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1.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6616434, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791366

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we aimed to identify critical genes and pathways for multiple brain regions in Parkinson's disease (PD) by weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Methods: From the GEO database, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were separately identified between the substantia nigra, putamen, prefrontal cortex area, and cingulate gyrus of PD and normal samples with the screening criteria of p value < 0.05 and ∣log2fold change (FC) | >0.585. Then, a coexpression network was presented by the WGCNA package. Gene modules related to PD were constructed. Then, PD-related DEGs were used for construction of PPI networks. Hub genes were determined by the cytoHubba plug-in. Functional enrichment analysis was then performed. Results: DEGs were identified for the substantia nigra (17 upregulated and 52 downregulated genes), putamen (317 upregulated and 317 downregulated genes), prefrontal cortex area (39 upregulated and 72 downregulated genes), and cingulate gyrus (116 upregulated and 292 downregulated genes) of PD compared to normal samples. Gene modules were separately built for the four brain regions of PD. PPI networks revealed hub genes for the substantia nigra (SLC6A3, SLC18A2, and TH), putamen (BMP4 and SNAP25), prefrontal cortex area (SNAP25), and cingulate gyrus (CTGF, CDH1, and COL5A1) of PD. These DEGs in multiple brain regions were involved in distinct biological functions and pathways. GSEA showed that these DEGs were all significantly enriched in electron transport chain, proteasome degradation, and synaptic vesicle pathway. Conclusion: Our findings revealed critical genes and pathways for multiple brain regions in PD, which deepened the understanding of PD-related molecular mechanisms.

2.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 73(4): 545-552, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed whether physcion-8-O-beta-D-monoglucoside (PG) sensitises paclitaxel (PTX)-resistant ovarian cancer cells and explored the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Ovarian cancer SK-OV-3 cells were used to establish PTX-resistant SK-OV-3 (SK-OV-3/PTX) cells. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and crystal violet staining were used to determine cell viability. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB expression and cell distributions were detected using immunofluorescence. Cell apoptosis and protein expression changes were detected using flow cytometry and western blotting, respectively. Effect of PG in vivo was evaluated using a xenograft tumour model. P-gp expression in tumour tissues was detected using immunohistochemical staining. KEY FINDINGS: PG (1-10 µm) did not significantly affect SK-OV-3/PTX cell proliferation but significantly downregulated P-gp expression. PG pretreatment (1-10 µm) enhanced PTX cytotoxicity. PG treatment decreased the quantity of phosphorylated-NF-κB p65 in SK-OV-3/PTX cell total proteins and upregulated IKBα expression. Simultaneously, it decreased NF-κB p65 levels in nuclear proteins. PG (1-10 µm) inhibited NF-κB p65 entry into the nucleus. PTX plus PG significantly inhibited SK-OV-3/PTX xenograft tumour growth. PG (1-10 µm) reduced P-gp expression in transplanted tumour tissue. CONCLUSIONS: PG can enhance the sensitivity of PTX-resistant ovarian cancer cells SK-OV-3/PTX to PTX, and this effect is related to inhibiting NF-κB from entering the nucleus and down-regulating the expression of P-gp protein.

3.
Molecules ; 26(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799697

RESUMO

Lithium metal batteries have achieved large-scale application, but still have limitations such as poor safety performance and high cost, and limited lithium resources limit the production of lithium batteries. The construction of these devices is also hampered by limited lithium supplies. Therefore, it is particularly important to find alternative metals for lithium replacement. Sodium has the properties of rich in content, low cost and ability to provide high voltage, which makes it an ideal substitute for lithium. Sulfur-based materials have attributes of high energy density, high theoretical specific capacity and are easily oxidized. They may be used as cathodes matched with sodium anodes to form a sodium-sulfur battery. Traditional sodium-sulfur batteries are used at a temperature of about 300 °C. In order to solve problems associated with flammability, explosiveness and energy loss caused by high-temperature use conditions, most research is now focused on the development of room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries. Regardless of safety performance or energy storage performance, room temperature sodium-sulfur batteries have great potential as next-generation secondary batteries. This article summarizes the working principle and existing problems for room temperature sodium-sulfur battery, and summarizes the methods necessary to solve key scientific problems to improve the comprehensive energy storage performance of sodium-sulfur battery from four aspects: cathode, anode, electrolyte and separator.

