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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt B): 118465, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748889

RESUMO

Indoor airborne microplastics fibers (MPFs) are emerging contaminants of growing concern. Nowadays, air conditioners (ACs) are widely used in indoor environments. However, little is known about their impact on the distribution of indoor MPFs. In this study, we first disclosed the prevalence of MPF contamination in filters for indoor split ACs used in living rooms, dormitories, and offices. The average density of microfibers was 1.47-21.4 × 102 items/cm2, and a total 27.7-35.0% of fibers were MPFs. Of these fibers, the majority were polyester (45.3%), rayon (27.8%), and cellophane (20.1%). We further tracked the long-term accumulation of MPFs on AC filters in three types of rooms, and demonstrated that dormitories showed relatively heavy accumulation especially after running for 35-42 days. Furthermore, we found that simulative AC filters which had been lined with PET MPFs could effectively release those MPFs into indoor air, propelling them away from the ACs at varying distances. Statistical analysis showed that the estimated daily intake of MPFs (5-5000 µm length) from AC filters would increase gradually with their usage, with the intake volume reaching up to 11.2 ± 2.2-44.0 ± 8.9 items/kg-BW/day by the 70th day, although this number varied among people of different ages. Altogether, these findings suggest that AC filters can act as both a sink and a source of microplastics fibers. Therefore, AC filters should be evaluated not only for their substantial impact on the distribution of indoor airborne MPFs, but also for their role in the prevalence of the related health risks.


Assuntos
Filtros de Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos
2.
Neural Regen Res ; 17(1): 144-151, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34100450

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of conserved, endogenous non-coding RNAs that are involved in transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene regulation and are highly enriched in the nervous system. They participate in the survival and differentiation of multiple nerve cells, and may even promote the recovery of neurological function after stroke. However, their role in the inflammatory response after spinal cord injury remains unclear. In the present study, we established a mouse model of T9 spinal cord injury using the modified Allen's impact method, and identified 16,013 circRNAs and 960 miRNAs that were differentially expressed after spinal cord injury. Of these, the expression levels of circPrkcsh were significantly different between injured and sham-treated mice. We then treated astrocytes with tumor necrosis factor-α in vitro to simulate the inflammatory response after spinal cord injury. Our results revealed an elevated expression of circPrkcsh with a concurrent decrease in miR-488 expression in injured cells. We also found that circPrkcsh regulated the expression of the inflammation-related gene Ccl2. Furthermore, in tumor necrosis factor-α-treated astrocytes, circPrkcsh knockdown decreased the expression of Ccl2 by upregulating miR-488 expression, and reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines in vitro. These findings suggest that differentially expressed circRNAs participate in the inflammatory response after spinal cord injury and act as the regulators of certain microRNAs. Furthermore, circPrkcsh may be used as an miR-488 sponge to regulate Ccl2 expression, which might provide a new potential therapy for SCI. The study was approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of Shandong University of China (approval No. KYLL-20170303) on March 3, 2017.

3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 207-236, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807444

RESUMO

Carbohydrate, which is the most abundant nutrient in plant-sourced feedstuffs, is an economically indispensable component in commercial compound feeds for fish. This nutrient can enhance the physical quality of diets and allow for pellet expansion during extrusion. There is compelling evidence that an excess dietary intake of starch causes hepatic disorders, thereby further reducing the overall food consumption and growth performance of fish species. Among the severe metabolic disturbances are glycogenic hepatopathy (hepatomegaly caused by the excessive accumulation of glycogen in hepatocytes) and hepatic steatosis (the accumulation of large vacuoles of triacylglycerols in hepatocytes). The development of those disorders is mainly due to the limited ability of fish to oxidize glucose and control blood glucose concentration. The prolonged elevations of blood glucose increase glucose intake by the liver, and excess glucose is stored either as glycogen through glycogenesis in hepatocytes or as triglycerides via lipogenesis in tissues, depending on the species. In some fish species (e.g., largemouth bass), the liver has a low ability to regulate glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen breakdown in response to high starch intake. For most species of fish, the liver size increases with lipid or glycogen accumulation when they have a high starch intake. It is a challenge to develop the same set of diagnostic criteria for all fish species as their physiology or metabolic patterns differ. Although glycogenic hepatopathy appears to be a common disease in carnivorous fish, it has been under-recognized in many studies. As a result, understanding these diseases and their pathogeneses in different fish species is crucial for manufacturing cost-effective pellet diets to promote the health, growth, survival, and feed efficiency of fish in future.


