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1.
J Cell Biochem ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452251

RESUMO

Large intergenic noncoding RNA regulator of reprogramming (Linc-RoR) was first identified as a regulator to increase the emergence of induced pluripotent stem cells through reprogramming differentiated cells and is abnormal expression in a variety of malignant tumors. However, the function of Linc-RoR in pancreatic cancer progression needs further clarification. The data from this study demonstrated that Linc-RoR knockdown suppressed cell proliferative capacity and colony formation, while Linc-RoR overexpression promoted these behaviors. In particular, Linc-RoR overexpression promoted the level of mesenchymal markers, inhibited the expression of epithelial markers, as well as enhanced pancreatic cancer cells migration and invasion, whereas Linc-RoR knockdown inhibited the expression of mesenchymal markers, promoted the expression of epithelial markers, as well as weakened pancreatic cancer cells migration and invasion. Further study revealed that Linc-RoR knockdown brought about a significant fall in YAP phosphorylation and a rise in total YAP, while Linc-RoR overexpression produced the opposite results. Specifically, Linc-RoR promoted YAP in the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Taken together, we conjectured that Linc-RoR promoted proliferation, migration, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells by activating the Hippo/YAP pathway. YAP might be an underlying target of Linc-RoR and mediate epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic cancer (PC); thus, Linc-RoR might be a very meaningful biomarker for PC.

2.
BMC Nephrol ; 20(1): 238, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urgent-start peritoneal dialysis (PD) can help patients with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) that are referred late to dialysis. However, catheter patency and related complications of urgent-start PD have not been thoroughly clarified. We investigated the clinical outcomes of urgent-start PD in a Chinese cohort. METHODS: We enrolled ESRD patients who received urgent-start PD (starting PD within 14 days after catheter insertion) in our center from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2014, and followed them up for 10 years. The primary outcome was catheter failure. Secondary outcomes included short-term and long-term complications related to urgent-start PD. RESULTS: Totally 2059 patients (58.9% male, mean age 47.6 ± 15.9 years) were enrolled. Few perioperative complications were observed, including significant hemorrhage (n = 3, 0.1%) and bowel perforation (n = 0). Early peritonitis occurred in 24 (1.2%) patients (0.28 episodes per patient-year). Within the first month after catheter insertion, functional catheter malfunction occurred in 85 (4.1%) patients, and abdominal wall complications (including hernia, hydrothorax, hydrocele, and leakage) in 36 (1.7%) patients. During a median 36.5 (17.7-61.4) months of follow-up, 75 (3.6%) patients experienced catheter failure, and 291 (14.1%) had death-censoring technique failure. At the end of 1-month, 1 -year, 3-year, and 5-year, catheter patency rate was 97.6, 96.4, 96.2, 96.2%; and technique survival rate was 99.5, 97.0, 90.3, 82.7%, respectively. After adjusting for confounders, every 5-year increase in age was associated with 19% decrease of risk for catheter failure (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73-0.89). Male sex (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.00-2.04), diabetic nephropathy (HR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.08-2.25) and low hemoglobin levels (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.81-0.98) were independent risk factors for abdominal wall complications. CONCLUSIONS: Urgent-start PD is a safe and efficacious option for unplanned ESRD patients. A well-trained PD team, a standardized catheter insertion procedure by experienced nephrologists, and a carefully designed initial PD prescription as well as comprehensive follow-up care, might be essential for the successful urgent-start PD program.

3.
J Cell Biochem ; 120(9): 15790-15799, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090961

RESUMO

As an oncogene, IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) regulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of several cancers, such as breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of the scaffold protein IQGAP1 on EMT in gastric cancer remains unclear. Therefore, the present work was performed to address the question. Our results showed that IQGAP1 expression is upregulated in human gastric cancer specimens and cell lines. Furthermore, IQGAP1 knockdown inhibited the migratory ability of gastric cancer cells and reduced the expression of mesenchymal phenotype markers, including Slug, ß-catenin, Snail, Vimentin, and N-cadherin, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) secretion in gastric cancer cells. Conversely, IQGAP1 downregulation increased the epithelial phenotype marker E-cadherin. Furthermore, IQGAP1 silencing not only downregulated hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1α (HIF1α) but also limited its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Collectively, our results indicated that EMT was regulated by IQGAP1, which was associated with VEGF-A, since other data demonstrated that HIF1α was involved in VEGF-A expression. Therefore, we speculated that IQGAP1 regulated EMT of gastric cancer partially via the HIF1α/VEGF-A signaling pathway. IQGAP1 may serve as an effective therapeutic biomarker for gastric cancer.