4.
J Neural Eng ; 18(5): 056012, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821810

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals suffer inevitable interference from artifacts during the acquisition process. These artifacts make the analysis and interpretation of EEG data difficult. A major source of artifacts in EEGs is ocular activity. Therefore, it is important to remove ocular artifacts before further processing the EEG data. APPROACH: In this study, an automatic ocular artifact removal (AOAR) method for EEG signals is proposed based on non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD). First, the amplitude of EEG data was normalized in order to ensure its non-negativity. Then, the normalized EEG data were decomposed into a set of components using NMF. The components containing ocular artifacts were extracted automatically through the fractal dimension. Subsequently, the temporal activities of these components were adaptively decomposed into some intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD. The IMFs corresponding to ocular artifacts were removed. Finally, the de-noised EEG data were reconstructed. MAIN RESULTS: The proposed method was tested against seven other methods. In order to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the AOAR method in processing EEG data, experiments on ocular artifact removal were performed using simulated EEG data. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method was superior to the other methods in terms of root mean square error, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and correlation coefficient, especially in cases with a lower SNR. To further evaluate the potential applications of the proposed method in real life, the proposed method and others were applied to preprocess real EEG data recorded from children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). After artifact rejection, the event-related potential feature was extracted for classification. The AOAR method was best at distinguishing the children with ADHD from the others. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the proposed AOAR method has excellent prospects for removing ocular artifacts from EEG data.

5.
Mar Drugs ; 19(4)2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800691

RESUMO

Alginate, a major acidic polysaccharide in brown algae, has attracted great attention as a promising carbon source for biorefinery systems. Alginate lyases, especially exo-type alginate lyase, play a critical role in the biorefinery process. Although a large number of alginate lyases have been characterized, few can efficiently degrade alginate comprised of mannuronate (M) and guluronate (G) at low temperatures by means of an exolytic mode. In this study, the gene of a new exo-alginate lyase-Alys1-with high activity (1350 U/mg) was cloned from a marine strain, Tamlana sp. s12. When sodium alginate was used as a substrate, the recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 35 °C and pH 7.0-8.0. Noticeably, recombinant Alys1 was unstable at temperatures above 30 °C and had a low melting temperature of 56.0 °C. SDS and EDTA significantly inhibit its activity. These data indicate that Alys1 is a cold-adapted enzyme. Moreover, the enzyme can depolymerize alginates polyM and polyG, and produce a monosaccharide as the minimal alginate oligosaccharide. Primary substrate preference tests and identification of the final oligosaccharide products demonstrated that Alys1 is a bifunctional alginate lyase and prefers M to G. These properties make Alys1 a valuable candidate in both basic research and industrial applications.

6.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805652

RESUMO

In recent years, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have attracted a growing interest for biomedical applications. The design of MOFs should take into consideration the subtle balance between stability and biodegradability. However, only few studies have focused on the MOFs' stability in physiological media and their degradation mechanism. Here, we investigate the degradation of mesoporous iron (III) carboxylate MOFs, which are among the most employed MOFs for drug delivery, by a set of complementary methods. In situ AFM allowed monitoring with nanoscale resolution the morphological, dimensional, and mechanical properties of a series of MOFs in phosphate buffer saline and in real time. Depending on the synthetic route, the external surface presented either well-defined crystalline planes or initial defects, which influenced the degradation mechanism of the particles. Moreover, MOF stability was investigated under different pH conditions, from acidic to neutral. Interestingly, despite pronounced erosion, especially at neutral pH, the dimensions of the crystals were unchanged. It was revealed that the external surfaces of MOF crystals rapidly respond to in situ changes of the composition of the media they are in contact with. These observations are of a crucial importance for the design of nanosized MOFs for drug delivery applications.

