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1.
Prep Biochem Biotechnol ; : 1-7, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069137

RESUMO

Stemonae Radix, a medicinal and edible herb, has been reported to possess various pharmacological effects. In the present study, Stemonae Radix was fermented by fungi to improve the antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities. The results showed that Stemonae Radix fermented by Mucor circinelloides T2-12 exhibited two-folds more antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities than non-fermented material. The increased activity might be ascribed to the improvement of total phenolic content, hydrolyzation of glucosides and esters of phenolics and metabolism of saccharides according to ultraviolet and nuclear paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. This paper suggested that fermenting Stemonae Radix with M. circinelloides T2-12 is effective to increase antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase effects and Stemonae Radix fermented by M. circinelloides T2-12 might be newly alternative of natural antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor. The present study is the first to report that pure strain fermentation processing is effective in improving the antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities of Stemonae Radix.

2.
Stem Cells ; 38(2): 218-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648394

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation in the huntingtin (HTT) gene that results in the production of neurotoxic mutant HTT (mHTT) protein. Suppressing HTT production with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) is a promising treatment strategy for HD; however, the difficulty of delivering ASOs to deep brain structures is a major barrier for its clinical application. The glymphatic system of astrocytes involving aquaporin 4 (AQP-4) controls the entry of macromolecules from the cerebrospinal fluid into the brain. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) target astrocytes to inhibit neuroinflammation. Here we examined the glymphatic distribution of ASO in the brain and the therapeutic potential of combining intravenously injection of mesenchymal stem cells (IV-MSC) and ASOs for the treatment of HD. Our results show that Cy3-labeled ASOs entered the brain parenchyma via the perivascular space following cisternal injection, but the brain distribution was significantly lower in AQP-4-/- as compared with wild-type mice. Downregulation of the AQP-4 M23 isoform was accompanied by decreased brain levels of ASOs in BACHD mice as well as an increase in astrogliosis and phosphorylation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65. IV-MSC treatment restored AQP-4 M23 expression, attenuated astrogliosis, and decreased NF-κB p65 phosphorylation; it also increased the brain distribution of ASOs and enhanced the suppression of mHTT in BACHD mice. These results suggest that modulating glymphatic activity using IV-MSC is a novel strategy for improving the potency of ASO in the treatment of HD.

3.
Insect Sci ; 27(2): 292-303, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156035

RESUMO

Juvenile hormone (JH), a growth regulator, inhibits ecdysteroid-induced metamorphosis and controls insect development and diapause. Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) are two proteins involved in JH action. To gain some insight into their function in development of Sitodiplosis mosellana, an insect pest undergoing obligatory larval diapause at the mature 3rd instar stage, we cloned full-length complementary DNAs of Met and Kr-h1 from this species. SmMet encoded a putative protein, which contained three domains typical of the bHLH-PAS family and eight conserved amino acid residues important for JH binding. SmKr-h1 encoded a protein showing high sequence homology to its counterparts in other species, and contained all eight highly conserved Zn-finger motifs for DNA-binding. Expression patterns of SmMet and SmKr-h1 were developmentally regulated and JH III responsive as well. Their mRNA abundance increased as larvae entered early 3rd instar, pre-diapause and maintenance stages, and peaked during post-diapause quiescence, a pattern correlated with JH titers in this species. Different from reduced expression of SmMet, SmKr-h1 mRNA increased at mid-to-late period of post-diapause development. Topical application of JH III on diapausing larvae also induced the two genes in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of SmMet and SmKr-h1 clearly declined in the pre-pupal phase, and was significantly higher in female adults than male adults. These results suggest that JH-responsive SmMet and SmKr-h1 might play key roles in diapause induction and maintenance as well as in post-diapause quiescence and adult reproduction, whereas metamorphosis from larvae to pupae might be correlated with their reduced expression.


