbred Qi319 as the MRDD resistance donor and Ye478 as the recipient. Disease severity index of the CSSL haplotype II harboring qMrdd2 was significantly lower than that of the susceptible parent Ye478. Subsequently, we fine-mapped qMrdd2 to a 315-kb region flanked by the markers RD81 and RD87, thus testing recombinant-derived progeny using selfed backcrossed families. In this study, we identified a novel QTL for MRDD resistance by combining the RIL and CSSL populations, thus providing important genetic information that can be used for breeding MRDD-resistant varieties of maize.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Doenças das Plantas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays , Resistência à Doença/genética , Haplótipos , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/virologia
10.
Sci China Life Sci ; 2021 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962615

RESUMO

For some Cas nucleases, trans-cleavage activity triggered by CRISPR/Cas-mediated cis-cleavage upon target nucleic acid recognition has been explored for diagnostic detection. Portable single and multiplex nucleic acid-based detection is needed for crop pathogen management in agriculture. Here, we harnessed and characterized RfxCas13d as an additional CRISPR/Cas nucleic acid detection tool. We systematically characterized AsCas12a, LbCas12a, LwaCas13a, and RfxCas13d combined with isothermal amplification to develop a CRISPR/Cas nucleic acid-based tool for single or multiplex pathogen detection. Our data indicated that sufficient detection sensitivity was achieved with just a few copies of DNA/RNA targets as input. Using this tool, we successfully detected DNA from Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides and RNA from rice black-streaked dwarf virus in crude extracts prepared in the field. Our method, from sample preparation to result readout, could be rapidly and easily deployed in the field. This system could be extended to other crop pathogens, including those that currently lack a detection method and have metabolite profiles that make detection challenging. This nucleic acid detection system could also be used for single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, transgene detection, and qualitative detection of gene expression in the field.

11.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 774478, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34917109

RESUMO

Heterosis contributes a big proportion to hybrid performance in maize, especially for grain yield. It is attractive to explore the underlying genetic architecture of hybrid performance and heterosis. Considering its complexity, different from former mapping method, we developed a series of linear mixed models incorporating multiple polygenic covariance structures to quantify the contribution of each genetic component (additive, dominance, additive-by-additive, additive-by-dominance, and dominance-by-dominance) to hybrid performance and midparent heterosis variation and to identify significant additive and non-additive (dominance and epistatic) quantitative trait loci (QTL). Here, we developed a North Carolina II population by crossing 339 recombinant inbred lines with two elite lines (Chang7-2 and Mo17), resulting in two populations of hybrids signed as Chang7-2 × recombinant inbred lines and Mo17 × recombinant inbred lines, respectively. The results of a path analysis showed that kernel number per row and hundred grain weight contributed the most to the variation of grain yield. The heritability of midparent heterosis for 10 investigated traits ranged from 0.27 to 0.81. For the 10 traits, 21 main (additive and dominance) QTL for hybrid performance and 17 dominance QTL for midparent heterosis were identified in the pooled hybrid populations with two overlapping QTL. Several of the identified QTL showed pleiotropic effects. Significant epistatic QTL were also identified and were shown to play an important role in ear height variation. Genomic selection was used to assess the influence of QTL on prediction accuracy and to explore the strategy of heterosis utilization in maize breeding. Results showed that treating significant single nucleotide polymorphisms as fixed effects in the linear mixed model could improve the prediction accuracy under prediction schemes 2 and 3. In conclusion, the different analyses all substantiated the different genetic architecture of hybrid performance and midparent heterosis in maize. Dominance contributes the highest proportion to heterosis, especially for grain yield, however, epistasis contributes the highest proportion to hybrid performance of grain yield.

12.
Small Methods ; 5(8): e2100234, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34927876

RESUMO

Single-crystal nickel-rich cathode materials (SC-NRCMs) are the most promising candidates for next-generation power batteries which enable longer driving range and reliable safety. In this review, the outstanding advantages of SC-NRCMs are discussed systematically in aspects of structural and thermal stabilities. Particularly, the intergranular-crack-free morphology exhibits superior cycling performance and negligible parasitic reactions even under severe conditions. Besides, various synthetic methods are summarized and the relation between precursor, sintering process, and final single-crystal products are revealed, providing a full view of synthetic methods. Then, challenges of SC-NRCMs in fields of kinetics of lithium diffusion and the one particularly occurred at high voltage (intragranular cracks and aggravated parasitic reactions) are discussed. The corresponding mechanism and modifications are also referred. Through this review, it is aimed to highlight the magical morphology of SC-NRCMs for application perspective and provide a reference for following researchers.