7.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33811039

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the 1-year efficacy of two new myopia control spectacle lenses with lenslets of different asphericity. METHODS: One hundred seventy schoolchildren aged 8-13 years with myopia of -0.75 D to -4.75 D were randomised to receive spectacle lenses with highly aspherical lenslets (HAL), spectacle lenses with slightly aspherical lenslets (SAL), or single-vision spectacle lenses (SVL). Cycloplegic autorefraction (spherical equivalent refraction (SER)), axial length (AL) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were measured at baseline and 6-month intervals. Adaptation and compliance questionnaires were administered during all visits. RESULTS: After 1 year, the mean changes in the SER (±SE) and AL (±SE) in the SVL group were -0.81±0.06 D and 0.36±0.02 mm. Compared with SVL, the myopia control efficacy measured using SER was 67% (difference of 0.53 D) for HAL and 41% (difference of 0.33 D) for SAL, and the efficacy measured using AL was 64% (difference of 0.23 mm) for HAL and 31% (difference of 0.11 mm) for SAL (all p<0.01). HAL resulted in significantly greater myopia control than SAL for SER (difference of 0.21 D, p<0.001) and AL (difference of 0.12 mm, p<0.001). The mean BCVA (-0.01±0.1 logMAR, p=0.22) and mean daily wearing time (13.2±2.6 hours, p=0.26) were similar among the three groups. All groups adapted to their lenses with no reported adverse events, complaints or discomfort. CONCLUSIONS: Spectacle lenses with aspherical lenslets effectively slow myopia progression and axial elongation compared with SVL. Myopia control efficacy increased with lenslet asphericity. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800017683.

8.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the beneficial effects of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) with heliox in newborn infants with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS). METHODS: Seventy-one newborn infants with MAS in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Daping Hospital of Army Medical University were enrolled in the trial. Infants treated with SIMV were randomized and divided into the heliox group (n = 35) and control group (n = 36). The heliox group received heliox for 6 h followed by air-oxygen mixed gas, and the control group received air-oxygen mixed gas. The primary outcome measures were PaO2 /FiO2 (P/F) and the extubation time. The secondary outcome measures were the incidence of mechanical ventilation complications, hospital length of stay in the NICU, blood gas analysis, and inflammation markers. RESULTS: The P/F in the heliox group was significantly better than that in the control group (p < .001). The extubation time and hospital length of stay in the NICU in the heliox group were shorter than those in the control group (p < .001). The inflammation markers at 6 h and myocardial injury markers at 24 h were decreased compared with those at 0 h, and those in the heliox group were more significantly decreased than those in the control group ([interleukin {IL}-6/IL-8/tumor necrosis factor α] p < .001, [C-reaction protein] p = .012; [creatine kinase] p < .001, [CK-MB] p = .041). CONCLUSION: Heliox appears to be more effective in reducing the length of ventilation and increasing carbon dioxide eliminations than an air-oxygen mixture in infants with MAS under the support of SIMV.

9.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The paracaval portion of the caudate lobe is located in the core of the liver. Lesions originating in the paracaval portion often cling to or even invade major hepatic vascular structures. The traditional open anterior hepatic transection approach has been adopted to treat paracaval-originating lesions. With the development of laparoscopic surgery, paracaval-originating lesions are no longer an absolute contraindication for laparoscopic liver resection. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic anterior hepatic transection for resecting paracaval-originating lesions. METHODS: This study included 15 patients who underwent laparoscopic anterior hepatic transection for paracaval-originating lesion resection between August 2017 and April 2020. The perioperative indicators, follow-up results, operative techniques and surgical indications were retrospectively evaluated. RESULTS: All patients underwent laparoscopic anterior hepatic transection for paracaval-originating lesion resection. The median operation time was 305 min (220-740 min), the median intraoperative blood loss was 400 ml (250-3600 ml), and the median length of postoperative hospital stay was 9 days (5-20 days). No conversion to laparotomy or perioperative deaths occurred. Six patients had Clavien grade III-IV complications (III/IV, 5/1). Two patients developed tumor recurrence after 13 months and 8 months. CONCLUSION: Although technically challenging, laparoscopic anterior hepatic transection is still a safe and feasible procedure for resecting paracaval-originating lesions in select patients.

