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1.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(2): 194-208, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774489

RESUMO

There are reports that depression induced by frontal lobe injury (FLI) has a devastating effect on human mental health. We previously reported that fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1 (FEZ1) was essential for astrocytic protection of dopamine neurons. Studies of glutamate-glutamine cycle in mental illness have been reported, whereas not from the perspective of astrocytes. This study was designed to investigate the roles of astrocytic FEZ1 and glutamate-glutamine cycle after FLI. A model of FLI was established by inserting a blade into the right frontal lobe of rats. Behavioral tests were used to observe the behavioral changes of FLI rats. Neuropathologic examinations, including immunohistochemistry, were conducted. Behavioral tests showed that FLI decreased exploratory activity. Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of astroglial proteins overall decreased in the initial injury stage, as well as FEZ1. Immunohistochemistry showed a shift of FEZ1 localization from neurons in sham-lesioned rats to astrocytes in FLI rats, and showed the expression profile of glutamate transporter 1 and glutamine synthetase (GS) was consistent with Western blot observation. Our results indicate that astrocytic FEZ1 and glutamate-glutamine cycle dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of depression after FLI.

2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(21): 4612-4620, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872655

RESUMO

Standard decoction is the core of the pharmacodynamics for water-soluble substance of Chinese materia medica. Its research is of great significance to the research and development of some single ingredients and the classical prescriptions,and it is the only way to transform traditional medication experience into industrial products. In this article,standard decoction research strategies were used for the comparison analysis of Ophiopogonis Radix from Zhejiang province(ZMD),Ophiopogonis Radix from Sichuan province(CMD),and Liriopes Radix(SMD). Regularities were present among different grades of CMD; potential quality markers and pH differences associated with SO2 residues were also found. Finally,the extract powder of Ophiopogonis Radix prepared by mass production process was analyzed and validated,and the results showed that the standard system could be used for the quality control of intermediates and final products. In conclusion,this study can provide reference for the clinical application of Ophiopogonis Radix medicines and provide testing method for higher quality with higher price.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , Raízes de Plantas , Controle de Qualidade
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(22)2019 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752332

RESUMO

Macrosolen plants are parasitic shrubs, several of which are important medicinal plants, that are used as folk medicine in some provinces of China. However, reports on Macrosolen are limited. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome sequences of Macrosolen cochinchinensis, Macrosolen tricolor and Macrosolen bibracteolatus are reported. The chloroplast genomes were sequenced by Illumina HiSeq X. The length of the chloroplast genomes ranged from 129,570 bp (M. cochinchinensis) to 126,621 bp (M. tricolor), with a total of 113 genes, including 35 tRNA, eight rRNA, 68 protein-coding genes, and two pseudogenes (ycf1 and rpl2). The simple sequence repeats are mainly comprised of A/T mononucleotide repeats. Comparative genome analyses of the three species detected the most divergent regions in the non-coding spacers. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood strongly supported the idea that Loranthaceae and Viscaceae are monophyletic clades. The data obtained in this study are beneficial for further investigations of Macrosolen in respect to evolution and molecular identification.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17541, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous clinical trials indicated that duloxetine may be effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. This meta-analysis is conducted to evaluate short term analgesic effect and safety of duloxetine in the treatment of OA. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched in February 2019, including PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science. All eligible studies should be randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing duloxetine treatment group to placebo about OA pain relief and safety outcomes. RESULTS: Five RCTs with 2059 patients were involved in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Compared to placebo, duloxetine treatment showed significant better result, with higher reduction pain intensity (mean difference [MD] = -0.77, P < .00001), higher rates of both 30% and 50% reduction in pain severity (risk ratio [RR] = 1.42, P < .00001; RR = 1.62, P < .00001), lower mean Patient Global Improvement-Inventory (PGI-I) score (MD = -0.48, P < .00001). The results of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) score change from baseline to endpoint also favored duloxetine treatment group in all four categories, including total (MD = -5.43, P < .00001), pain (MD = -1.63, P = .001), physical function (MD = -4.22, P < .00001), and stiffness score (MD = -0.58, P < .00001). There were higher rates of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) (RR = 1.32, P < .00001) and discontinuation (RR = 1.88, P < .00001) in duloxetine group. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of severe adverse events (SAEs) between these 2 groups (RR = 0.84, P = .68). CONCLUSION: Duloxetine was an effective and safe choice to improve pain and functional outcome in OA patients. However, further studies are still needed to find out the optimal dosage for OA and examine its long-term efficacy and safety. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019128862.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Duloxetina/uso terapêutico , Osteoartrite/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Duloxetina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Ontário , Medição da Dor , Gravidade do Paciente , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(7): 481-489, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514979

