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1.
Cell Mol Biol Lett ; 28(1): 36, 2023 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37131152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinomas are one of the most common cancers worldwide with aggressive behavior and poor prognosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with cancer and cause various types of regulated cell death (RCD). Inducing the RCD pathway by modulating ROS levels is imperative to conquer cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the synergistic anticancer effects of melatonin and erastin on ROS modulation and subsequent RCD induction. METHODS: Human tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (SCC-15 cells) were treated with melatonin, erastin, or their combination. Cell viability, ROS levels, autophagy, apoptosis, and ferroptosis levels were tested according to the results of the PCR array, which were verified with/without the induction and inhibition of ROS by H2O2 and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, respectively. In addition, a mouse-based subcutaneous oral cancer xenograft model was constructed to identify the effects of melatonin, erastin, and their combination on the autophagy, apoptosis, and ferroptosis levels in isolated tumor tissues. RESULTS: ROS levels were increased by the administration of melatonin at high concentrations (mM), and the combination of melatonin with erastin enhanced the levels of malonic dialdehyde, ROS, and lipid ROS, and reduced the levels of glutamate and glutathione. SQSTM1/p62, LC3A/B, cleaved caspase-3, and PARP1 protein levels in SCC-15 cells were also increased by melatonin plus erastin treatment, which further increased as ROS accumulated, and decreased as ROS levels were suppressed. Combined treatment of melatonin and erastin markedly reduced the tumor size in vivo, demonstrated no obvious systemic side effects, and significantly enhanced the apoptosis and ferroptosis levels in the tumor tissues, in parallel with decreased autophagy levels. CONCLUSIONS: Melatonin combined with erastin exhibits synergistic anticancer effects without adverse reactions. Herein, this combination might become a promising alternative strategy for oral cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Ferroptose , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Melatonina , Neoplasias Bucais , Neoplasias da Língua , Humanos , Camundongos , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço , Melatonina/farmacologia , Melatonina/uso terapêutico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Neoplasias Bucais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Língua/patologia , Apoptose , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Autofagia
2.
Acta Pharm Sin B ; 13(4): 1588-1599, 2023 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37139422

RESUMO

Liver is the central hub regulating energy metabolism during feeding-fasting transition. Evidence suggests that fasting and refeeding induce dynamic changes in liver size, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a key regulator of organ size. This study aims to explore the role of YAP in fasting- and refeeding-induced changes in liver size. Here, fasting significantly reduced liver size, which was recovered to the normal level after refeeding. Moreover, hepatocyte size was decreased and hepatocyte proliferation was inhibited after fasting. Conversely, refeeding promoted hepatocyte enlargement and proliferation compared to fasted state. Mechanistically, fasting or refeeding regulated the expression of YAP and its downstream targets, as well as the proliferation-related protein cyclin D1 (CCND1). Furthermore, fasting significantly reduced the liver size in AAV-control mice, which was mitigated in AAV Yap (5SA) mice. Yap overexpression also prevented the effect of fasting on hepatocyte size and proliferation. Besides, the recovery of liver size after refeeding was delayed in AAV Yap shRNA mice. Yap knockdown attenuated refeeding-induced hepatocyte enlargement and proliferation. In summary, this study demonstrated that YAP plays an important role in dynamic changes of liver size during fasting-refeeding transition, which provides new evidence for YAP in regulating liver size under energy stress.

3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2023 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37164944

RESUMO

Organophosphorus magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (OMMIPs) with high adsorption capacities (13.5-83.8 mg g-1) and good applicability were developed for efficient extraction and pre-concentration of multiple organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from foodstuffs. The OMMIP-based sample pretreatment coupled with low-temperature plasma ambient ionization mass spectrometry achieved rapid screening for 90 kinds of pesticides at default maximum residue limits of National Standard (GB 2763-2021) in nine types of agro-products. The OMMIP-based liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectroscopy assay demonstrated rapid magneto-actuated isolation, efficient removal of matrix interference, and reduced signal suppression, resulting in a short detection time (30 min), compliant recoveries (60.1-127.5%), low detection limits (0.0001-0.073 µg g-1), and simultaneous quantification of multi-pesticides. The yolk-shell-structured OMMIPs (Fe3O4@mTiO2@MIPs) demonstrated additional benefits of excellent ultraviolet light-driven catalytic degradation activity toward OPPs, making them eco-friendly for self-cleaning regeneration and reducing laboratory pesticide discharge. This work highlights the potential of OMMIPs for high-throughput and in situ pesticide monitoring in modern large-scale agricultural markets.