10.
Trials ; 22(1): 249, 2021 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823924

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Erector spinae plane block (ESPB) is a novel inter-fascial plane block, which is applied more and more in postoperative pain control, especially in chest surgery. Regional block is advocated in order to decrease opioid consumption and improve analgesia in urological surgery. Therefore, we aimed to explore whether ESPB would have similar analgesia compared with thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) in laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This prospective, randomized, double-blinded, non-inferiority trial will enroll 166 patients undergoing laparoscopic nephroureterectomy. Participants will be randomly assigned 1:1 into receiving ESPB or TPVB before surgery. Both ultrasound-guided ESPB and TPVB will be performed with an injection of 0.375% ropivacaine 0.4 ml/kg before anesthesia induction. Standardized patients controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) will be applied for each patient. The primary endpoint is the joint of cumulative 24 h opioid (sufentanil) consumption and average pain score via numeric rating scale (NRS) at 24 h after surgery. Secondary endpoints include rescued analgesic demand, cumulative opioid consumption, and pain NRS scores at different preset timepoints within 48 h after surgery. Other predefined outcomes include clinical features of blockage, quality of recovery, subjective sleep quality, time to ambulation and diet, and adverse events, as well as length of stay in hospital and anesthesia cost. DISCUSSION: Previous studies investigating the analgesic efficacy of ESPB only concentrated on a single endpoint for postoperative pain evaluation, while studies focusing on the direct comparison between ESPB and TPVB in urological surgery are still lacking. Our study is the first trial in non-inferiority design of comparing ESPB and TPVB in patient undergoing laparoscopic nephroureterectomy, and the primary outcome is the joint endpoint of opioid consumption and pain NRS score. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR 2000031916 . Registered on 14 April 2020.

11.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(2): 241-247, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829698

RESUMO

Objective: To synthesize three kinds of metal complexes of aloe-emodin and compare the antioxidant activities of the ligands and the complexes. Methods: Three kinds of aloe emodin metal complex, the aloe-emodin-iron (Ⅱ), the aloe-emodin-copper (Ⅱ) and the aloe-emodin-magnesium (Ⅱ) complexes, were synthesized by dissolving and stirring in anhydrous ethanol solvent, and their structures were characterized. The Fe 2+-H 2O 2-methylene blue method, the diphenyl bitter hydrazine radical method (DPPH method) and other assays were used to determine the clearance effect of ligands and complexes on superoxide radicals (O 2 -•), hydroxyl radicals (•OH) and phenyl bitter hydrazine radical (DPPH•). Results: Three kinds of aloe emodin metal complex, the aloe-emodin-iron (Ⅱ), the aloe-emodin-copper (Ⅱ) and the aloe-emodin-magnesium (Ⅱ) complexes, were successfully synthesized. According to the results of structural characterization, we speculated that the aloe-emodin metal complexes were formed at the site between the two molecules of aloe-emodin and one molecule of metal ions (Fe 2+, Mg 2+, Cu 2+) via the 9 th carbonyl and 8 th hydroxyl groups of the aloe-emodin molecules. Both the complex and the ligand have clearance effects on three kinds of free radicals, and the complex showed stronger effects than its ligand ( P<0.05). Conclusion: Coordination of aloe-emodin with metal ions, such as Fe 2+, Cu 2+, and Mg 2+, could enhance the antioxidant activity of the ligand itself.


Assuntos
Aloe , Complexos de Coordenação , Emodina , Antraquinonas , Antioxidantes
12.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 6644827, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834070

RESUMO

Objective: This study is aimed at understanding the molecular mechanisms and exploring potential therapeutic targets for atrial fibrillation (AF) by multiomics analysis. Methods: Transcriptomics and methylation data of AF patients were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated sites between AF and normal samples were screened. Then, highly expressed and hypomethylated and lowly expressed and hypermethylated genes were identified for AF. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) was presented to construct AF-related coexpression networks. 52 AF blood samples were used for whole exome sequence. The mutation was visualized by the maftools package in R. Key genes were validated in AF using independent datasets. Results: DEGs were identified between AF and controls, which were enriched in neutrophil activation and regulation of actin cytoskeleton. RHOA, CCR2, CASP8, and SYNPO2L exhibited abnormal expression and methylation, which have been confirmed to be related to AF. PCDHA family genes had high methylation and low expression in AF. We constructed two AF-related coexpression modules. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was the most common mutation type in AF, especially T > C. MUC4 was the most frequent mutation gene, followed by PHLDA1, AHNAK2, and MAML3. There was no statistical difference in expression of AHNAK2 and MAML3, for AF. PHLDA1 and MUC4 were confirmed to be abnormally expressed in AF. Conclusion: Our findings identified DEGs related to DNA methylation and mutation for AF, which may offer possible therapeutic targets and a new insight into the pathogenesis of AF from a multiomics perspective.