Assuntos
Culicomorfos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos , Culicomorfos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culicomorfos/metabolismo , Diapausa de Inseto , Proteínas de Drosophila , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Hormônios Juvenis/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like , Masculino
4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 451, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Taproot thickening is a complex biological process that is dependent on the coordinated expression of genes controlled by both environmental and developmental factors. Panax notoginseng is an important Chinese medicinal herb that is characterized by an enlarged taproot as the main organ of saponin accumulation. However, the molecular mechanisms of taproot enlargement are poorly understood. RESULTS: A total of 29,957 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified during the thickening process in the taproots of P. notoginseng. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment revealed that DEGs associated with "plant hormone signal transduction," "starch and sucrose metabolism," and "phenylpropanoid biosynthesis" were predominantly enriched. Further analysis identified some critical genes (e.g., RNase-like major storage protein, DA1-related protein, and Starch branching enzyme I) and metabolites (e.g., sucrose, glucose, fructose, malate, and arginine) that potentially control taproot thickening. Several aspects including hormone crosstalk, transcriptional regulation, homeostatic regulation between sugar and starch, and cell wall metabolism, were identified as important for the thickening process in the taproot of P. notoginseng. CONCLUSION: The results provide a molecular regulatory network of taproot thickening in P. notoginseng and facilitate the further characterization of the genes responsible for taproot formation in root medicinal plants or crops.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Metaboloma , Panax notoginseng/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transcriptoma , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Panax notoginseng/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Panax notoginseng/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia
5.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 128(5): 525-528, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178168

RESUMO

Illigera aromatica was fermented by Clonostachys rogersoniana. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory effects of unfermented and fermented I. aromatica revealed that C. rogersoniana-fermented I. aromatica (CFIA) induced significantly more AChE inhibitory activity (IC50: 35.4 ± 2.1 µg/mL). The biotransformation of actinodaphnine (1) into (4R,6aS)-4-hydroxyactinodaphnine (2) was found during the fermentation, which played an important role in the improvement of the AChE inhibitory activity of I. aromatica. Subsequently, the fermentation conditions-including the solid-liquid ratio, fermentation temperature, and fermentation time-were optimized. I. aromatica immersed in 100-200% water and fermented with C. rogersoniana at ambient temperature for 30 days was conducive to the biotransformation of actinodaphnine (1) and improved the AChE inhibitory activity of I. aromatica. The present study provides a novel approach for improving the pharmacological effect of I. aromatica and suggests that CFIA may be used as an alternative AChE inhibitor.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Fermentação , Hernandiaceae/química , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Hernandiaceae/metabolismo
6.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 21(7): 673-678, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749266

RESUMO

A new menthane-type monoterpenoid, illigerate E (1), as well as two known ones, (1R*,3R*,4S*,6R*)-6,8-dihydroxymenthol (2) and cis-4-hydroxy-5-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2-methyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one (3), were isolated from fermented Illigera aromatica with Clonostachys rogersoniana 828H2. Their structures were identified by HRESIMS and 1D/2D NMR spectra. Their inhibitory effects of NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages were estimated.


Assuntos
Hernandiaceae/química , Hypocreales/química , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/química , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Fermentação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
7.
J Med Ultrason (2001) ; 46(1): 129-135, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30327989

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship of femoral head coverage (FHC) with Graf's classification for diagnosis of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and its role in evaluating hip stability. METHODS: A total of 4222 hips were screened ultrasonographically with Graf's and Harcke's methods. The stability of hips was analyzed using the difference between FHCs at neutral and flexion positions (FHC-D). RESULTS: (1) For the non-dislocated hips, the mean value of FHC at the neutral position was 59.4%, which was significantly greater than 55.0% of FHC at the flexion position (p < 0.001). (2) FHC at the neutral position corresponding to Graf I, IIa/b, IIc, D, III, and IV was 63.0 ± 4.7%, 57.0 ± 5.2%, 49.5 ± 5.5%, 37.7 ± 3.7%, 30.2 ± 12.7%, and 7.4 ± 11.9%, respectively, and that at the flexion position was 59.0 ± 4.4%, 50.7 ± 9.4%, 35.2 ± 5.2%, 30.8 ± 1.3%, 23.4 ± 10.7%, and 4.7 ± 9.9%, respectively, showing a statistically significant difference between the two positions. (3) The AUC of FHC-D in evaluating the stability of hips was 0.972. When the threshold was 8.5%, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of FHC-D in detecting hip instability were 89.0%, 93.0%, and 93.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: FHC can be used as a reference indicator for DDH classification. FHC at different positions corresponds to different reference values, and FHC-D can be used as a quantitative indicator for assessment of hip stability.