5.
Opt Express ; 31(9): 14937-14944, 2023 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37157346

RESUMO

In InGaN-based LEDs, an InGaN layer underlying active region has been widely used to improve the luminescence efficiency of the quantum wells (QWs). It has been reported recently that the role of InGaN underlayer (UL) is to block the diffusion of point defects or surface defects in n-GaN into QWs. The type and the source of the point defects need further investigations. In this paper, using temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) measurements, we observe emission peak related to nitrogen vacancies (VN) in n-GaN. In combination with secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurement and theoretical calculation, it is found that VN concentration in n-GaN is as high as about 3 × 1018 cm-3 in n-GaN grown with low growth V/III ratio and can be suppressed to about 1.5 × 1016 cm-3 by increasing growth V/III ratio. Luminescence efficiency of QWs grown on n-GaN under high V/III ratio is greatly improved. These results indicate high density of nitrogen vacancies are formed in n-GaN layer grown under low V/III ratio and diffuse into quantum wells during epitaxial growth and reduce the luminescence efficiency of the QWs.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; : 129141, 2023 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37169198

RESUMO

Effects of different nutrient ratios on the biochemical compositions of microalgae and the changes were rarely studied at the molecular level. In this study, the impacts of various nitrogen to phosphorus (N/P) ratios on growing of C. pyrenoidosa, as well as biochemical compositions and the metabolic regulation mechanism in mixed sewage, were investigated. The results suggested that 18 was optimal N/P ratio, while the dry weight (1.0 g/L), chlorophyll-a (Chla) (3.63 mg/L), and lipid production (0.28 g/L) were all the highest comparing with other groups. In contrast, the protein production (0.37 g/L) was the least. The nature of the regulatory mechanisms inthe metabolic pathways of these biochemical compositions was revealed by proteomic results, and there were 62 different expression proteins (DEPs) taken part in fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis metabolism (FA), amino acid biosynthesis metabolism (AA), photosynthesis (PHO), carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms (CFP), and central carbon metabolism (CCM).

7.
Adv Healthc Mater ; : e2300722, 2023 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37140383

RESUMO

Innovative methodologies combined with scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS), alleviating oxidative stress damage and promoting macrophage polarization to M2 phenotype may be ideal for remodeling implant-infected bone tissue. Herein, a functionalization strategy for doping Tannic acid-d-tyrosine nanoparticles with photothermal profile into the hydrogel coating composed of konjac gum and gelatin on the surface of titanium (Ti) substrate is accurately constructed. The prepared hydrogel coating exhibits excellent properties of eliminating biofilm and killing planktonic bacteria, which is based on increasing susceptibility to bacteria by the photothermal effect, biofilm-dissipation effect of D-tyrosine, as well as the bactericidal effect of tannic acid. In addition, the modified Ti substrate has effectively alleviated proinflammatory responses by scavenging intracellular excessive ROS and guiding macrophages polarization toward M2. More interesting, conditioned medium from macrophage indicates that paracrine is conducive to osteogenic proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Results from rat model of femur infection in vivo demonstrate that the modified Ti implant significantly eliminates the residual bacteria, relieves inflammation, mediates macrophage polarization, and accelerates osseointegration. Altogether, this study exhibits a new perspective for the development of advanced functional implant with great application potential in bone tissue regeneration and repair.