Assuntos
Bass , Glucose , Animais , Carboidratos da Dieta , Glicogênio , Fígado
4.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 237-261, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807445

RESUMO

Aquatic animals have particularly high requirements for dietary amino acids (AAs) for health, survival, growth, development, and reproduction. These nutrients are usually provided from ingested proteins and may also be derived from supplemental crystalline AA. AAs are the building blocks of protein (a major component of tissue growth) and, therefore, are the determinants of the growth performance and feed efficiency of farmed fish. Because protein is generally the most expensive ingredient in aqua feeds, much attention has been directed to ensure that dietary protein feedstuff is of high quality and cost-effective for feeding fish, crustaceans, and other aquatic animals worldwide. Due to the rapid development of aquaculture worldwide and a limited source of fishmeal (the traditionally sole or primary source of AAs for aquatic animals), alternative protein sources must be identified to feed aquatic animals. Plant-sourced feedstuffs for aquatic animals include soybean meal, extruded soybean meal, fermented soybean meal, soybean protein concentrates, soybean protein isolates, leaf meal, hydrolyzed plant protein, wheat, wheat hydrolyzed protein, canola meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal, sunflower meal, peas, rice, dried brewers grains, and dried distillers grains. Animal-sourced feedstuffs include fishmeal, fish paste, bone meal, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal, chicken by-product meal, chicken visceral digest, spray-dried poultry plasma, spray-dried egg product, hydrolyzed feather meal, intestine-mucosa product, peptones, blood meal (bovine or poultry), whey powder with high protein content, cheese powder, and insect meal. Microbial sources of protein feedstuffs include yeast protein and single-cell microbial protein (e.g., algae); they have more balanced AA profiles than most plant proteins for animal feeding. Animal-sourced ingredients can be used as a single source of dietary protein or in complementary combinations with plant and microbial sources of proteins. All protein feedstuffs must adequately provide functional AAs for aquatic animals.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Proteínas na Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Bovinos , Galinhas , Dieta
5.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 361: 109464, 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34749187

RESUMO

High levels of biogenic amines (BAs) in fermented food can present a health risk to consumers. Microorganisms that can reduce BAs are widely used in fermented foods. However, the mechanism by which microorganisms reduce BAs in foods has not been explored. In this study, we investigated how Staphylococcus nepalensis 5-5 (S. nepalensis 5-5), which was a BA-degrading strain isolated from fish sauce, could reduce BA accumulation in the fish sauce. High-throughput sequencing and HPLC methods were sequentially used to determine the microbial community structure and BA content in fish sauce with/without S. nepalensis 5-5. The results showed that S. nepalensis 5-5 might be a safe strain that could improve the flavor of fish sauce while still exhibiting good BA degradation ability under a high salt environment. The content of BAs in fish sauce inoculated with S. nepalensis 5-5 was significantly decreased compared with the control fish sauce, achieving maximal reductions of 15.74, 14.18 and 16.65% in putrescine, cadaverine and histamine accumulation, respectively. According to high-throughput sequencing data, S. nepalensis 5-5 reduced the abundance of the genera positively associated with BAs, while increasing the number of bacterial genera negatively correlated with BAs in the sample and changed the correlation between some genera and BAs via species interaction. In addition, analysis of amino acid metabolism showed that S. nepalensis 5-5 might use histidine to produce metabolites other than histamine, thereby reducing the production of BAs. These findings not only explained the mechanisms by which the BA level in fish sauce could be reduced but also provided a potential means to control BA production in the fish sauce during the fermentation stage.