RESUMO

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is a well-known Asian traditional herbal medicine with a large market demand. The plant is native to eastern North America, and its main producing areas worldwide are decreasing due to continuous cropping obstacles and environmental changes. Therefore, the identification of maximum similarities of new ecological distribution of P. quinquefolius, and prediction of its response to climate change in the future are necessary for plant introduction and cultivation. In this study, the areas with potential ecological suitability for P. quinquefolius were predicted using the geographic information system for global medicinal plants (GMPGIS) based on 476 occurrence points and 19 bioclimatic variables. The results indicate that the new ecologically suitable areas for P. quinquefolius are East Asia and the mid-eastern Europe, which are mainly distributed in China, Russia, Japan, Ukraine, Belarus, North Korean, South Korea, andRomania. Under global climate change scenarios, the suitable planting areas for P. quinquefolius would be increased by 9.16%-30.97%, and expandingnorth and west over the current ecologically suitable areas by 2070. The potential increased areas that are ecologically suitable include northern Canada, Eastern Europe, and the Lesser Khingan Mountains of China, and reduced regions are mainly in central China, the southern U.S., and southern Europe. Jackknife tests indicate that the precipitation of the warmest quarter was the important climatic factor controlling the distribution of P. quinquefolius. Our findings can be used as auseful guide for P. quinquefolius introduction and cultivation in ecologically suitable areas.

6.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(8): 585-590, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472895

RESUMO

The aim is to select a universal DNA barcode for identifying all poisonous medicinal plants in Chinese pharmacopoeia and their poisonous related species or adulterants. We chose 4 commonly used regions as candidate DNA barcodes (ITS2, psbA-trnH, matK and rbcL) and compared their identification efficiency in 106 species from 27 families and 65 genera totally. Data analysis was performed including the information of sequence alignment, inter/intra-specific genetic distance and data distribution, identification efficiency and the situation of Neighbor-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic trees. We found ITS2 sequence region had high variation, stable genetic distance and identification efficiency relatively. The topological structure of NJ phylogenetic tree showed monophyletic. Our findings show that ITS2 can be applied as a universal barcode for identifying poisonous medicinal plants in Chinese pharmacopoeia and their poisonous related species or adulterants.

7.
PeerJ ; 7: e7102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223535

RESUMO

Background: There have been few studies on the partial defoliation response of grass. It has been unclear how partial defoliation may affect roots at the levels of nutrient accumulation and transcriptional regulation. Hereby we report a comprehensive investigation on molecular impacts of partial defoliation by using a model grass species, Brachypodium distachyon. Results: Our Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analyses of B. distachyon revealed shoot- and root-specific accumulation patterns of a group of macronutrients including potassium (K), Phosphorus (P), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), and micronutrients including Sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and Manganese (Mn). Meanwhile, our genome-wide profiling of gene expression patterns depicts transcriptional impacts on B. distachyon roots by cutting the aerial portion. The RNAseq analyses identified a total of 1,268 differentially expressed genes in B. distachyon with partial defoliation treatment. Our comprehensive analyses by means of multiple approaches, including Gene Ontology, InterPro and Pfam protein classification, KEGG pathways, and Plant TFDB, jointly highlight the involvement of hormone-mediated wounding response, primary and secondary metabolites, and ion homeostasis, in B. distachyon after the partial defoliation treatment. In addition, evidence is provided that roots respond to partial defoliation by modifying nutrient uptake and rhizosphere acidification rate, indicating that an alteration of the root/soil interaction occurs in response to this practice. Conclusions: This study reveals how partial defoliation alters ion accumulation levels in shoots and roots, as well as partial defoliation-induced transcriptional reprogramming on a whole-genome scale, thereby providing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the recovery process of grass after partial defoliation.