4.
J Thorac Oncol ; 14(8): 1360-1369, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009812

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Inherited susceptibility to lung cancer risk in never-smokers is poorly understood. The major reason for this gap in knowledge is that this disease is relatively uncommon (except in Asians), making it difficult to assemble an adequate study sample. In this study we conducted a genome-wide association study on the largest, to date, set of European-descent never-smokers with lung cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-phase (discovery and replication) genome-wide association study in never-smokers of European descent. We further augmented the sample by performing a meta-analysis with never-smokers from the recent OncoArray study, which resulted in a total of 3636 cases and 6295 controls. We also compare our findings with those in smokers with lung cancer. RESULTS: We detected three genome-wide statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms rs31490 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.769, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.722-0.820; p value 5.31 × 10-16), rs380286 (OR: 0.770, 95% CI: 0.723-0.820; p value 4.32 × 10-16), and rs4975616 (OR: 0.778, 95% CI: 0.730-0.829; p value 1.04 × 10-14). All three mapped to Chromosome 5 CLPTM1L-TERT region, previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk in smokers and in never-smoker Asian women, and risk of other cancers including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and prostate. CONCLUSIONS: We found that genetic susceptibility to lung cancer in never-smokers is associated to genetic variants with pan-cancer risk effects. The comparison with smokers shows that top variants previously shown to be associated with lung cancer risk only confer risk in the presence of tobacco exposure, underscoring the importance of gene-environment interactions in the etiology of this disease.

5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(3)2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682823

RESUMO

Hyperspectral Images (HSIs) contain enriched information due to the presence of various bands, which have gained attention for the past few decades. However, explosive growth in HSIs' scale and dimensions causes "Curse of dimensionality" and "Hughes phenomenon". Dimensionality reduction has become an important means to overcome the "Curse of dimensionality". In hyperspectral images, labeled samples are more difficult to collect because they require many labor and material resources. Semi-supervised dimensionality reduction is very important in mining high-dimensional data due to the lack of costly-labeled samples. The promotion of the supervised dimensionality reduction method to the semi-supervised method is mostly done by graph, which is a powerful tool for characterizing data relationships and manifold exploration. To take advantage of the spatial information of data, we put forward a novel graph construction method for semi-supervised learning, called SLIC Superpixel-based l 2 , 1 -norm Robust Principal Component Analysis (SURPCA2,1), which integrates superpixel segmentation method Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) into Low-rank Decomposition. First, the SLIC algorithm is adopted to obtain the spatial homogeneous regions of HSI. Then, the l 2 , 1 -norm RPCA is exploited in each superpixel area, which captures the global information of homogeneous regions and preserves spectral subspace segmentation of HSIs very well. Therefore, we have explored the spatial and spectral information of hyperspectral image simultaneously by combining superpixel segmentation with RPCA. Finally, a semi-supervised dimensionality reduction framework based on SURPCA2,1 graph is used for feature extraction task. Extensive experiments on multiple HSIs showed that the proposed spectral-spatial SURPCA2,1 is always comparable to other compared graphs with few labeled samples.

6.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1042: 116-124, 2018 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30428978

RESUMO

Amplifying the signal of ELISA is important in the early disease diagnosis. Herein we report an ultrasensitive ELISA applying for the detection of hCG based on the assemble of AuNPs induced by functional PAMAM. The AuNP-PAMAM probe shows a competitive advantage sensitivity of 0.03 IU L-1 compared to traditional ELISA and mAb1-AuNP-HRP probe. The line range is ranged from 0.1 to 6.4 IU L-1. Moreover, the precision and reproducibility and specificity of AuNP-PAMAM probe are also eligible for the detection of hCG. The assembled AuNPs was firstly used in the signal enhancement in immunoassay.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3927, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254314