Assuntos
Aminas Biogênicas , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados , Animais , Fermentação , Staphylococcus
6.
Front Neurol ; 12: 700516, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744960

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate the safety and efficacy of endovascular embolization of cerebral aneurysms at the P1-P3 segments of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA). Materials and Methods: Seventy-seven patients with 77 PCA aneurysms who were treated with endovascular embolization were enrolled, including 35 (45.5%) patients with ruptured aneurysms and 42 (54.5%) with unruptured ones. The pretreatment clinical data and aneurysm occlusion status after treatment and at follow-up were analyzed. Results: All patients were successfully treated endovascularly, including coiling alone in 10 (13.0%) patients, stent-assisted coiling in 18 (23.4%), parent artery occlusion in 25 (32.5%), and pipeline embolization device (PED) in 24 (31.2%). Complete occlusion was achieved in 48 (62.3%) aneurysms, residual neck in 4 (5.2%), and residual aneurysm in the other 25 (32.5%) at the end of embolization. Periprocedural complications occurred in eight patients, including acute thrombosis in seven (9.1%) and intraprocedural subarachnoid hemorrhage in one (1.3%), with the total complication rate of 10.4%. Follow-up was performed in 60 patients (77.9%) for 42 ± 11 months; the mRS score was 0-2 in 55 (91.7%) patients, three in four patients (6.7%), and six in one patient (1.7%). Fifty-three (88.3%) patients (53 aneurysms) had stable or complete occlusion, and seven (11.7%) patients had aneurysm recurrence or residual aneurysm. Among 19 patients treated with PED at follow-up, 15 aneurysms (78.9%) proceeded to complete occlusion while four (21.1%) aneurysms showed residual aneurysm. Conclusion: Endovascular embolization remains a good choice of treatment with high safety and efficacy for posterior cerebral artery aneurysms.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34767296

RESUMO

Faujasite (FAU) zeolites (with Si/Al ratio of ca. 1.7) undergo mild dealumination at moderate ion exchange conditions (0.01 to 0.6 M of NH 4 NO 3 solutions) resulting in protons circumscribed by sodalite cages becoming accessible for reaction without conspicuous changes to bulk crystallinity. The ratio of protons in sodalite cages (H SOD ) to supercages (H SUP ) can be systematically manipulated from 0 to ca. 1 by adjusting ammonium concentrations used in ion exchange. The fraction of accessible protons in the sodalite cages is assessed by virtue of infrared spectra for H-D exchange of deuterated propane based on the band area ratio of OD 2620 / OD 2680 (OD SOD / OD SUP ). Protons in sodalite cages (H SOD ) show higher rate constants of propane dehydrogenation ( k D ) and cracking ( k C ) than protons in supercages (H SUP ) plausibly due to confinement effects being more prominent in smaller voids. Rate constants of dehydrogenation and cracking including k D / k C ratios are also augmented as the fraction of accessible protons in the sodalite cages is enhanced. These effects of accessibility and reactivity of protons in sodalite cages hitherto inconspicuous are revealed herein via methods that systematically increase accessibility of cations located in sodalite cages.

8.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 713692, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759806

RESUMO

As a complex cognitive activity, knowledge transfer is mostly correlated to cognitive processes such as working memory, behavior control, and decision-making in the human brain while engineering problem-solving. It is crucial to explain how the alteration of the functional brain network occurs and how to express it, which causes the alteration of the cognitive structure of knowledge transfer. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms of knowledge transfer are rarely considered in existing studies. Thus, this study proposed functional connectivity (FC) to describe and evaluate the dynamic brain network of knowledge transfer while engineering problem-solving. In this study, we adopted the modified Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (M-WCST) reported in the literature. The neural activation of the prefrontal cortex was continuously recorded for 31 participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Concretely, we discussed the prior cognitive level, knowledge transfer distance, and transfer performance impacting the wavelet amplitude and wavelet phase coherence. The paired t-test results showed that the prior cognitive level and transfer distance significantly impact FC. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that both wavelet amplitude and phase coherence are significantly correlated to the cognitive function of the prefrontal cortex. Therefore, brain FC is an available method to evaluate cognitive structure alteration in knowledge transfer. We also discussed why the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and occipital face area (OFA) distinguish themselves from the other brain areas in the M-WCST experiment. As an exploratory study in NeuroManagement, these findings may provide neurophysiological evidence about the functional brain network of knowledge transfer while engineering problem-solving.