8.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(5)2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067783

RESUMO

DNA barcoding has been used for decades, although it has mostly been applied to somesingle-species. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which is mainly used in the form ofcombination-one type of the multi-species, identification is crucial for clinical usage.Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) has been used to address this authentication issue for the pastfew years, but conventional NGS technology is hampered in application due to its short sequencingreads and systematic errors. Here, a novel method, Full-length multi-barcoding (FLMB) vialong-read sequencing, is employed for the identification of biological compositions in herbalcompound formulas in adequate and well controlled studies. By directly sequencing the full-lengthamplicons of ITS2 and psbA-trnH through single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology, thebiological composition of a classical prescription Sheng-Mai-San (SMS) was analyzed. At the sametime, clone-dependent Sanger sequencing was carried out as a parallel control. Further, anotherformula-Sanwei-Jili-San (SJS)-was analyzed with genes of ITS2 and CO1. All the ingredients inthe samples of SMS and SJS were successfully authenticated at the species level, and 11 exogenousspecies were also checked, some of which were considered as common contaminations in theseproducts. Methodology analysis demonstrated that this method was sensitive, accurate andreliable. FLMB, a superior but feasible approach for the identification of biological complexmixture, was established and elucidated, which shows perfect interpretation for DNA barcodingthat could lead its application in multi-species mixtures.


Assuntos
DNA de Plantas/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteínas de Cloroplastos/genética , DNA Intergênico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Combinação de Medicamentos
9.
Molecules ; 24(8)2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018606

RESUMO

Physalis angulata L. is a medicinal plant of the Solanaceae family, which is used to produce a variety of steroids. The present study reports on the cytotoxic withanolides of this plant. The species of Physalis angulata L. was identified by DNA barcoding techniques. Two new withanolides (1-2), together with six known analogues (3-8), were isolated from the whole plant of Physalis angulata L. The structures of these new compounds were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data analyses and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. The withanolides exhibited strong cytotoxic activities against A549, Hela and p388 cell lines. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 induced typical apoptotic cell death in A549 cell line according to the evaluation of the apoptosis-inducing activity by flow cytometric analysis.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Physalis/química , Vitanolídeos/farmacologia , Células A549 , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Células HeLa , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos/patologia , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas Medicinais , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Vitanolídeos/química , Vitanolídeos/isolamento & purificação
10.
Chin Med ; 14: 4, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828359

RESUMO

Background: The endangered rate of medicinal plant exceeds that of endangered plant species. However, blindly introducing medicinal plants in regions without comprehensively considering the involved environmental factors results in diseases and insect pests and the consequent overproof pesticide residue as well as reduces the quality of herbal medicine produced. Methods: Global Medicinal Plant Geographic Information System (GMPGIS) was developed to analyze environmental information of ecologically suitable regions, thus guiding the conservation and introduction of medicinal plants. This system is based on theories and methods from multiple disciplines, including computer science, geoinformatics, ecology, and traditional herbal medicine. Using a range-based method, the previously established ecologically suitable regions were evaluated. This new method effectively resolved the problem of outlier points, and its functions were implemented in Python. The system automatically calculates the Euclidean distance of climatic factors and intersection of soil factors, thus identifying regions with high ecological similarity and those are climatically and edaphically suitable for the cultivation of medicinal plants. Results: These results, validated using real-world regions, revealed that GMPGIS is highly accurate in screening ecologically suitable regions for the cultivation of medicinal plants worldwide. Conclusions: Overall, because of these features, the GMPGIS is considered as a suitable distribution analysis system for global medicinal plant cultivation.