13.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837780

RESUMO

Exosomes are involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric diseases, but the role of exosomes in schizophrenia (SCZ) is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that transplantation of serum exosomes from SCZ patients into mice caused behavioral abnormalities such as deficits in prepulse inhibition and sociability, hyperactivity, and anxiogenesis. A comparative bioinformatics analysis suggested shared and distinct differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and enriched molecular pathways in the brains of SCZ exosome-recipient mice, methylazoxymethanol acetate-treated rats, and SCZ patients, which correlates evidence of altered prefrontal-hippocampal functional coherence in SCZ. A large proportion of SCZ-relevant DEGs in the exosome-recipient mice were targets of DE exosomal miRNAs in SCZ patients. Furthermore, we identified 20 hub genes for SCZ risk genes, including BDNF and NRG1, which were DE miRNA targets in SCZ. Collectively, our study suggests that SCZ exosome transplantation caused SCZ-relevant behaviors in mice, and epigenetic regulation may contribute to the phenotypes in the SCZ exosome-recipient mice. Our results may provide a potential animal model and novel therapeutic targets for SCZ.

14.
Sci Adv ; 7(15)2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827814

RESUMO

Forkhead box protein A1 (FOXA1) is essential for androgen-dependent prostate cancer (PCa) growth. However, how FOXA1 levels are regulated remains elusive and its therapeutic targeting proven challenging. Here, we report FOXA1 as a nonhistone substrate of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), which methylates FOXA1 at lysine-295. This methylation is recognized by WD40 repeat protein BUB3, which subsequently recruits ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) to remove ubiquitination and enhance FOXA1 protein stability. They functionally converge in regulating cell cycle genes and promoting PCa growth. FOXA1 is a major therapeutic target of the inhibitors of EZH2 methyltransferase activities in PCa. FOXA1-driven PCa growth can be effectively mitigated by EZH2 enzymatic inhibitors, either alone or in combination with USP7 inhibitors. Together, our study reports EZH2-catalyzed methylation as a key mechanism to FOXA1 protein stability, which may be leveraged to enhance therapeutic targeting of PCa using enzymatic EZH2 inhibitors.

15.
Theranostics ; 11(10): 4728-4742, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754024

RESUMO

Rationale: Albuminuria is an early clinical feature in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Podocyte insulin resistance is a main cause of podocyte injury, playing crucial roles by contributing to albuminuria in early DN. G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43) is a metabolite sensor modulating the cell signalling pathways to maintain metabolic homeostasis. However, the roles of GPR43 in podocyte insulin resistance and its potential mechanisms in the development of DN are unclear. Methods: The experiments were conducted by using kidney tissues from biopsied DN patients, streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic mice with or without global GPR43 gene knockout, diabetic rats treated with broad-spectrum oral antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation, and cell culture model of podocytes. Renal pathological injuries were evaluated by periodic acid-schiff staining and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of GPR43 with other podocyte insulin resistance related molecules was checked by immunofluorescent staining, real-time PCR, and Western blotting. Serum acetate level was examined by gas chromatographic analysis. The distribution of gut microbiota was measured by 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing with faeces. Results: Our results demonstrated that GPR43 expression was increased in kidney samples of DN patients, diabetic animal models, and high glucose-stimulated podocytes. Interestingly, deletion of GPR43 alleviated albuminuria and renal injury in diabetic mice. Pharmacological inhibition and knockdown of GPR43 expression in podocytes increased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation through the restoration of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) activity. This effect was associated with the suppression of AMPKα activity through post-transcriptional phosphorylation via the protein kinase C-phospholipase C (PKC-PLC) pathway. Antibiotic treatment-mediated gut microbiota depletion, and faecal microbiota transplantation from the healthy donor controls substantially improved podocyte insulin sensitivity and attenuated glomerular injury in diabetic rats accompanied by the downregulation of the GPR43 expression and a decrease in the level of serum acetate. Conclusion: These findings suggested that dysbiosis of gut microbiota-modulated GPR43 activation contributed to albuminuria in DN, which could be mediated by podocyte insulin resistance through the inhibition of AMPKα activity.

16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 2066-2079, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742842