9.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(21)2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772008

RESUMO

The failures of soil slopes during the construction of high-speed railway caused by the soil after the freeze-thaw (F-T) cycle and the subsequent threat to construction safety are critical issues. An appropriate constitutive model for soils accurately describing the deformation characteristics of soil slopes after the F-T cycle is very important. Few constitutive models of soils incorporate the F-T cycle, and the associated flow rule has always been employed in previous models, which results in an overestimation of the deformation of soil exposed to the F-T cycle. Generalized plasticity theory is widely used to predict the performance of geotechnical materials and is especially well adapted to deal with this type of generalized cyclic loading (such as a freeze-thaw cycle), and it overcomes the shortcomings of the associated flow rule that causes larger shear deformation. To this end, an elastoplastic model framework based on generalized plasticity theory with double yield surfaces for saturated soils subjected to F-T cycles was developed. Two types of plastic deformation mechanisms, i.e., plastic volumetric compression and plastic shear, were considered in this elastoplastic model. It was found that this model can accurately predict the mechanical behavior and deformation characteristics of saturated soils after F-T cycles.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788868

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of endovascular embolization of ruptured intracranial aneurysms within 72 hours of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with intracranial aneurysms treated with embolization were divided into group A (n = 277), patients with ruptured aneurysms treated within 72 hours of SAH; group B (n = 138), patients with ruptured aneurysms treated beyond 72 hours; and group C (n = 93), patients with unruptured aneurysms. RESULTS: Embolization was successful in all but four patients (99.2%). The periprocedural complication rate was 36.2% in group B, significantly (p < 0.05) greater than that in group A (24.5%) or group C (11.8%). The rebleeding rate was 9.7% (6/62 patients) in groups A and B after embolization and only 0.3% (1/346 patients) in aneurysms with total or subtotal occlusion. Of these three groups of patients, 69.7% in group A, 58.7% in group B, and 76.3% in group C achieved Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score of 5 or modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0- to 1 at discharge. A significant difference (p < 0.05) existed in the clinical outcome between the three groups. The percentages of patients without deficits (GOS 5 or mRS 0-1) and slight disability (mRS 2) were 80.2% in group A, 81.2% in group B, and 96.7% in group C. The mortality rate was 4.3% (12/277 patients) in group A and 7.2% (10/138 patients) in group B with no significant (p = 0.21) difference. Follow-up was performed at 3 to 54 months (mean 23.2), and the recanalization rate was 28.6% (32/112 patients) in group A, 22.4% (11/49 patients) in group B, and 28.6% (16/56 patients) in group C, with no significant differences (p = 0.15). Hydrocephalus occurred in 30.5% (39/128 patients) in group B, which was significantly (p < 0.01) greater than that in group A (9.4%) or group C (2.2%). CONCLUSION: Early embolization of ruptured cerebral aneurysms within 72 hours of rupture is safe and effective and can significantly decrease periprocedural complications compared with management beyond 72 hours. Timely management of cisternal and ventricular blood can reduce hydrocephalus incidence and improve prognosis.

11.
Adv Mater ; : e2106724, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34791708

RESUMO

Strong metal-support interaction (SMSI) is crucial for supported catalysts in heterogeneous catalysis. Here is the first report on strong metal phosphide-phosphate support interaction (SMPSI). The key to SMPSI is the activation of P species on the support, which leads to simultaneously generate of metal phosphide NPs and core-shell nanostructures formed by support migration onto the NPs. The encapsulation state of metal phosphide and charge transfer are identical to those of classical SMSIs and can be optimally regulated. Furthermore, the strong interactions of Co2 PL /MnP-3 not only significantly enhance the anti-oxidation and anti-acid capability of non-noble metal but also exhibit excellent catalytic activity and stability toward hydrogenating a wide range of compounds into value-added fine chemicals with 100% selectivity, which is even better than Pd/C and Pt/C. The SMPSI construction can be generally extended to other systems such as Ni2 PL /Mn3 (PO4 )2 , Co2 PL /LaPO4 , and CoPL /CePO4 . This study provides a new approach for the rational design of advanced non-noble metal catalysts and introduce a novel paradigm for the strong interaction between NPs and support. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
J Neurooncol ; 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797524