11.
J Cell Mol Med ; 23(4): 2920-2932, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30793479

RESUMO

Mounting evidence has illustrated the vital roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs in gastric cancer (GC). Nevertheless, the majority of their roles and mechanisms in GC are still largely unknown. In this study, we investigate the roles of lncRNA SLC25A5-AS1 on tumourigenesis and explore its potential mechanisms in GC. The results showed that the expressions of SLC25A5-AS1 in GC were significantly lower than that of adjacent normal tissues, which were significantly associated with tumour size, TNM stage and lymph node metastasis. Moreover, SLC25A5-AS1 could inhibit GC cell proliferation, induce G1/G1 cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in vitro, as well as GC growth in vivo. Dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed the direct interaction between SLC25A5-AS1 and miR-19a-3p, rescue experiment showed that co-transfection miR-19a-3p mimics and pcDNA-SLC25A5-AS1 could partially restore the ability of GC cell proliferation and the inhibition of cell apoptosis. The mechanism analyses further found that SLC25A5-AS1 might act as a competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNA), which was involved in the derepression of PTEN expression, a target gene of miR-19a-3p, and regulate malignant phenotype via PI3K/AKT signalling pathway in GC. Taken together, this study indicated that SLC25A5-AS1 was down-regulated in GC and functioned as a suppressor in the progression of GC. Moreover, it could act as a ceRNA to regulate cellular behaviours via miR-19a-3p/PTEN/PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Thus, SLC25A5-AS1 might be served as a potential target for cancer therapeutics in GC.

12.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 75(3): 381-392, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30456415

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oxcarbazepine (OXC) is an antiepileptic drug metabolised to active 10-monohydroxy derivative (MHD) following oral administration. There are no MHD population pharmacokinetic (PPK) models that describe the influence of genetic factors on MHD pharmacokinetics (PK). We developed a PPK model of MHD to investigate gene polymorphism of enzymes associated with MHD PK in Chinese paediatric epilepsy patients and evaluated its utility for dose individualisation. METHODS: Data were prospectively collected from 141 paediatric epilepsy patients (aged ≤ 14 years) who received OXC therapy at the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University. The trough concentrations at steady state were determined by enzyme-multiplied immunoassay. Patients were genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (UGT2B7 802T>C, UGT1A9 I399C>T, ABCB1 3435C>T, and ABCB2 1249G>A). Patient gender, age, body weight (BW), hepatorenal function, and co-administrations were recorded. The PPK model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling software. The clinical performance of the final model was evaluated by including additional paediatric patients (n = 20) in the validation group. RESULTS: Oral clearance of MHD was significantly influenced by BW. The MHD PK was unrelated to the other covariates, such as the four single nucleotide polymorphisms and co-administration with new-generation antiepileptic drugs. The final BW-dependent exponent model showed the best fit with our data and predicted the trough concentrations in the validation group more accurately than the basic model. A new dosing strategy combining the dosage guideline and Bayesian method is proposed to individualise OXC regimens. CONCLUSION: A PPK model was established to estimate individual MHD clearance in paediatric patients taking OXC to develop individualised OXC dosing regimens for Chinese paediatric epilepsy patients.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/farmacocinética , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Oxcarbazepina/farmacocinética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 2 da Subfamília B de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Carbamazepina/análogos & derivados , Carbamazepina/sangue , Criança , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Oxcarbazepina/sangue , Oxcarbazepina/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Chin Med ; 13: 58, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479655