13.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 739072, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630491

RESUMO

Heterosis, which has greatly increased maize yields, is associated with gene expression patterns during key developmental stages that enhance hybrid phenotypes relative to parental phenotypes. Before heterosis can be more effectively used for crop improvement, hybrid maize developmental gene expression patterns must be better understood. Here, six maize hybrids, including the popular hybrid Zhengdan958 (ZC) from China, were studied. Maize hybrids created in-house were generated using an incomplete diallel cross (NCII)-based strategy from four elite inbred parental lines. Differential gene expression (DEG) profiles corresponding to three developmental stages revealed that hybrid partial expression patterns exhibited complementarity of expression of certain parental genes, with parental allelic expression patterns varying both qualitatively and quantitatively in hybrids. Single-parent expression (SPE) and parent-specific expression (PSE) types of qualitative variation were most prevalent, 43.73 and 41.07% of variation, respectively. Meanwhile, negative super-dominance (NSD) and positive super-dominance (PSD) types of quantitative variation were most prevalent, 31.06 and 24.30% of variation, respectively. During the early reproductive growth stage, the gene expression pattern differed markedly from other developmental stage patterns, with allelic expression patterns during seed development skewed toward low-value parental alleles in hybrid seeds exhibiting significant quantitative variation-associated superiority. Comparisons of qualitative gene expression variation rates between ZC and other hybrids revealed proportions of SPE-DEGs (41.36%) in ZC seed DEGs that significantly exceeded the average proportion of SPE-DEGs found in seeds of other hybrids (28.36%). Importantly, quantitative gene expression variation rate comparisons between ZC and hybrids, except for transgressive expression, revealed that the ZC rate exceeded the average rate for other hybrids, highlighting the importance of partial gene expression in heterosis. Moreover, enriched ZC DEGs exhibiting distinct tissue-specific expression patterns belonged to four biological pathways, including photosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, biology metabolism and biosynthesis. These results provide valuable technical insights for creating hybrids exhibiting strong heterosis.

14.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573592

RESUMO

The number of breeding pairs of crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in Hanzhong, China has recovered remarkably from 2 to 511 from 1981 to 2019. Although the crested ibis has been closely monitored, the habitat preference of the bird has not been well studied despite the extensive increase in abundance. We used nest site data from the past 39 years and 30 environmental variables to develop species distribution models for each year. We applied random forest to select important environmental variables, and used logistic regressions to quantify the changes in habitat preferences in 39 years, taking into account the effects of interaction and quadratic terms. We found that six variables had strong impacts on nest site selection. The interaction term of rice paddies and waterbodies, and the quadratic term of precipitation of the wettest quarter of the year were the most important correlates of nest presence. Human impact at nest sites changed from low to high as birds increased their use of ancestral habitats with abundant rice paddies. We concluded that during the population recovery, the crested ibises retained their dependence on wetlands, yet moved from remote areas to populated rural regions where food resources had recovered due to the ban of pesticide use.

15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 305, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural variations derived from both evolutionary selection and genetic recombination, presume to have important functions to respond to various abiotic stresses, which could be used to improve drought tolerance via genomic selection. RESULTS: In the present study, the NAC-encoding gene of ZmNAC080308 was cloned and sequenced in 199 inbred lines in maize. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ZmNAC080308 is closely clusteredinto the same group with other well-known NAC genes responding to improve drought tolerance. In total, 86 SNPs and 47 InDels were identified in the generic region of ZmNAC080308, 19 of these variations were associated with GY (grain yield) in different environments. Nine variations in the 5'-UTR region of ZmNAC080308 are closely linked, they might regulate the gene expression and respond to improve GY under drought condition via Sp1-mediated transactivation. Two haplotypes (Hap1 and Hap2) identified in the, 5'-UTR region using the nine variations, and Hap2 containing insertion variants, exhibited 15.47 % higher GY under drought stress condition. Further, a functional marker was developed to predict the drought stress tolerance in a US maize inbred line panel. Lines carrying Hap2 exhibited > 10 % higher GY than those carrying Hap1 under drought stress condition. In Arabidopsis, overexpression ZmNAC080308 enhanced drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: ZmNAC080308 is an important gene responding to drought tolerance, a functional marker is developed for improving maize drought tolerance by selecting this gene.