Assuntos
Luxação Congênita de Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/classificação , Luxação Congênita de Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Instabilidade Articular/classificação , Instabilidade Articular/diagnóstico por imagem , Instabilidade Articular/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Ultrassonografia/métodos
8.
J Nat Med ; 73(1): 312-317, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30414014

RESUMO

Illigera aromatica S. Z. Huang et S. L. Mo and Illigera henryi W. W. Sm., belonging to the genus Illigera (Hernandiaceae), are used as herbal medicines for promoting blood circulation and treating tuberculosis. Actinodaphnine, the major bioactive alkaloid, plays an important role in the quality controls of the herbs. In the present study, a rapid, simple, accurate, and precise proton quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-qNMR) method was developed to determine the content of actinodaphnine in I. aromatica and I. henryi. DMSO-d6 enabled satisfactory separation of the signals to be integrated in 1H NMR spectrum. 1,4-Dinitrobenzene was selected as an internal standard. The limits of determination and quantitation were 0.005 and 0.038 mg/mL, respectively. This work implied that 1H-qNMR represents a feasible alternative to HPLC-based methods for quantitation of actinodaphnine in I. aromatica and I. henryi and is suitable for the quality control of I. aromatica and I. henryi.


Assuntos
Plantas Medicinais/química , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Prótons
9.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 160: 330-335, 2018 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30114611

RESUMO

Stephania epigaea Lo is an important herbal medicine used as antiphlogistic and analgesic drugs. Its major components are dicentrine (1) and sinomenine (2). In the present study, a rapid, accurate, and precise method for simultaneous quantitation of dicentrine (1) and sinomenine (2) in S. epigeae using 1H NMR spectra was developed. The deuterated solvent of DMSO-d6 enabled satisfactory separation of the signals to be integrated in 1H NMR spectrum and dimethyl terephthalate was selected as an internal standard. The feature signals of δ 7.57 and 5.70 were selected for quantifying the dicentrine (1) and sinomenine (2), respectively. Validation of the quantitative method was performed in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, and stability. This work implied that quantitative 1H NMR represents a feasible alternative to high-performance liquid chromatography-based methods for quantitation of dicentrine (1) and sinomenine (2) in S. epigeae and is suitable for the quality control of S. epigeae.


Assuntos
Aporfinas/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Morfinanos/análise , Stephania/química
10.
J Int Med Res ; 46(6): 2410-2422, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29644918

RESUMO

Objective Clinical sepsis-associated biomarkers were utilized in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) septic mouse model to provide a reference for investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and evaluating novel therapeutic interventions for sepsis. Methods Sepsis in mice was induced by CLP, and clinical biomarkers were evaluated (survival rate, blood physiological and biochemical indices, cytokines, hepatorenal function parameters, and blood coagulation). Results The mortality rate was >70%. The body temperature, blood pressure, and heart rate decreased within 48 h. Low lactic acid was found at 8 h. The CLP mice showed typical inflammatory symptoms with decreased white blood cells and procalcitonin and increased levels of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1ß, and MIP-2. The platelet count and activated partial thromboplastin time significantly decreased, and the prothrombin time and prothrombin time-international normalized ratio markedly increased. Phenotypes of multiple organ dysfunction were found in the CLP model, including increased liver alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase; significantly reduced total protein, globulin, and serum albumin; increased blood urea nitrogen and creatinine; and decreased blood glucose. Conclusion The clinical features of the CLP mouse model were similar to those of human patients with sepsis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Citocinas/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/etiologia
11.
Nat Prod Res ; 32(21): 2589-2595, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29368953

RESUMO

A novel sesquiterpene derivative with a seven-membered B ring, illigerine (1), along with four known compounds, 1-epi-chiliophyllin (2), 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl alcohol (3), coniferyl alcohol (4) and phenylpropionic acid (5), were isolated from Illigera aromatica S. Z. Huang et S. L. Mo. Their structures were identified by 1D/2D NMR, HRESIMS and electronic circular dichroism spectra and the cytotoxic activity and inhibitory effect of NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 were also evaluated. This is the first report of sesquiterpene isolated from the genus Illigera.