RESUMO

Background: Diosgenin, mainly extracted from wild diosgenin-contained Dioscorea species, is a well-known starting material of steroidal and contraceptive drugs. However, due to large market demand and increasingly ecological damage, wild Dioscorea species resources available have been gradually declining. Therefore, identification of new potential ecological distribution of diosgenin-contained Dioscorea species is necessary for diosgenin production. Methods: In this study, a large occurrence dataset (1808 data points) of diosgenin-contained Dioscorea species was obtained from Eastern Asia, Southern North America and Southern Africa. Along with the data for six critical environmental parameters and one soil factor, Geographic Information System for Global Medicinal Plant was applied to predict the potential suitable distribution of Dioscorea species. Results: The results showed that the potential distribution of these Dioscorea species covered a wide field, and that new ecological suitability areas were mainly distributed in the central region of South America, the southern part of the European and coastal region of Oceania. Jackknife test indicated that annual precipitation and annual mean radiation were the important climatic factors controlling the distribution of Dioscorea species. Conclusions: The suitable areas and critical climatic factors will serve as a useful guide for diosgenin-contained Dioscorea species conservation and cultivation in ecological suitable areas.

14.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(10): 993, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250169

RESUMO

Early evidence indicates that the long non-coding RNA CCAL plays a critical role in cancer progression and metastasis. However, the overall biological role and clinical significance of CCAL in gastric tumourigenesis and progression remain largely unknown. We observed that CCAL was upregulated in gastric cancer tissues and was associated with the tumour-node-metastasis stage. Functional experiments showed that CCAL promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Luciferase reporter assay indicated that CCAL directly bind to miR-149. Moreover, knockdown of CCAL significantly reduced the expression of FOXM1, a direct target of miR-149. We also showed that FOXM1 suppression by miR-149 could be partially rescued by CCAL overexpression. In addition, we identified a negative correlation between the mRNA expression of CCAL and miR-149 in gastric cancer tissues. Furthermore, we observed a negative correlation between the expression of miR-149 and FOXM1 and a positive correlation between CCAL and FOXM1 levels. These results demonstrated that the CCAL/miR-149/FOXM1 axis functions as a key regulator in gastric cancer metastasis and CCAL potentially represents a biomarker for diagnosis and potential target for therapy in the future.


Assuntos
Proteína Forkhead Box M1/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Apoptose , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Transfecção
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(7): 1427-1433, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728032

RESUMO

Planting pollution-free farmland is the main mode of industrialization of ginseng cultivation, fine management of nitrogen fertilizer ginseng pollution-free farmland cultivation technology system is one of the key factors. In order to investigate the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on the accumulation of ginseng biomass and saponins synthesis in vegetative growth stage, two-years-old ginsengs were used as test materials in this study. The test materials were cultivated by Hoagland medium with different nitrogen concentration (0,10,20,40 mg·L⁻¹) for 40 days. During the cultivation, photosynthetic rate was measured four times. After 40 days cultivation, chlorophyll content, stem diameter and the spatiotemporal expression of saponin synthesis related genes PgHMGR and PgSQE were tested. The results showed that there were significant differences in the photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content among different nitrogen concentrations. The relative expression level of PgHMGR gene and PgSQE gene in root, stem and leaves of ginseng were different. Ginseng seedlings cultivated by 20 mg·L⁻¹ nitrogen possess the highest photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content, while PgHMGR and PgSE showed the highest gene expression level. The optimal nitrogen concentration for the growth of 2-years-old ginseng might be 20 mg·L⁻¹ with 57.14 g ammonium nitrate each plant or pure 20.00 mg nitrogen each plant. It is concluded that this concentration is the most suitable concentration for the ginsenoside synthesis. Pollution-free ginseng with fine nitrogen fertilizer cultivation is conducive to the production of high quality and efficient ginseng medicinal materials. It lays a theoretical foundation for the rational fertilization and environment-friendly sustainable ecological ginseng planting industry.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Ginsenosídeos/análise , Nitrogênio , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fotossíntese
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(8): 1517-1528, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751696