RESUMO

Lung cancer has several genetic associations identified within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); although the basis for these associations remains elusive. Here, we analyze MHC genetic variation among 26,044 lung cancer patients and 20,836 controls densely genotyped across the MHC, using the Illumina Illumina OncoArray or Illumina 660W SNP microarray. We impute sequence variation in classical HLA genes, fine-map MHC associations for lung cancer risk with major histologies and compare results between ethnicities. Independent and novel associations within HLA genes are identified in Europeans including amino acids in the HLA-B*0801 peptide binding groove and an independent HLA-DQB1*06 loci group. In Asians, associations are driven by two independent HLA allele sets that both increase risk in HLA-DQB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0701; the latter better represented by the amino acid Ala-104. These results implicate several HLA-tumor peptide interactions as the major MHC factor modulating lung cancer susceptibility.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3221, 2018 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104567

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified the chromosome 15q25.1 locus as a leading susceptibility region for lung cancer. However, the pathogenic pathways, through which susceptibility SNPs within chromosome 15q25.1 affects lung cancer risk, have not been explored. We analyzed three cohorts with GWAS data consisting 42,901 individuals and lung expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data on 409 individuals to identify and validate the underlying pathways and to investigate the combined effect of genes from the identified susceptibility pathways. The KEGG neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway, two Reactome pathways, and 22 Gene Ontology terms were identified and replicated to be significantly associated with lung cancer risk, with P values less than 0.05 and FDR less than 0.1. Functional annotation of eQTL analysis results showed that the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and gated channel activity were involved in lung cancer risk. These pathways provide important insights for the etiology of lung cancer.

9.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 37(1): 114, 2018 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tetrandrine, a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid that was isolated from the medicinal plant Stephania tetrandrine S. Moore, was recently identified as a novel chemotherapy drug. Tetrandrine exhibited a potential antitumor effect on multiple types of cancer. Notably, an enhanced therapeutic efficacy was identified when tetrandrine was combined with a molecularly targeted agent. H89 is a potent inhibitor of protein kinase A and is an isoquinoline sulfonamide. METHODS: The effects of H89 combined with tetrandrine were investigated in vitro with respect to cell viability, apoptosis and autophagy, and synergy was assessed by calculation of the combination index. The mechanism was examined by western blot, flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. This combination was also evaluated in a mouse xenograft model; tumor growth and tumor lysates were analyzed, and a TUNEL assay was performed. RESULTS: Combined treatment with H89 and tetrandrine exerts a mostly synergistic anti-tumor effect on human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo while sparing normal cells. Mechanistically, the combined therapy significantly induced cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy, which were mediated by ROS regulated PKA and ERK signaling. Moreover, Mcl-1 and c-Myc were shown to play a critical role in H89/tetrandrine combined treatment. Mcl-1 ectopic expression significantly diminished H89/tetrandrine sensitivity and amplified c-Myc sensitized cancer cells in the combined treatment. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate that the combination of tetrandrine and H89 exhibits an enhanced therapeutic effect and may become a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients. They also indicate a significant clinical application of tetrandrine in the treatment of human cancer. Moreover, the combination of H89/tetrandrine provides new selectively targeted therapeutic strategies for patients with c-Myc amplification.

10.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 47(3): 1141-1151, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29913442

RESUMO

Background/Aims Pigeon breeder's lung (PBL) results from Th1/Th2 cell imbalance. B cells inhibit the immune activity of Th1, and EBF3 is a key B cell factor. This study explored the relationship between EBF3 and Th1/Th2 imbalance in chronic PBL cases complicated with pulmonary fibrosis (PF). Methods Twenty Uygur PBL+PF patients, 20 pigeon breeders without PBL or PF, and 20 healthy individuals without pigeon breeding history constituted the patient I, negative control, and normal control groups, respectively. Peripheral blood specimens and case backgrounds were collected between June 2016 and March 2017. EBF3 gene methylation was analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. To compare different mechanisms of PF progression in PBL, samples from 20 Uygur PBL patients without PF (at acute and sub-acute stages) were collected between October 2017 and February 2018, constituting the patient II group. EBF3 mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 expression and Th1/Th2 imbalance in PBL were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry. Results CpG-2 and general methylation rates in the patient I group were lower than those in the control groups (P˂0.017). The level of EBF3 mRNA expression in the patient I group was significantly higher than that in any other group. Compared with the control groups, the patient I group showed a significantly higher level of IL-4, whereas the patient II group showed a significantly lower level. IL-10 was also expressed more highly in the patient I group than in any other group (P< 0.01). Flow cytometry showed INF-γ dominance (Th1 cytokine) in PBL at the acute/sub-acute stage and IL-4 dominance (Th2 cytokine) at the chronic stage after PF occurred. The general methylation rate was negatively correlated with the mRNA level, with the latter being positively correlated with the IL-10 level and number of pigeons bred in the past 3 months. IL-4 expression was negatively correlated with INF-γ but positively correlated with PF area and duration of pigeon breeding history. Conclusions After PF occurs in chronic PBL, the inflammation type changes from Th1 dominance to Th2 dominance. During PBL development, IL-10 increases before IL-4 does, which may be associated with EBF3 hypomethylation and the involvement of B lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Fibrose Pulmonar , Células Th1 , Células Th2 , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Cruzamento , China , Columbidae , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fibrose Pulmonar/sangue , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Células Th1/patologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Células Th2/patologia
11.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(9): 1135-1140, 2018 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924316