Assuntos
Secas , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/fisiologia , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
16.
ACS Omega ; 6(24): 15716-15726, 2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34179615

RESUMO

Compared to conventional reservoirs, only a few studies were carried out on the heterogeneity of unconventional tight sandstone reservoirs. This paper focuses on the Upper Paleozoic tight gas sandstone reservoir in the southeast of the Ordos Basin. The reservoir heterogeneity is studied through thin section and scanning electron microscope observations, cathode luminescence, mercury intrusion, and logging data analysis. The results show that the dissolution pore and microfracture is the dominant pathway for the migration of natural gas. The distribution of gas and water within the sand body is affected by the rhythmic change of sandstone, and this rhythmicity is variable with the changing of particle size. It shows "water wrapping gas" for the positive rhythm, "gas wrapping water" for the reverse rhythm, and both of these features for the compound rhythm. Interlayers act as a cap rock or carrier bed on gas distribution. Along with the variation of breakthrough pressure of the interlayer and saturation pressure of the reservoir, the single sand body shows different distribution features of gas and water. The vertical differentiation of natural gas is caused by the barrier layer, and the more barrier layers exist, the worse the capacity of the reservoir to store natural gas. However, the existence of the barrier layer will make the reservoir close to the source area to be the favorable zone for oil and gas accumulation. In this study, the relationship between heterogeneity and gas as well as water distribution of tight sandstone is identified, which can provide guidance to the exploration and exploitation of tight gas in the future.

17.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(4)2021 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916796

RESUMO

Hunchun, a typical area suffering wild boar (Sus scrofa) damage, is an important region for the Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris) in China. By incorporating the maximum entropy model with 22 variables in the home range scale (12 variables) and in the feeding site scale (10 variables), we predicted wild boar damage risks in this area of China and analyzed how spatial factors influence damage risk. Damage risk was found to be high in areas close to the forest edge, areas with a higher forest cover and lower to medium deciduous forest proportion, low road density, and a medium river density and farmland proportion. The proportion of farmland which was identified as being in the high damage risk zone was 23.55%, of which 38.68% was within the habitat area of the Siberian Tiger. Finally, we propose wild boar damage prevention based on different management goals.

19.
Plant J ; 105(1): 108-123, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098697

RESUMO

Starch synthesis is an essential feature of crop filling, but knowledge of the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of starch synthesis genes (SSGs) is currently limited to transcription factors (TFs). Here, we obtained transcriptome, small RNAome, and DNA methylome data from maize (Zea mays) endosperms during multiple developmental stages and established a regulatory network atlas of starch synthesis. Transcriptome analysis showed a sharp transition at 9-10 days after pollination, when genes involved in starch and sucrose metabolism are upregulated and starch accumulates rapidly. Expression pattern analysis established a comprehensive network between SSGs and TFs. During maize endosperm development, the miRNAs with preferential repression of the expression of TFs, particularly the TFs regulating SSG expression, were extensively downregulated. Specifically, ZmMYB138 and ZmMYB115 affected the transcriptional activities of Du1/Wx and Ae1/Bt2 genes at their respective promoter regions. Remarkably, the two TFs were negatively regulated by the copious expression of Zma-miR159k-3p at the post-transcriptional level. This suggests that miRNAs are important regulators of starch synthesis. Moreover, with the exclusion of the TFs, the expression of both SSGs and miRNAs was globally regulated by DNA methylation. Altogether, the present results (i) establish the regulatory functions of miRNAs and DNA methylation in starch synthesis and (ii) indicate that DNA methylation functions as a master switch.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Endosperma/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Amido/biossíntese , Zea mays/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética
20.
iScience ; 23(12): 101821, 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305181

RESUMO

Low-cost, scalable energy storage is the key to continuing growth of renewable energy technologies. Here a battery with sedimentary slurry electrode (SSE) is proposed. Through the conversion of discrete particles between sedimentary and suspending types, it not only inherits the advantages of semi-solid flow cell but also exhibits high energy density and stable conductive network. Given an example, the zinc SSE (ZSSE) delivers a large discharge capacity of 479.2 mAh g-1 at 10 mA cm-2. More importantly, by renewal of the slurry per 20 cycles, it can run for 112 and 75 cycles before falling below 80% of designed capacity under 10 mA cm-2 (20% DODZn) and 25 mA cm-2 (25% DODZn), respectively. The lost capacity after cycles is able to recover after slurry renewal and the end-of-life SSE can be easily reused by re-formation. The concept of SSE brands a new way for electrochemical energy storage.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...