RESUMO

Sandy soils are considered as a significant transition phase to desertification. The effective recovery of sandy soils is of great significance to mitigate the desertification process. Some studies have shown that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and biochar improved the sandy soil, but there have been very few studies regarding the combined effects of AM fungi and biochar amendments on sandy soil improvement. Additionally, the roles of the bacterial and fungal community during the process of sandy soil improvement remain unclear. A greenhouse pot experiment with four treatments, including a control (CK, no amendment), single AM fungi-assisted amendment (RI), single biochar amendment (BC), and combined amendment (BC_RI, biochar plus AM fungi), was set up. This study investigated the effects of different amendment methods on the Nitrariasi birica mycorrhizal colonization, biomass, nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) content, soil organic carbon, soil nutrient (TN, TP, and TK) content, and soil water-stable aggregate composition. High throughput sequencing technology was used to investigate the roles of the bacterial and fungal communities during the process of sandy soil improvement. Combined with multiple analysis methods, the improvement mechanisms of different amendment methods were explored. The aim was to provide basic data and scientific basics for reasonably and effectively improving sandy soils. The results indicated that a significant mycorrhiza colonization was observed in the inoculation (RI and BC_RI) treatments, but there was no substantial difference in the mycorrhiza colonization with the RI and BC_RI. Compared with the CK, the shoot biomass and shoot element (N, K, Ca, and Mg) contents were significantly increased in the RI, and the shoot element (N, P, K, Ca, and Mg) contents were significantly increased in the BC and BC_RI; compared with the RI and BC, the root biomass and the root element (P, K, Ca, and Mg) contents were significantly increased in the BC_RI. Compared with the CK, the soil organic carbon contents were significantly increased in the BC and BC_RI, the soil TN contents were significantly increased by 152.54%, and the soil TP and TK contents were significantly decreased by 12.5% and 18.8%, respectively. The proportion of soil aggregates with particle sizes of 0.25-0.05 mm was the highest in each treatment, and the large particle size (>0.25 mm) soil aggregate was significantly increased in the BC_RI. Compared with the CK, the Sobs and Shannon indices of the bacterial/fungal community were significantly decreased in the RI and BC_RI. There was a difference in the microbial community compositions and abundance in the various treatments. The results of the RDA and network analysis were as follows:the effects of AM fungi, biochar, and combined amendment on the soil environment and microbial community structure were significant; in the different amendment treatments, the relationship of the microbial molecular ecological network was significantly changed, and the composition of the core species varied; compared with the RI, there was a higher network connection degree and a richer core species composition in the BC and BC_RI; moreover, the essential role of Rhizophagus intraradices was weaken and the core roles of the other microorganisms (especially bacterial species) were enhanced under the combined effects of biochar and AM fungi. The SEM results demonstrated that the application of AM fungi and biochar could directly affect the bacteria/fungi community structure, and further affect the plant growth and soil properties. The differences in the microbial community structure (especially the change in the microbial interaction) were the key driving factors that led to the difference in the soil improvement effectiveness. In summary, the effects of the different amendment methods on the improvement effectiveness of sandy soils varied. The microbial community played key roles in the process of sandy soil improvement, and there were potential advantages and applications in accelerating the ecological restoration of sandy soils under the combined AM fungi and biochar amendment.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micorrizas , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Fungos , Areia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 2021 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764757

RESUMO

High spatial resolution imaging analysis is urgently needed to explore the biodistribution, transfer and clearance profiles, and biological impact of nanoparticles in the body, which will be helpful to clarify the efficacy of nanomedicine in clinical applications. Herein, by combination with multiscale synchrotron-based imaging techniques, including X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and micro X-ray phase contrast computed tomography (micro-XPCT), we visually displayed the transfer patterns and site-specific distribution of PEGylated gold nanoparticles (PEG-GNPs) in the suborgans of the liver, spleen, and kidney after an intravenous injection in mice. A combination of XRF and FTIR imaging analysis showed that the PEG bands presented similar distribution patterns with Au in the intraorgans, suggesting the stability of PEGylation on GNPs. We show that the PEG-GNPs presented heterogeneous distribution in the hepatic lobules with a large amount around the portal vein zone and then a gradient decrease in the sinusoidal region and the CV zone; in the spleen, it gradually accumulated in the splenic red pulp over time; and in the kidney, it quickly transported via the bloodstream to the renal pyramids and renal pelvis, and parts of PEG-GNPs finally accumulated in the renal medulla and renal cortex. Multidimensional micro-XPCT images further show that the PEG-GNP transfer in the liver induced hepatic blood vessel dilatation while they transferred in the liver, providing evidence of GNP transport across the blood vessel endothelial barrier.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(4): 333, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782381