RESUMO

To identify genetic variation associated with lung cancer risk, we performed a genome-wide association analysis of 685 lung cancer cases that had a family history of two or more first or second degree relatives compared with 744 controls without lung cancer that were genotyped on an Illumina Human OmniExpressExome-8v1 array. To ensure robust results, we further evaluated these findings using data from six additional studies that were assembled through the Transdisciplinary Research on Cancer of the Lung Consortium comprising 1993 familial cases and 33 690 controls. We performed a meta-analysis after imputation of all variants using the 1000 Genomes Project Phase 1 (version 3 release date September 2013). Analyses were conducted for 9 327 222 SNPs integrating data from the two sources. A novel variant on chromosome 4p15.31 near the LCORL gene and an imputed rare variant intergenic between CDKN2A and IFNA8 on chromosome 9p21.3 were identified at a genome-wide level of significance for squamous cell carcinomas. Additionally, associations of CHRNA3 and CHRNA5 on chromosome 15q25.1 in sporadic lung cancer were confirmed at a genome-wide level of significance in familial lung cancer. Previously identified variants in or near CHRNA2, BRCA2, CYP2A6 for overall lung cancer, TERT, SECISPB2L and RTEL1 for adenocarcinoma and RAD52 and MHC for squamous carcinoma were significantly associated with lung cancer.

12.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(5): 473, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700286

RESUMO

Tetrandrine is a broadly used bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid component of traditional Chinese medicine that has antitumor effects in some cancer types. In this study, we investigated the effects of tetrandrine on leukemia in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that tetrandrine effectively induced differentiation and autophagy in leukemia cells. In addition, tetrandrine treatment activated the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibited c-MYC protein expression. Further, we found that treatment with the ROS scavengers N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and Tiron as well as overexpression of c-MYC reduced tetrandrine-induced autophagy and differentiation. Moreover, a small molecular c-MYC inhibitor, 10058-F4, enhanced the tetrandrine-induced differentiation of leukemia cells. These results suggest that ROS generation and c-MYC suppression play important roles in tetrandrine-induced autophagy and differentiation, and the results from in vivo experiments were consistent with those from in vitro studies. Therefore, our data suggest that tetrandrine may be a promising agent for the treatment of leukemia.

13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 18(5)2018 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701643

RESUMO

A facile method for preparing an easy processing, repeatable and flexible pressure sensor was presented via the synthesis of modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes (m-MWNTs) and polyurethane (PU) films. The surface modification of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) simultaneously used a silane coupling agent (KH550) and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) to improve the dispersibility and compatibility of the MWNTs in a polymer matrix. The electrical property and piezoresistive behavior of the m-MWNT/PU composites were compared with raw multi-walled carbon nanotube (raw MWNT)/PU composites. Under linear uniaxial pressure, the m-MWNT/PU composite exhibited 4.282%kPa−1 sensitivity within the pressure of 1 kPa. The nonlinear error, hysteresis error and repeatability error of the piezoresistivity of m-MWNT/PU decreased 9%, 16.72% and 54.95% relative to raw MWNT/PU respectively. Therefore, the piezoresistive response of m-MWNT/PU had better stability than that of raw MWNT/PU composites. The m-MWNT/PU sensors could be utilized in wearable devices for body movement detection, monitoring of respiration and pressure detection in garments.


