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1.
BMC Urol ; 20(1): 78, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent hematospermia accompanied by postejaculatory hematuria is a very rare phenomenon, has not been well understood in the clinical setting, and usually leads to misdiagnosis and mistreatment. The aim of this study was to summarize the clinical characteristics, etiologic diagnosis, and endoscopic treatment of hematospermia with postcoital hematuria. METHODS: We collected the clinical data from 39 patients of hematospermia with postcoital hematuria, who were admitted to our hospital from May 2014 to October 2019. The etiologic diagnostic process and endoscopic surgery were analyzed retrospectively, and we observed and evaluated the efficacy and any complications during follow-up. RESULTS: The average age of the 39 patients was 44.1 years (range, 18-61 years), and the disease history ranged from 1 month to 20 years, with a median duration of 24 months. All of the patients were observed by urethrocystoscopy, which showed 38 cases of posterior urethral hemangioma (PUH) or abnormal varicose vessels, and 1 case of anterior urethral hemangioma. Of these, 18 patients underwent transurethral resection of urethral hemangioma, and 21 patients underwent transurethral electrocauterization. Postoperative follow-up ranged from 1 to 56 months, with a median of 16 months. The symptoms disappeared in 37 patients and recurred in 2 patients two to 3 months after the operation. The two recurrent patients were treated again by transurethral electrocauterization, and their symptoms then disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: PUH is the most common cause of hematospermia with postejaculatory hematuria. Herein, we demonstrated that transurethral resection or electrocauterization provides a safe, effective, and minimally invasive method for the treatment of PUH.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Percutaneous compression of the trigeminal ganglion (PCTG) can induce significant hemodynamic perturbations secondary to the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of atropine pretreatment on hemodynamic responses during PCTG for trigeminal neuralgia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 120 patients who received PCTG were randomly assigned to control and atropine groups that were pretreated with saline (n=60) and atropine 0.004 mg/kg intravenously (n=60), respectively. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured at 9 timepoints from before induction of anesthesia until the end of the PCTG procedure; the incidence of TCR was also observed. RESULTS: HR was higher in the atropine compared with control group from the time of skin puncture with the PCTG needle until after the procedure was completed (P<0.05). MAP was also higher in the atropine compared with control group, but only at entry of the needle into the foramen ovale until 1 minute after trigeminal ganglion compression (P<0.05). HR was reduced in both groups during entry of the needle into the foramen ovale and during ganglion compression, but less so in the atropine compared with the control group (P<0.05). MAP increased during PCTG compared with baseline in both groups, but with a larger increase in the atropine group (P<0.05). Two and 52 cases in the control group, and 6 and 1 cases in the atropine group, exhibited a TCR during entry of the needle into the foramen ovale and at ganglion compression, respectively (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with atropine was effective in most patients at minimizing abrupt reduction in HR during PCTG.

3.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 52(7): 1271-1277, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32100205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize in a literature review our treatment experience involving microscopic replantation in a rare case of a completely amputated penis and testes. PATIENT AND METHODS: The penis and testes were completely amputated due to self-mutilation. The 26-year-old patient immediately underwent microscopic replantation of the penis and testes after pre-operative preparation. Potent anti-infectives and anti-depressives, and microcirculation-improving hyperbaric oxygen therapy were utilized after surgery. RESULTS: The time between the amputation and surgery was about 10 h. The patient was followed for 12 months post-surgery. The replanted penis recovered and the patient could urinate normally in the standing position with a maximal urinary flow rate of 20 ml/s. The testes also survived, but their size showed obvious atrophy. The serum testosterone level at 2 months after the operation was 120 ng/dL (normal reference range: 175-781 ng/dL). Erectile function gradually recovered after androgen replacement therapy. CONCLUSION: Complete amputation of the penis and testis is very rare. Efforts should be made to perform the replantation surgery as soon as possible. Microscopic surgical techniques for elaborate vascular and neural anastomosis constitute the basis for a successful replantation. Post-operative comprehensive treatment such as strong anti-infection, analgesia, anti-depression, improvement of microcirculation, and hyperbaric oxygen is crucial for the survival and functional recovery of replanted organs.