8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 2023 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37209275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticides are irreplaceable inputs for protecting crops from pests and improving crop yield and quality. Self-assembled nanotechnology is a promising strategy to develop novel nano-formulations for pesticides to improve the effective utilization and reduce risks to the ecological environment duo to the eco-friendly preparation process, high drug loading, and desirable physicochemical properties. Herein, to enhance the utilization efficiency of the myclobutanil (MYC) and develop a novel nano-formulation, carrier-free co-assembled nanoparticles (MT NPs) based on MYC and tannic acid (TA) were prepared by non-covalent molecular interactions using a green preparation process without any additives. RESULTS: The results showed that the prepared spherical nanoparticles had good stability in neutral and acidic aqueous solutions, low surface tension (40.53 mN m-1 ), high rainfastness, and good maximum retentions on plant leaves. The release of active ingredients from MT NPs could be regulated by the molar ratio of subassemblies in the co-assembly and the pH of the environment. The antifungal experiments demonstrated that the MT NPs had better activities against Alternaria alternata and Fusarium graminearum (EC50 =6.40 and 77.08 mg/L) than free MYC (EC50 =11.46 and 124.82 mg/L), TA (EC50 =251.19 and 503.81 mg/L), and MYC+TA mixture (EC50 =9.62 and 136.21 mg/L), which suggested that MYC and TA incorporated in the co-assembled nanoparticles had a synergistic antifungal activity. The results of genotoxicity assessment indicated that MT NPs could reduce the genotoxicity of MYC to plant cells. CONCLUSION: The co-assembled MT NPs with a synergistic antifungal activity would have outstanding potential for the management of plant diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Org Lett ; 25(18): 3260-3265, 2023 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37133281

RESUMO

Direct difunctionalization of simple alkenes has been treated as a powerful synthetic strategy for the construction of highly functionalized skeletons. In this study, direct oxidative coupling of sulfonium salts with alkenes was achieved under mild conditions by a blue-light-driven photoredox process using a copper complex as a photosensitizer. This protocol allows regioselective synthesis of aryl/alkyl ketones from simple sulfonium salts and aromatic alkenes via selective C-S bond cleavage of sulfonium salts and oxidative alkylation of aromatic alkenes using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as a mild oxidant.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e43046, 2023 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37171864

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a serious issue worldwide. With the popularity of the internet, online health information-seeking behavior (OHISB) has been widely adopted to improve health and prevent disease. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the short-term and long-term effects of different types of OHISBs on STDs, including syphilis, gonorrhea, and AIDS due to HIV, based on the Baidu index. METHODS: Multisource big data were collected, including case numbers of STDs, search queries based on the Baidu index, provincial total population, male-female ratio, the proportion of the population older than 65 years, gross regional domestic product (GRDP), and health institution number data in 2011-2018 in mainland China. We categorized OHISBs into 4 types: concept, symptoms, treatment, and prevention. Before and after controlling for socioeconomic and medical conditions, we applied multiple linear regression to analyze associations between the Baidu search index (BSI) and Baidu search rate (BSR) and STD case numbers. In addition, we compared the effects of 4 types of OHISBs and performed time lag cross-correlation analyses to investigate the long-term effect of OHISB. RESULTS: The distributions of both STD case numbers and OHISBs presented variability. For case number, syphilis, and gonorrhea, cases were mainly distributed in southeastern and northwestern areas of China, while HIV/AIDS cases were mostly distributed in southwestern areas. For the search query, the eastern region had the highest BSI and BSR, while the western region had the lowest ones. For 4 types of OHISB for 3 diseases, the BSI was positively related to the case number, while the BSR was significantly negatively related to the case number (P<.05). Different categories of OHISB have different effects on STD case numbers. Searches for prevention tended to have a larger impact, while searches for treatment tended to have a smaller impact. Besides, due to the time lag effect, those impacts would increase over time. CONCLUSIONS: Our study validated the significant associations between 4 types of OHISBs and STD case numbers, and the impact of OHISBs on STDs became stronger over time. It may provide insights into how to use internet big data to better achieve disease surveillance and prevention goals.