RESUMO

The issues of disordering production and non-standard pesticide application are common in the production of Chinese herbal medicines. Aimed to above problems, research groups built the pollution-free and precision cultivation system of medicinal plants. This system mainly included the precise site selection of medicinal plants based on the GIS technology, modern omics-assisted breeding, metagenomics guiding the soil complex improvement, and the precise field management based on rational application of fertilizer and comprehensive control of disease. At present, the production and distribution of medicinal plants were performed in the many poor counties of the whole nation. The breeding platform of resistant varieties was built, and certificates of new and well-bred varieties were received, in the base of genetic backgrounds of the original species of medicinal plants. The disease incidences were declined after application of these resistant varieties. Additionally, chemical pesticide consumption of medicinal plants (such as Panax ginseng, P. notoginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza, P. quinquefolium, Schisandra chinensis, Platycodon grandiflorum and P. grandiflorus etc.) reduced by 20%-80% based on the genetic testing technologies of plant diseases and insect pests and safety evaluation of pollution-free pesticides. The application of pollution-free and precision cultivation system of Chinese herbal medicines achieve significantly social, economic and ecological benefits.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Panax , Plantas Medicinais , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Solo
17.
J Pharmacol Sci ; 136(2): 57-65, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29433959

RESUMO

To investigate the inhibitory effect of Glycyrrhiza uralensis (G. uralensis) and its monomeric compounds on Nav1.4 voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and analyze the relationship between the content of its marker compounds and the inhibitory rate. Based on this study, we found that 4 mg/ml ethanol extract of G. uralensis at 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% (v/v) exhibited 77.00 ± 0.03%, 34.75 ± 0.09%, 100.00 ± 0.01% and 2.00 ± 0.01% inhibitory rates on INav1.4 respectively, and 8 mg/ml ethanol extract of G. uralensis at 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% (v/v) exhibited 99.00 ± 0.01%, 97.10 ± 0.02%, 100.00 ± 0.01% and 17.00 ± 0.04% inhibitory rates on INav1.4 respectively. Isoliquiritigenin, echinatin, liquiritin and glycyrrhizic acid exhibited higher inhibitory rates of 39.98 ± 4.55%, 33.20 ± 1.61%, 22.62 ± 0.30% and 20.54 ± 4.82% respectively. However, liquiritigenin, formononetin, neoisoliquiritin and glycyrrhetinic acid exhibited lower inhibitory rates of less than 20%. Further, liquiritin apioside, isoliquiritin and neoliquiritin exhibited almost no effect on INav1.4. These findings showed that glycyrrhizic acid reached a maximum concentration of 49.15 µg/ml, while echinatin had the lowest concentration. The ethanol extract of G. uralensis has significant inhibitory effects on Nav1.4 VGSCs. This may be an important mechanism in the treatment of gastrocnemius spasm and could guide further research regarding material basis and mechanism of the treatment of gastrocnemius spasm with peony and licorice decoction.


Assuntos
Etanol , Glycyrrhiza uralensis/química , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.4/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Bloqueadores do Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem , Animais , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Músculo Esquelético , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Espasmo/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Chin Med ; 13: 8, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449876

RESUMO

Background: Rhizoma Paridis (Chonglou) is a commonly used and precious traditional Chinese medicine. Paris polyphylla Smith var. yunnanensis (Franch.) Hand. -Mazz. and Paris polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch.) Hara are the two main sources of Chonglou under the monograph of Rhizoma Paridis in Chinese Pharmacopoeia. In the local marketplace, however, this medicine is prone to be accidentally contaminated, deliberately substituted or admixed with other species that are similar to Rhizoma Paridis in shape and color. Consequently, these adulterations might compromise quality control and result in considerable health concerns for consumers. This study aims to develop a rapid and sensitive method for accurate identification of Rhizoma Paridis and its common adulterants. Methods: DNA barcoding coupled with high resolution melting analysis was applied in this research to distinguish Rhizoma Paridis from its adulteration. The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) barcode was selected for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profile of the selected species. DNA of the tested herbal medicines was isolated and their melting profiles were generated and compared with the standard melting profile of P. polyphylla var. chinensis. Results: The results indicate that the ITS2 molecular regions coupled with HRM analysis can effectively differentiate nine herbal species, including two authentic origins of Chonglou and their seven common adulterants. Ten herbal medicines labeled "Chonglou" obtained from a local market were collected and identified with our methods, and their sequence information was analyzed to validate the accuracy of HRM analysis. Conclusions: DNA barcoding coupled with HRM analysis is a accurate, reliable, rapid, cost-effective and robust tool, which could contribute to the quality control of Rhizoma Paridis in the supply chain of the natural health product industry (NHP).