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the primary microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and may result in end-stage renal disease. The overproduction of various inflammatory factors is involved in the pathogenesis of DN. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) modulates the expression of a series of cytokines and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity. cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and lysine methyltransferase 5A (KMT5A) have been reported to participate in the maintenance of a healthy endothelium. In the present study, we hypothesise that CREB associates with KMT5A to modulate PTP1B expression, thus contributing to high glucose-mediated glomerular endothelial inflammation. Our analyses revealed that plasma inflammatory factor levels, glomerular endothelial p65 phosphorylation and PTP1B expression were increased in DN patients and rats. In vitro, high glucose increased endothelial inflammatory factor levels and p65 phosphorylation by augmenting PTP1B expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Moreover, high glucose decreased CREB and KMT5A expression. CREB overexpression and KMT5A overexpression both inhibited high glucose-induced PTP1B expression, p65 phosphorylation and endothelial inflammatory factor levels. si-CREB- and sh-KMT5A-induced p65 phosphorylation and endothelial inflammatory factor levels were reversed by si-PTP1B. Furthermore, CREB was associated with KMT5A. Mechanistic research indicated that CREB and histone H4 lysine 20 methylation (H4K20me1, a downstream target of KMT5A) occupy the PTP1B promoter region. sh-KMT5A augmented PTP1B promoter activity and activated the positive effect of si-CREB on PTP1B promoter activity. Our in vivo study demonstrated that CREB and KMT5A were downregulated in glomerular endothelial cells of DN patients and rats. In conclusion, CREB associates with KMT5A to promote PTP1B expression in vascular endothelial cells, thus contributing to hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory factor levels in DN patients and rats.

19.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(2): 115-20, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788456

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic effect between acupuncture combined with medication and simple medication on migraine and cerebral hemodynamics. METHODS: A total of 120 patients with migraine were randomized into an acupuncture plus medication group (60 cases, 3 cases dropped off) and a medication group (60 cases, 6 cases dropped off). In the medication group, flunarizine hydrochloride capsule was given orally before sleep, 10 mg a day. On the basis of the treatment in the medication group, acupuncture was applied at Sizhukong (TE 23), Shuaigu (GB 8), Taiyang (EX-HN 5), Fengchi (GB 20) and etc. in the acupuncture plus medication group, 30 min each time, once a day. Treatment for 4 weeks was required in both groups. Before and after treatment, the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, indexes of cerebral hemodynamic [blood flow velocity of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA), vertebral artery (VA) and basilar artery (BA)] and total TCM syndrome score were observed, and the clinical therapeutic effect and the incidence of the adverse events were evaluated in both groups. RESULTS: Compared before treatment, the VAS scores, the blood flow velocity of ACA, MCA, PCA, VA, BA and the total TCM syndrome scores were decreased in both groups (P<0.05). After treatment, the VAS score, the blood flow velocity of ACA, MCA, PCA, VA, BA and the total TCM syndrome score in the acupuncture plus medication group were lower than those in the medication group (P<0.05). The total effective rate was 96.5% (55/57) in the acupuncture plus medication group, which was superior to 90.7% (49/54) in the medication group (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference in the incidence of adverse events between the two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Acupuncture combined with flunarizine hydrochloride capsule can effectively relieve the pain in patients with migraine, reduce the cerebral blood flow velocity, the efficacy is superior to simple flunarizine hydrochloride capsule.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Transtornos de Enxaqueca , Pontos de Acupuntura , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/terapia , Dor , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(11): 3390-3400, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33703896

RESUMO

Land degraded by salinization and alkalization is widely distributed globally and involves a wide range of ecosystem types. However, the knowledge of the indigenous microbial assemblages and their roles in various saline-alkaline soils is limited. This study demonstrated microbial assemblages in various saline-alkaline soils from different regions of Inner Mongolia and revealed the key driving factors to influence microbiome. The correlation network analysis indicates the difference in adaptability of bacterial and fungal communities under stimulation by saline-alkaline stress: fungal community shows higher tolerance, stability, and resilience to various saline-alkaline soils than a bacterial community. The keystone bacteria and fungi that have potential adaptability to various saline-alkaline environments are further identified, and they may confer benefits in restoring saline-alkaline soils by their own effects or assisting plants. For salt-rich soils in different regions, the soluble salt ion components are the major determinant to drive microbial assemblages of different saline-alkaline soils, rather than salinity. Thus, these saline-alkaline soils are clustered into sulfated, chlorinated, and soda-type saline-alkaline soils. Multivariate analysis reveals unique, dominant, and common microbial taxa in three saline-alkaline soils. This result of the conceptual mode indicates that potential roles of unique and dominant microbial taxa on regulating saline-alkaline functions are more vital.

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