Assuntos
Gonorreia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis , Sífilis , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Infodemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia
11.
Transl Pediatr ; 12(4): 787-793, 2023 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37181030

RESUMO

Background: Acute rejection after transplantation occurs as a result of complex immune responses following the detection of the major histocompatibility complex of the donors in recipients. As one of the risk factors of chronic rejection, acute rejection can directly lead to death. Therefore, early prevention and monitoring of transplant patients is critical. Pediatric acute rejection after lung transplantation is relatively rare compared to adults, and it remains a considerable challenge since information on rare primary disease complicated by acute rejection after lung transplantation in children is extremely limited, with only a single case series reported in the literature. Case Description: Here, we present a case of a 10-year-old female diagnosed with severe interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary heart disease and severe malnutrition. The patient underwent double-lung transplantation under general anesthesia. Through monitoring and management of immunosuppressants, prevention and control of infection, dynamic body fluid management, personalized nutritional support, psychological care and rehabilitation exercises, the patient achieved recovery and was safely discharged after 21 days. Conclusions: Characteristics of acute rejection after lung transplantation in children include rapid onset and progression of respiratory distress, significant difficulty in nursing and frustration in communication. Anti-infection, anti-rejection, and symptomatic measures in the acute phase are critical in controlling disease progression and improving prognosis.

12.
Respir Res ; 24(1): 124, 2023 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37143066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) are at increased risk of developing Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) independent of cigarette smoking. We hypothesized that dysbiosis in PLWH is associated with epigenetic and transcriptomic disruptions in the airway epithelium. METHODS: Airway epithelial brushings were collected from 18 COPD + HIV + , 16 COPD - HIV + , 22 COPD + HIV - and 20 COPD - HIV - subjects. The microbiome, methylome, and transcriptome were profiled using 16S sequencing, Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC chip, and RNA sequencing, respectively. Multi 'omic integration was performed using Data Integration Analysis for Biomarker discovery using Latent cOmponents. A correlation > 0.7 was used to identify key interactions between the 'omes. RESULTS: The COPD + HIV -, COPD -HIV + , and COPD + HIV + groups had reduced Shannon Diversity (p = 0.004, p = 0.023, and p = 5.5e-06, respectively) compared to individuals with neither COPD nor HIV, with the COPD + HIV + group demonstrating the most reduced diversity. Microbial communities were significantly different between the four groups (p = 0.001). Multi 'omic integration identified correlations between Bacteroidetes Prevotella, genes FUZ, FASTKD3, and ACVR1B, and epigenetic features CpG-FUZ and CpG-PHLDB3. CONCLUSION: PLWH with COPD manifest decreased diversity and altered microbial communities in their airway epithelial microbiome. The reduction in Prevotella in this group was linked with epigenetic and transcriptomic disruptions in host genes including FUZ, FASTKD3, and ACVR1B.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Humanos , Disbiose/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Epitélio , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/genética
13.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 2887, 2023 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37210411

RESUMO

Electronically reprogrammable photonic circuits based on phase-change chalcogenides present an avenue to resolve the von-Neumann bottleneck; however, implementation of such hybrid photonic-electronic processing has not achieved computational success. Here, we achieve this milestone by demonstrating an in-memory photonic-electronic dot-product engine, one that decouples electronic programming of phase-change materials (PCMs) and photonic computation. Specifically, we develop non-volatile electronically reprogrammable PCM memory cells with a record-high 4-bit weight encoding, the lowest energy consumption per unit modulation depth (1.7 nJ/dB) for Erase operation (crystallization), and a high switching contrast (158.5%) using non-resonant silicon-on-insulator waveguide microheater devices. This enables us to perform parallel multiplications for image processing with a superior contrast-to-noise ratio (≥87.36) that leads to an enhanced computing accuracy (standard deviation σ ≤ 0.007). An in-memory hybrid computing system is developed in hardware for convolutional processing for recognizing images from the MNIST database with inferencing accuracies of 86% and 87%.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; : 164290, 2023 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37211121