Assuntos
Nanotubos de Carbono , Humanos , Polímeros , Pressão
14.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0189498, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29293537

RESUMO

Gene-level analysis of ImmunoChip or genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data has not been previously reported for systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). The objective of this study was to analyze genetic susceptibility loci in SSc at the gene level and to determine if the detected associations were shared in African-American and White populations, using data from ImmunoChip and GWAS genotyping studies. The White sample included 1833 cases and 3466 controls (956 cases and 2741 controls from the US and 877 cases and 725 controls from Spain) and the African American sample, 291 cases and 260 controls. In both Whites and African Americans, we performed a gene-level analysis that integrates association statistics in a gene possibly harboring multiple SNPs with weak effect on disease risk, using Versatile Gene-based Association Study (VEGAS) software. The SNP-level analysis was performed using PLINK v.1.07. We identified 4 novel candidate genes (STAT1, FCGR2C, NIPSNAP3B, and SCT) significantly associated and 4 genes (SERBP1, PINX1, TMEM175 and EXOC2) suggestively associated with SSc in the gene level analysis in White patients. As an exploratory analysis we compared the results on Whites with those from African Americans. Of previously established susceptibility genes identified in Whites, only TNFAIP3 was significant at the nominal level (p = 6.13x10-3) in African Americans in the gene-level analysis of the ImmunoChip data. Among the top suggestive novel genes identified in Whites based on the ImmunoChip data, FCGR2C and PINX1 were only nominally significant in African Americans (p = 0.016 and p = 0.028, respectively), while among the top novel genes identified in the gene-level analysis in African Americans, UNC5C (p = 5.57x10-4) and CLEC16A (p = 0.0463) were also nominally significant in Whites. We also present the gene-level analysis of SSc clinical and autoantibody phenotypes among Whites. Our findings need to be validated by independent studies, particularly due to the limited sample size of African Americans.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
15.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(3): 336-346, 2018 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059373

RESUMO

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer. Both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to lung carcinogenesis. We conducted a genome-wide interaction analysis between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and smoking status (never- versus ever-smokers) in a European-descent population. We adopted a two-step analysis strategy in the discovery stage: we first conducted a case-only interaction analysis to assess the relationship between SNPs and smoking behavior using 13336 non-small cell lung cancer cases. Candidate SNPs with P-value <0.001 were further analyzed using a standard case-control interaction analysis including 13970 controls. The significant SNPs with P-value <3.5 × 10-5 (correcting for multiple tests) from the case-control analysis in the discovery stage were further validated using an independent replication dataset comprising 5377 controls and 3054 non-small cell lung cancer cases. We further stratified the analysis by histological subtypes. Two novel SNPs, rs6441286 and rs17723637, were identified for overall lung cancer risk. The interaction odds ratio and meta-analysis P-value for these two SNPs were 1.24 with 6.96 × 10-7 and 1.37 with 3.49 × 10-7, respectively. In addition, interaction of smoking with rs4751674 was identified in squamous cell lung carcinoma with an odds ratio of 0.58 and P-value of 8.12 × 10-7. This study is by far the largest genome-wide SNP-smoking interaction analysis reported for lung cancer. The three identified novel SNPs provide potential candidate biomarkers for lung cancer risk screening and intervention. The results from our study reinforce that gene-smoking interactions play important roles in the etiology of lung cancer and account for part of the missing heritability of this disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/etiologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
16.
BMC Genomics ; 18(1): 740, 2017 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28927378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nearly 6 million deaths and over a half trillion dollars in healthcare costs worldwide are attributed to tobacco smoking each year. Extensive research efforts have been pursued to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of smoking addiction and facilitate cessation. In this study, we genotyped and obtained both resting state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging from 64 non-smokers and 42 smokers. Smokers were imaged after having smoked normally ("sated") and after having not smoked for at least 12 h ("abstinent"). RESULTS: While abstinent smokers did not differ from non-smokers with respect to pairwise resting state functional connectivities (RSFCs) between 12 brain regions of interest, RSFCs involving the caudate and putamen of sated smokers significantly differed from those of non-smokers (P < 0.01). Further analyses of caudate and putamen activity during elicited experiences of reward and disappointment show that caudate activity during reward (CR) correlated with smoking status (P = 0.015). Moreover, abstinent smokers with lower CR experienced greater withdrawal symptoms (P = 0.024), which suggests CR may be related to smoking urges. Associations between genetic variants and CR, adjusted for smoking status, were identified by genome-wide association study (GWAS). Genes containing or exhibiting caudate-specific expression regulation by these variants were enriched within Gene Ontology terms that describe cytoskeleton functions, synaptic organization, and injury response (P < 0.001, FDR < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: By integrating genomic and imaging data, novel insights into potential mechanisms of caudate activation and homeostasis are revealed that may guide new directions of research toward improving our understanding of addiction pathology.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleo Caudado/patologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Homeostase , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Comportamento Aditivo/metabolismo , Comportamento Aditivo/patologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Transdução de Sinais , Fumar/metabolismo , Fumar/psicologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 2626, 2017 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28572625