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Autophagy-dependent tumorigenic growth is one of the most commonly reported molecular mechanisms in glioblastoma (GBM) progression. However, the mechanistic correlation between autophagy and GBM is still largely unexplored, especially the roles of autophagy-related genes involved in GBM oncogenesis. In this study, we aimed to explore the genetic alterations that interact with both autophagic activity and GBM tumorigenesis, and to investigate the molecular mechanisms of autophagy involved in GBM cell death and survival. METHOD: For this purpose, we systematically explored the alterations of autophagic molecules at the genome level in human GBM samples through deep RNA sequencing. The effect of genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of ERK on GBM growth in vitro and in vivo was researched. An image-based tracking analysis of LC3 using mCherry-eGFP-LC3 plasmid, and transmission electron microscopy were utilized to monitor autophagic flux. Immunoblot analysis was used to measure the related proteins. RESULTS: MAPK ERK expression was identified as one of the most probable autophagy-related transcriptional responses during GBM growth. The genetic and pharmacologic inhibition of ERK in vivo and in vitro led to cell death, demonstrating its critical role for GBM proliferation and survival. To our surprise, autophagic activities were excessively activated and resulted in cytodestructive effects on GBM cells upon ERK inhibitor treatment. Furthermore, based on the observation of downregulation of mTOR signaling, we speculated the ERK inhibitor-induced GBM cells death might depend on mTOR-mediated pathway, leading to autophagy dysregulation. Accordingly, the in vivo and in vitro experiments revealed that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin further increased cell mortality and exhibited enhanced antitumor effect on GBM cells when co-treated with the ERK inhibitor. CONCLUSION: Our data creatively demonstrated that the autophagy-related regulator ERK maintains autophagic activity during GBM tumorigenesis via mTOR signaling pathway. The pharmacologic inhibition of both mTOR and ERK signaling exhibited synergistic therapeutic effect on GBM growth in vivo and in vitro, which has certain novelty and may provide a potential therapeutic approach for GBM treatment in the future.

13.
FASEB J ; 35(12): e22014, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751973

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex pathological change that includes primary SCI and gradually evolves into secondary SCI. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in the pathology of a variety of neurological diseases and injuries. However, the characteristics and function of circRNAs in SCI have yet to be elucidated. Although previous research demonstrated that circPrkcsh induces astrocytes to produce inflammatory factors and chemokines, the precise function and mechanism of circPrkcsh in microglia after SCI remains unknown. In this study, we constructed a mouse model of SCI by applying a SCI impactor. Quantitative Real-time PCR and Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed that circPrkcsh was upregulated in the microglia of SCI mice when compared to sham-operated mice. Gain- or loss-of-function experiments and in vivo assays further indicated that circPrkcsh promotes microglia M1 polarization both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis, dual-luciferase assays, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays, confirmed that circPrkcsh serves as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) to promote the expression of MEKK1 mRNA by sponging miR-488. Double knockout rescue experiments further showed that circPrkcsh regulates the MEKK1/JNK/p38 MAPK pathway via miR-488. Our research provides a better understanding of the mechanism of circPrkcsh in SCI and demonstrates that the circPrkcsh/miR-488/Mekk1 axis is a promising regulatory method for the treatment of SCI.