Assuntos
Hernandiaceae/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , China , Humanos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Tubérculos/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
12.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 189: 190-194, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28820971

RESUMO

We for the first time confirmed that the low concentrations of Ag(I) could induce a silver specific aptamer probe (SAP) from a random coil sequence form to G-quadruplex structure. Thereby, a novel highly sensitive fluorescence strategy for silver(I) assay was established. The designed multifunctional SAP could act as a recognition element for Ag(I) and a signal reporter. The use of such a SAP can ultrasensitively and selectively detect Ag(I), giving a detection limit down to 0.64nM. This is much lower than those reported by related literatures. This strategy has been applied successfully for the detection of Ag(I) in real samples, further proving its reliability. Taken together, the designed SAP is not only a useful recognition and signal probe for silver, but also gives a platform to study the interaction of monovalent cations with DNA.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos/química , Conformação Molecular , Sondas Moleculares/química , Prata/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química
13.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 48(5): 736-739, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29130667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pregnancy outcomes of multiparae in women with advanced age (≥35 yr.) after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. METHODS: Clinical data of 542 pregnant women with prenatal care in Wenchuan during 20082013 were reviewed,comparing preconception conditions,pregnant rates,pregnant complications,and perinatal outcomes between those younger ( n=176) and older ( n=366) than 35 years. RESULTS: In the 542 women,622 conceptions were reported,with 517 deliveries and 522 live births. The women with advanced age had lower cumulative pregnancy rate (twoyear),higher incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy,gestational diabetes,multiple pregnancy,fetal distress,low birth weight and birth defects than their younger counterparts. The younger women also had higher term live birth rate and lower miscarriage rate. But the differences showed no statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Prenatal care brings similar pregnant outcomes to multiparae in women with advance aged and younger aged.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Idade Materna , Complicações na Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Adulto , China , Desastres , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Taxa de Gravidez
14.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 409(21): 4951-4958, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28660339

RESUMO

We report a highly sensitive and selective strategy for Cd(II) assay using a singly labeled multifunctional probe consisting of a Cd(II)-specific aptamer (CAP), which acted as a recognition element for Cd(II) and a signal reporter. The presence of Cd(II) can induce the conformational switching of the CAP, accompanied by a change in fluorescence intensity. Thereby, a fluorescence strategy for Cd(II) assay was established. The proposed method has a detection limit of 2.15 nM, which is much lower than the detection limits reported in related literature. This strategy involves only an aptamer probe, and the use of such a G4-based quencher avoids the dual labeling of the CAP with fluorophore/quencher units. It is obviously more convenient and economical than the other aptamer-based biosensors for Cd(II) detection. The mechanism by which Cd(II) induces the CAP to change from a random coil sequence to a stem-loop structure was studied in a series of control experiments. This strategy would be helpful in the design of a sensitive analytical platform for various target assays in environmental and biomedical fields. Graphical Abstract The presence of Cd2+ leads to the conformational change of CAP from a random coil sequence to a stem-loop structure, resulting in a quenching in the fluorescence.

15.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 124(5): 493-497, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619612

RESUMO

Illigera henryi, an endemic traditional Chinese medicine, contains abundant aporphine alkaloids that possess various bioactivities. In the present study, tubers of I. henryi were fermented by several fungi, and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities of non-fermented and fermented I. henryi were measured. The results showed that the fermentation of I. henryi with Clonostachys rogersoniana 828H2 is effective for improving the AChE inhibitory activity. A key biotransformation was found during the C. rogersoniana fermentation for clarifying the improvement of the AChE inhibitory activity of I. henryi: (S)-actinodaphnine (1) was converted to a new 4-hydroxyaporphine alkaloid (4R,6aS)-4-hydroxyactinodaphnine (2) that possessed a stronger AChE inhibitory activity, with an IC50 value of 17.66±0.06 µM. This paper is the first to report that the pure strain fermentation processing of I. henryi and indicated C. rogersoniana fermentation might be a potential processing method for I. henryi.