19.
Chin Med ; 13: 10, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29449878

RESUMO

Background: Amomum compactum is one of the basic species of the traditional herbal medicine amomi fructus rotundus, with great pharmacology effect. The system position of A. compactum is not clear yet, and the introduction of this plant has been hindered by many plant diseases. However, the correlational molecular studies are relatively scarce. Methods: The total chloroplast (cp) DNA was extracted according to previous studies, and then sequenced by 454 GS FLX Titanium platform. Sequence assembly was complished by Newbler. Genome annotation was preformed by CPGAVAS and tRNA-SCAN. Then, general characteristics of the A. compactum cp genome and genome comparsion with three Zingiberaceae species was analyzed by corresponding softwares. Additionally, phylogenetical trees were reconstructed, based on the shared protein-coding gene sequences among 15 plant taxa by maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods. Results: The A. compactum cp genome with a classic quadripartite structure, consisting of a pair of reverse complement repeat regions (IRa/IRb) of 29,824 bp, a large single copy (LSC, 88,535 bp) region as well as a small single copy (SSC, 15,370 bp) region, is 163,553 bp in total size. The total GC content of this cp genome is 36.0%. The A. compactum cp genome owns 135 functional genes, that 113 genes are unique, containing eighty protein-coding genes, twenty-nine tRNA (transfer RNA) genes and four rRNA (ribosomal RNA) genes. Codon usage of the A. compactum cp genome is biased toward codons ending with A/T. Total 58 SSR loci and 24 large repeats are detected in the A. compactum cp genome. Relative to three other Zingiberaceae cp genomes, the A. compactum cp genome exhibits an obvious expansion in the IR regions. In A. compactum cp genome, the ycf1 pseudogene is 2969 bp away from the IRa/SSC border, whereas in other Zingiberaceae species, it is only 4-5 bp away from the IRa/SSC border. Comparative cp genome sequences analysis of A. compactum with other Zingiberaceae reveals that the gene order and gene content differ slightly among Zingiberaceae species. The phylogenetic analysis based on 67 protein-coding gene sequences supports the phylogenetic position of A. compactum. Conclusions: The study has identified unique features of the A. compactum cp genome which would be helpful for us to understand the cp genome evolution and offer useful information for phylogenetics and further studies of this traditional medicinal plant.

20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(17): 3267-3274, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192434

RESUMO

As the limit of the usage of available forest land, cultivated ginseng in the farmland would become the mainly Panax ginseng planting mode, meanwhile the non-polluted production technology would be the mainly development direction in the future. In this study, the non-polluted cultivation technology system of P. ginseng was established based on the research results of field investigation in the cultivated regions. The system includes suitable planting regions selecting, planting method, field management, pest control, harvesting & processing, and quality control. Aimed at the serious issues in the cultivation, research strategies have been provided to guarantee the sustainable development of the ginseng industry. The patterns of soil restoration after P. ginseng cultivation, establishment the platform of comprehensive disease & pest control, breeding new varieties for high stress tolerance and resistance, and a traceability system for P. ginseng cultivation. In all, these strategies was considered to largely developing of the ginseng industry in the green and sustainable way.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Panax/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fazendas , Florestas , Solo
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