14.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34827154

RESUMO

The family Pentatomidae (stink bugs) is one of the largest groups in Heteroptera, containing many important pests and natural enemies. They exhibit highly diversified feeding habits and related structural modifications, but the key morphological characteristics associated with feeding habit radiation remain unclear. In the current study, we address this question by analyzing morphological variations of feeding related organs. We compare the ultrastructures of antennae and mouthparts across the chosen 17 species in Pentatomidae, representing both plant feeders and predators from four subfamilies. A strong association between ultrastructural adaptation and feeding habit transition has been revealed. The long, sharp, and hook-like mandibular teeth and maxillary barbs are exclusively present in predatory Pentatomidae, suggesting their tight association with the shift of feeding habit from phytophagy to predation. Significant differences between phytophagous and predatory species are also found in antennal and labial sensilla types and arrangements, implying their important function in food selection. Our data identify a series of key morphological structures associated with feeding habit variations among stink bugs, which will facilitate future studies on adaptive evolution of feeding habits, utilization, and population control of economic species in Pentatomidae as well as in other heteropteran lineages.

15.
Front Genet ; 12: 736766, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819945

RESUMO

Background: Gastric carcinoma (GC) is a molecularly and phenotypically highly heterogeneous disease, making the prognostic prediction challenging. On the other hand, Inflammation as part of the active cross-talk between the tumor and the host in the tumor or its microenvironment could affect prognosis. Method: We established a prognostic multi lncRNAs signature that could better predict the prognosis of GC patients based on inflammation-related differentially expressed lncRNAs in GC. Results: We identified 10 differently expressed lncRNAs related to inflammation associated with GC prognosis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated that high-risk inflammation-related lncRNAs signature was related to poor prognosis of GC. Moreover, the inflammation-related lncRNAs signature had an AUC of 0.788, proving their utility in predicting GC prognosis. Indeed, our risk signature is more precise in predicting the prognosis of GC patients than traditional clinicopathological manifestations. Immune and tumor-related pathways for individuals in the low and high-risk groups were further revealed by GSEA. Moreover, TCGA based analysis revealed significant differences in HLA, MHC class-I, cytolytic activity, parainflammation, co-stimulation of APC, type II INF response, and type I INF response between the two risk groups. Immune checkpoints revealed CD86, TNFSF18, CD200, and LAIR1 were differently expressed between lowand high-risk groups. Conclusion: A novel inflammation-related lncRNAs (AC015660.1, LINC01094, AL512506.1, AC124067.2, AC016737.1, AL136115.1, AP000695.1, AC104695.3, LINC00449, AC090772.1) signature may provide insight into the new therapies and prognosis prediction for GC patients.

16.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 913: 174628, 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34774851

RESUMO

Combination of monoammonium glycyrrhizinate and cysteine hydrochloride (MG-CH) has been used in the treatment of chronic liver disease for decades, however, its mechanism is still unclear. Our previous studies showed that MG-CH confers the optimal therapeutic effect at the ratio of 2:1 to against acute liver damage. In this study, it was used to investigate the anti-fibrotic effect induced by CCl4. The results showed that injection of MG-CH produced anti-fibrotic effect ranged from 30 mg/kg to 60 mg/kg, evidenced by decreased the collagens deposition and inhibited the production of hydroxyproline. Mechanism study found that Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway was activated by MG-CH, whereas loss of hepatocytic Nrf2 abolished its anti-fibrotic effect significantly. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that MG-CH is a non-canonical NRF2 inducer, which promoted the autophagy activity and release the Nrf2 from keap 1 by promoting the phosphorylation of p62 at Ser351. Knockdown of p62 abolished the enhancement of nuclear accumulation of Nrf2 by MG-CH. All of these results suggested that up-regulation of Nrf2/P62/Keap1 involves in the anti-fibrotic effect of MG-CH, which provide a rational explanation for the usage of MG-CH in the treatment of fibrosis.