RESUMO

Community detection involves grouping the nodes of a network such that nodes in the same community are more densely connected to each other than to the rest of the network. Previous studies have focused mainly on identifying communities in networks using node connectivity. However, each node in a network may be associated with many attributes. Identifying communities in networks combining node attributes has become increasingly popular in recent years. Most existing methods operate on networks with attributes of binary, categorical, or numerical type only. In this study, we introduce kNN-enhance, a simple and flexible community detection approach that uses node attribute enhancement. This approach adds the k Nearest Neighbor (kNN) graph of node attributes to alleviate the sparsity and the noise effect of an original network, thereby strengthening the community structure in the network. We use two testing algorithms, kNN-nearest and kNN-Kmeans, to partition the newly generated, attribute-enhanced graph. Our analyses of synthetic and real world networks have shown that the proposed algorithms achieve better performance compared to existing state-of-the-art algorithms. Further, the algorithms are able to deal with networks containing different combinations of binary, categorical, or numerical attributes and could be easily extended to the analysis of massive networks.

18.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1126-1132, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28604730

RESUMO

Although several lung cancer susceptibility loci have been identified, much of the heritability for lung cancer remains unexplained. Here 14,803 cases and 12,262 controls of European descent were genotyped on the OncoArray and combined with existing data for an aggregated genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis of lung cancer in 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. We identified 18 susceptibility loci achieving genome-wide significance, including 10 new loci. The new loci highlight the striking heterogeneity in genetic susceptibility across the histological subtypes of lung cancer, with four loci associated with lung cancer overall and six loci associated with lung adenocarcinoma. Gene expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in 1,425 normal lung tissue samples highlights RNASET2, SECISBP2L and NRG1 as candidate genes. Other loci include genes such as a cholinergic nicotinic receptor, CHRNA2, and the telomere-related genes OFBC1 and RTEL1. Further exploration of the target genes will continue to provide new insights into the etiology of lung cancer.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adulto , Idoso , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fumar/epidemiologia , Homeostase do Telômero/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175850, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28426704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We analyzed and integrated transcriptome data from two large studies of lung adenocarcinomas on distinct populations. Our goal was to investigate the variable gene expression alterations between paired tumor-normal tissues and prospectively identify those alterations that can reliably predict lung disease related outcomes across populations. METHODS: We developed a mixed model that combined the paired tumor-normal RNA-seq from two populations. Alterations in gene expression common to both populations were detected and validated in two independent DNA microarray datasets. A 10-gene prognosis signature was developed through a l1 penalized regression approach and its prognostic value was evaluated in a third independent microarray cohort. RESULTS: Deregulation of apoptosis pathways and increased expression of cell cycle pathways were identified in tumors of both Caucasian and Asian lung adenocarcinoma patients. We demonstrate that a 10-gene biomarker panel can predict prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma in both Caucasians and Asians. Compared to low risk groups, high risk groups showed significantly shorter overall survival time (Caucasian patients data: HR = 3.63, p-value = 0.007; Asian patients data: HR = 3.25, p-value = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study uses a statistical framework to detect DEGs between paired tumor and normal tissues that considers variances among patients and ethnicities, which will aid in understanding the common genes and signalling pathways with the largest effect sizes in ethnically diverse cohorts. We propose multifunctional markers for distinguishing tumor from normal tissue and prognosis for both populations studied.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Análise de Sequência de RNA
20.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(1)2017 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28106732

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer in the United States, killing roughly one of four cancer patients in 2016. While it is well-established that lung cancer is caused primarily by environmental effects (particularly tobacco smoking), there is evidence for genetic susceptibility. Lung cancer has been shown to aggregate in families, and segregation analyses have hypothesized a major susceptibility locus for the disease. Genetic association studies have provided strong evidence for common risk variants of small-to-moderate effect. Rare and highly penetrant alleles have been identified by linkage studies, including on 6q23-25. Though not common, some germline mutations have also been identified via sequencing studies. Ongoing genomics studies aim to identify additional high penetrance germline susceptibility alleles for this deadly disease.

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