RESUMO

Nitrification is an important link for environmental nitrogen cycling, the appearance of comammox updates our traditional cognition about nitrification. Yet comammox has been poorly studied in marine sediments. This study explored the differences in abundance, diversity, community structure of comammox cladeA amoA in the sediments from different offshore areas of China (the Bohai Sea (BS), the Yellow Sea (YS), and the East China Sea (ECS)) and revealed the main driving factors. The abundance of comammox cladeA amoA was 8.11 × 103-4.96 × 104, 2.85 × 104-4.18 × 104, and 5.76 × 103-4.91 × 104 copies/g dry sediment in BS, YS, and ECS, respectively. The OTU (operational taxonomic units) numbers of comammox cladeA amoA in the BS, YS, and ECS were 4, 2, and 5 respectively. There were negligible differences in the abundance and diversity of comammox cladeA amoA among the sediments of the three seas. The subclade of comammox cladeA amoA, cladeA2 is the dominant comammox flora in the offshore area sediments of China. Noticeable differences in the community structure of comammox were observed among these three seas, where the relative abundance of cladeA2 in comammox was 62.98 %, 66.24 %, and 100 % in ECS, BS, and YS respectively. pH was found as the main factor affecting the abundance of comammox cladeA amoA and showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05). The diversity of comammox decreased with the increase of salinity (p < 0.05). NO3--N is the main factor affecting the community structure of comammox cladeA amoA.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37212383

RESUMO

Sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) has been widely investigated in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) due to its excellent thermal stability, chemical stability, and low cost compared with Nafion. However, excessive degree of sulfonation will easily lead to the decrease in thermal stabilities and mechanical properties of SPEEK membranes, which limits the enhancement of proton conductivity. In this work, a series of Schiff-base networks (SNWs) with different contents are in situ synthesized in the SPEEK membrane by a Schiff-base co-condensation reaction, and then, the composite membranes are soaked in sulfonic acid for further improvement of proton conductivity. The highest doping amount of the SNW filler in SPEEK can reach 20 wt %. High loading and low leaching rate of H2SO4 are easily achieved owing to the similar size between sulfuric acid molecules and micropores in SNW. Moreover, abundant amino and imine groups in SNW networks contribute to the anchoring of H2SO4 into the pores by acid-base interactions. The proton conductivity of the SPEEK/S-SNW-15 composite membrane can reach 115.53 mS cm-1 at 80 °C and 100% RH. Meanwhile, the composite membrane also exhibits satisfied stability and mechanical property.

16.
J Vis Exp ; (195)2023 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37212591

RESUMO

In experimental stroke research, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with an intraluminal filament is widely used to model ischemic stroke in mice. The filament MCAO model typically exhibits a massive cerebral infarction in C57Bl/6 mice that sometimes includes brain tissue in the territory supplied by the posterior cerebral artery, which is largely due to a high incidence of posterior communicating artery atresia. This phenomenon is considered a major contributor to the high mortality rate observed in C57Bl/6 mice during long-term stroke recovery after filament MCAO. Thus, many chronic stroke studies exploit distal MCAO models. However, these models usually produce infarction only in the cortex area, and consequently, the assessment of post-stroke neurologic deficits could be a challenge. This study has established a modified transcranial MCAO model in which the MCA at the trunk is partially occluded either permanently or transiently via a small cranial window. Since the occlusion location is relatively proximal to the origin of the MCA, this model generates brain damage in both the cortex and striatum. Extensive characterization of this model has demonstrated an excellent long-term survival rate, even in aged mice, as well as readily detectable neurologic deficits. Therefore, the MCAO mouse model described here represents a valuable tool for experimental stroke research.

17.
Inorg Chem ; 2023 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37184566

RESUMO

We report the syntheses and host-guest chemistry of two interconvertible coordination cages, Pd2L2 and Pd1L1, from a dynamic macrocycle ligand (L) and a cis-blocking (tmen)Pd(NO3)2 (tmen = tetramethylethylenediamine) unit (Pd). The water-soluble macrocyclic L, which can bind various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) guests in its cis-conformation, was constructed via four pyridinium bonds between two 2,4,6-tri(4-pyridyl)-1,3,5-triazine [TPT] panels and two p-xylene bridges. We selectively formed each cage either by changing the reaction concentration/solvent/temperature or through induced-fit guest encapsulation, while direct assembly of L and Pd resulted in a mixture of Pd2L2 and Pd1L1 in equilibrium. X-ray structures of the free ligand and the host-guest complexes confirmed the induce-fit adaptive changes in the ligand's conformation and the cage's cavity. This work demonstrates a useful strategy for designing multistimuli-responsive supramolecular hosts by coordination self-assembly with macrocyclic ligands featuring rich conformational freedom.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37060434