Assuntos
Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Aporfinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Fermentação , Hernandiaceae/química , Hypocreales/metabolismo , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aporfinas/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/metabolismo , Dioxolanos/metabolismo , Hernandiaceae/metabolismo , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
16.
Arch Pharm Res ; 40(12): 1394-1402, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27848145

RESUMO

Three new monoterpene phenylpropionic acid esters, illigerates A-C (1-3), and one new aporphine alkaloid, illigeranine (4), as well as four known ones, actinodaphnine (5), nordicentrine (6), 8-hydroxy carvacrol (7), and 3-hydroxy-α,4-dimethyl styrene (8), were isolated from the tubers of Illigera aromatica. The structures of 1-4 were identified by HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and electronic circular dichroism spectra. Compound 1 potently inhibited NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 18.71 ± 0.85 µM; compound 1, 3, and 4 showed moderate butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activities with the IC50 values of 46.86 ± 0.65, 53.51 ± 0.71, and 31.62 ± 1.15 µM, respectively. Compound 4 showed weak AChE inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 81.69 ± 2.07 µM, and compounds 5 and 6 possessed moderate AChE inhibitory activities with the IC50 values of 47.74 ± 1.66 and 40.28 ± 2.73 µM, respectively. This paper provides a chemical structure and bioactive foundation for using I. aromatica as an herbal medicine.


Assuntos
Aporfinas/farmacologia , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Ésteres/farmacologia , Hernandiaceae/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Aporfinas/química , Aporfinas/isolamento & purificação , Butirilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Óxido Nítrico/biossíntese , Teoria Quântica , Células RAW 264.7 , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
J Insect Sci ; 16(1)2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27623751

RESUMO

To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors.


Assuntos
Dípteros/ultraestrutura , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/ultraestrutura , Dípteros/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Mecanorreceptores/ultraestrutura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Percepção Olfatória , Sensilas/ultraestrutura , Caracteres Sexuais
18.
Bioresour Technol ; 218: 1266-70, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27406717

RESUMO

The aim of this work is to explore integracide analogues from secondary metabolites of microorganisms. A new tetracyclic triterpene sulfate was produced by solid-state fermentation (SSF) with Fusarium sambucinum B10.2. The tetracyclic triterpene sulfate was identified as (3S,5R,10S,11S,12S,13R,17R,20R)-4,4-dimethylergosta-8,14,24-triene-3,11,12-triol-12-acetate, 3-sulfate on the basis of HRESIMS, NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra and named sambacide (1). The antibacterial and antifungal assays of sambacide (1) showed significant antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The fermentation conditions including culture media, fermentation temperature and time, were optimized. And potato was selected as the fermentation substrate, 28°C was used as the fermentation temperature, and 20-days fermentation time was determined for F. sambucinum-SSF to produce sambacide (1) with a high yield of 19.04±0.82g/kg. This paper provides an efficient approach to produce the antibacterial and antifungal agent sambacide (1) in a very high yield.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Fusarium , Solanum tuberosum/química , Sulfatos , Tetraciclina , Triterpenos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Fermentação , Fusarium/química , Fusarium/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfatos/química , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Sulfatos/farmacologia , Tetraciclina/química , Tetraciclina/metabolismo , Tetraciclina/farmacologia , Triterpenos/química , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia
19.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; 18(6): 603-10, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26744060

RESUMO

A new C20-diterpenoid alkaloid handelidine (1) and twenty-seven known alkaloids (2-28) were isolated from the roots of Aconitum handelianum. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. The study indicated that denudatine-type C20-diterpenoid alkaloids with vicinal-triol system and benzyltetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids exhibited significant antioxidant activities measured by three antioxidant test systems. The aconitine-type C19-diterpenoid alkaloids could serve as potential secondary antioxidants for their strong binding effects to metal ions.


Assuntos
Aconitum/química , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Diterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Aconitina/química , Alcaloides/química , Antioxidantes/química , Diterpenos/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Ressonância Magnética Nuclear Biomolecular , Oxirredução , Raízes de Plantas/química
20.
Fitoterapia ; 109: 212-6, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26742995

RESUMO

Two new peroxy fatty acids, thermalic acids A (1) and B (2), together with eight known compounds, (3ß)-methyl-3-hydroxy-urs-11-en-28 oate (3), luteolin (4), quercetin (5), 3-methoxyquercetin (6), ophioglonol (7), ophioglonol 4'-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (8), pedunculosumoside B (9), syringol (10), were isolated from the herba of Ophioglossum thermale Kom. The structures of 1 and 2 were identified by HRESIMS, EIMS, 1D and 2D NMR, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. Both two acids exhibited potential antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Escherichia coli. This is the first report of peroxy fatty acids isolated from herbaceous plants of Ophioglossaceae.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Asteraceae/química , Dioxolanos/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Oleicos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Dioxolanos/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Ácidos Oleicos/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
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