17.
J Forensic Sci ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724600

RESUMO

In forensic cases suspected to involve Papaver somniferum, species identification is key to the investigation. To accurately detect and identify P. somniferum as well as common adulterants of the same genus, 19 internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences of P. somniferum (256 bp), Papaver canescens (254 bp), Papaver nudicaule (254 bp), Papaver pavoninum (250 bp), Papaver radicatum (254 bp), and Papaver rhoeas (256 bp) were obtained. Based on the ITS2 sequence, similarity analysis via BLAST, the nearest Kimura-2-parameter (K2P) genetic distances were calculated, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA X software for the identification of six species of Papaver. Finally, differences in the ITS2 secondary structure between species were analyzed. The best matches of the P. somniferum ITS2 sequence were of other P. somniferum from different sources. The nearest K2P genetic distances between P. somniferum and its counterparts from other sources were zero, which was the smallest pairwise genetic distance among distances from the other five Papaver species. Various sources of P. somniferum clustered into an independent branch in the phylogenetic tree. The secondary structures of P. somniferum and P. rhoeas were significantly different from those of the other four species of Papaver. In summary, P. somniferum can be effectively distinguished from five closely related plants of the same genus by using ITS2 as a DNA barcode.

18.
Front Sociol ; 6: 734738, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778444

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic, and many Chinese college students both in China and abroad were house-quarantined. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and symptoms of delayed-onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and coping strategies among Chinese overseas and domestic college students during this pandemic. A questionnaire was opportunistically distributed to Chinese college students studying both domestically and abroad six months after the COVID-19 outbreak. The questionnaire consisted of IES-R, SCSQ, and SSRS. The average score of delayed-onset PTSD in our population was 21.411 (full mark, 88 points), which reflected a total high level of delayed-onset PTSD symptoms. Statistical differences were shown between students who have been back to universities during the pandemic or not in the hyperarousal dimension (p = 0.016). Three coping strategies were recognized to influence the respondent's delayed-onset PTSD symptoms, and there was a significant correlation between social support and the coping strategies students chose. A moderate to high level of delayed-onset PTSD was observed among both Chinese overseas and domestic college students 6 months after the COVID-19 outbreak. The useful coping strategies and powerful social supports are significantly important to help them stay mentally healthy and alleviate delayed-onset PTSD during the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
ACS Omega ; 6(46): 31009-31016, 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841143

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In recent years, numerous approaches have been used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of TNF-α. However, these methods have several drawbacks, such as a tedious and time-consuming process, high pH and temperature sensitivity, and increased chances of denaturation in vitro. Quenchbody (Q-body) is a fluorescence immunoprobe that functions based on the principle of photoinduced electron transfer and has been successful in detecting various substances. In this study, we constructed two Q-bodies based on a therapeutic antibody, adalimumab, to rapidly detect human TNF-α. Both sensors could detect TNF-α within 5 min. The results showed that the limit of detection (LOD) of TNF-α was as low as 0.123 ng/mL with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 25.0 ng/mL using the TAMRA-labeled Q-body, whereas the ATTO520-labeled Q-body had a LOD of 0.419 ng/mL with an EC50 of 65.6 ng/mL, suggesting that the Q-bodies could rapidly detect TNF-α with reasonable sensitivity over a wide detection range. These biosensors will be useful tools for the detection and monitoring of inflammatory biomarkers.

20.
Foods ; 10(11)2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34828853

RESUMO

In this study, high-throughput sequencing and culture-dependent and HPLC methods were used to investigate the contribution and regulation of biogenic amines (BAs) by dominant microorganisms during fish sauce fermentation. The results showed that the microbial composition constantly changed with the fermentation of fish sauce. Tetragenococcus (40.65%), Lentibacillus (9.23%), Vagococcus (2.20%), Psychrobacter (1.80%), Pseudomonas (0.98%), Halomonas (0.94%) and Staphylococcus (0.16%) were the dominant microflora in fish sauce. The content of BAs gradually increased as the fermentation progressed. After 12 months of fermentation, the histamine content (55.59 mg/kg) exceeded the toxic dose recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Correlation analysis showed that dominant microorganisms have a great contribution to the accumulation of BAs. By analyzing the BA production capacity of dominant isolates, the accumulation of BAs in fish sauce might be promoted by Tetragenococcus and Halomonas. Moreover, four strains with high BA reduction ability were screened out of 44 low BA-producing dominant strains, and their influence on BA accumulation in fermented foods was determined. Results demonstrated that Staphylococcus nepalensis 5-5 and Staphylococcus xylosus JCM 2418 might be the potential starters for BA control. The present study provided a new idea for the control of BAs in fermented foods.

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