RESUMO

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) is an objective approach for the estimation of population-level exposure to a wide range of substances, in which the use of a population biomarker (PB) could significantly reduce back-calculation errors. Although some endogenous or exogenous compounds such as cotinine and other hormones have been developed as PBs, more PBs still need to be identified and evaluated. This study aimed to propose a novel method to estimate population parameters from the mass load of metal ion biomarkers in wastewater, and estimate the consumption of tobacco in 24 cities in Southern China using the developed method. Daily wastewater samples were collected from 234 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 24 cities in Southern China. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was applied to determine the concentrations of common health-related metal ions in wastewater, including sodium (Na), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn), and compared them with the daily mass load of cotinine corresponding to catchment populations. The concentrations of cotinine in wastewater samples were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. There were clear and strong correlations between the target metal ion equivalent population and census data. The correlation coefficients (R) were RK = 0.78, RNa = 0.66, RCa = 0.81, RMg = 0.77, and RFe = 0.69, at p < 0.01 and R2 > 0.6. Subsequently, the combination of WBE and metal ion PBs was used to estimate tobacco consumption. Daily consumption of nicotine was estimated to be approximately 1.76 ± 1.19 mg/d/capita, equivalent to an average of 13.0 ± 8.75 cigarettes/d being consumed by smokers. The data on tobacco consumption in this study were consistent with those in traditional surveys in Southern China. The metal ion potassium is an appropriate PB for reflecting the real-time population and could be used to evaluate the tobacco consumption in WBE study.

19.
Front Microbiol ; 14: 1137643, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37065116

RESUMO

Temperature is one of the main factors affecting aflatoxin (AF) biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus. Previous studies showed that AF biosynthesis is elevated in A. flavus at temperatures between 28°C-30°C, while it is inhibited at temperatures above 30°C. However, little is known about the metabolic mechanism underlying temperature-regulated AF biosynthesis. In this study, we integrated metabolomic and lipidomic analyses to investigate the endogenous metabolism of A. flavus across 6 days of mycelia growth at 28°C (optimal AF production) and 37°C (no AF production). Results showed that both metabolite and lipid profiles were significantly altered at different temperatures. In particular, metabolites involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism were up-regulated at 37°C on the second day but down-regulated from days three to six. Moreover, lipidomics and targeted fatty acids analyses of mycelia samples revealed a distinct pattern of lipid species and free fatty acids desaturation. High degrees of polyunsaturation of most lipid species at 28°C were positively correlated with AF production. These results provide new insights into the underlying metabolic changes in A. flavus under temperature stress.

20.
J Geriatr Cardiol ; 20(3): 214-222, 2023 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37091261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide, which has been identified as an autophagy inducer and exhibits protective effect in cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infraction and atherosclerosis. However, the functional role of trehalose in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) remains undefined. METHODS: To study the effect of trehalose in AAA, trehalose (1 g/kg per day) were given for 14 continuous days in a mouse model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm. On day 14, ultrasound was performed to measure aortic diameter before the abdominal aortas were harvested and processed for further analysis. Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining and TUNEL staining were performed on paraffin sections to evaluate vascular histology and apoptosis, immunofluorescence staining and Western-blot were performed to evaluate expression of autophagy markers. RESULTS: Echocardiography and in situ pictures demonstrated that trehalose attenuated infrarenal aorta dilation. Verhoeff-Van Gieson staining showed elastin degradation was improved in trehalose-treated group. Compared with vehicle-treated mice, trehalose treatment restored smooth muscle cell contractile phenotype with increased α-SMA, Calponin and Myh11 expression. Furthermore, trehalose also attenuated cell apoptosis and leukocytes infiltration. Importantly, trehalose induced autophagy with decrease SQSTM1/p62 accumulation, increased lamp2 expression and LC3B conversion. CONCLUSION: Trehalose attenuated AAA progression with decreased inflammation and restored SMC contractile phenotype by inducing autophagy. These results demonstrated the therapeutic potential of trehalose in AAA.

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