4.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 19: 72-83, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835093

RESUMO

Non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is the most severe form of male infertility. However, the etiology of NOA is largely unknown, resulting in a lack of clinical treatments. Here, we performed a comparative genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation and identified SOX30 as the most notably hyper-methylated gene at promoter in testicular tissues from NOA patients. This hyper-methylation at promoter of SOX30 directly causes its silencing of expression in NOA. The reduced levels of SOX30 expression are correlated with severity of NOA disease. Deletion of Sox30 in mice uniquely impairs testis development and spermatogenesis with complete absence of spermatozoa in testes leading to male infertility, but does not influence ovary development and female fertility. The pathology and testicular size of Sox30 null mice highly simulate those of NOA patients. Re-expression of Sox30 in Sox30 null mice at adult age reverses the pathological damage of testis and restores the spermatogenesis. The re-presented spermatozoa after re-expression of Sox30 in Sox30 null mice have the ability to start a pregnancy. Moreover, the male offspring of Sox30 re-expression Sox30 null mice still can father children, and these male offspring and their children can live normally more than 1 year without significant difference of physical appearance compared with wild-type mice. In summary, methylated inactivation of SOX30 uniquely impairs spermatogenesis, probably causing NOA disease, and re-expression of SOX30 can successfully restore the spermatogenesis and actual fertility. This study advances our understanding of the pathogenesis of NOA, offering a promising therapy target for NOA disease.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 121: 109425, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726370

RESUMO

Gastric carcinoma (GC) is still one of the most common digestive system neoplasms and the primary reason for malignant cancer-associated death. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to play critical roles in GC progression. In this study, we demonstrated that lncRNA testis development-related gene 1 (TDRG1) is markedly upregulated in clinical GC tissues and GC cells. High level of lncRNA TDRG1 correlates with the metastasis and prognosis of patients with GC. Overexpression of lncRNA TDRG1 promotes GC growth and metastatic-related traits in vitro and in vivo, and silencing TDRG1 causes opposite results. We future find that TDRG1 is inversely associated with miR-873-5p and positively modulates the expression of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF), a functional target gene of miR-873-5p. Finally, lncRNA TDRG1 regulates the progression of GC through regulating miR-873-5p/HDGF pathway. Taken together, our data uncover the crucial function of TDRG1-miR-873-5p-HDGF axis in human gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Regulação para Cima/genética
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16193, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335671

RESUMO

MicroRNA-191 (miR-191) has been identified as being upregulated in several types of cancers, and plays the role of oncogene. The expression of miR-191 has been found to be upregulated in prostate cancer tissues as well as cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the correlation of miR-191 expression with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis in prostate cancer.Prostate cancer tissue samples and adjacent normal prostate tissue samples were collected from 146 patients who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomy between April 2013 and March 2018. Student two-tailed t-test was used for comparisons of 2 independent groups. The relationships between miR-191 expression and different clinicopathological characteristics were evaluated using the Chi-squared test. Kaplan-Meier survival plots and log-rank tests were used to assess the differences in overall survival of the different subgroups of prostate cancer patients.miR-191 expression was significantly higher in prostate cancer tissues compared with normal adjacent prostate tissues (P < .001). miR-191 expression was observed to be significantly correlated with Gleason score (P < .001), pelvic lymph node metastasis (P = .006), bone metastases (P < .001), and T stage (P = .005). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with higher levels of miR-191 had significantly poorer survival than those with lower expression of this miRNA in prostate cancer patients (log rank test, P = .011). Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-191 expression (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.311, 95% confidence interval, [CI]: 1.666-9.006; P = .027) was independently associated with the overall survival of prostate cancer patients.Our results demonstrated that miR-191 might serve as an independent prognostic indicator for prostate cancer patients.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs/genética , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/patologia , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , China , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Prostatectomia/métodos , Prostatectomia/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Análise de Sobrevida , Regulação para Cima/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5018, 2019 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903016

RESUMO

To investigate the surgical outcomes of vesiculoscopy on refractory hematospermia and ejaculatory duct obstruction (EDO), the clinical data (including pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations and the long-term effects of endoscopic treatment) from 305 patients were analyzed. Four main etiologic groups were found on MRI. We found that 62.0% (189/305) of patients showed abnormal signal intensity in MRI investigations in the seminal vesicle (SV) area. Cystic lesions were observed in 36.7% (112/305) of the patients. The third sign was dilatation or enlargement of unilateral or bilateral SV, which were observed in 32.1% (98/305) of the patients. The fourth sign was stone formation in SV or in an adjacent cyst, which was present in 8.5% (26/305) of the patients. The transurethral endoscopy or seminal vesiculoscopy and the related procedures, including fenestration in prostatic utricle (PU), irrigation, lithotripsy, stone removal, biopsy, electroexcision, fulguration, or transurethral resection/incision of the ejaculatory duct (TURED/TUIED), chosen according to the different situations of individual patients were successfully performed in 296 patients. Fenestrations in PU+ seminal vesiculoscopy were performed in 66.6% (197/296) of cases. Seminal vesiculoscopy via the pathological opening in PU was performed in 10.8% (32/296) of cases. TURED/TUIED + seminal vesiculoscopy was performed in 12.8% (38/296) of cases, and seminal vesiculoscopy by the natural orifices of the ejaculatory duct (ED) was performed in 2.4% (7/296) of cases. Electroexcision and fulguration to the abnormal blood vessels or cavernous hemangioma at posterior urethra were performed in 7.4% (22/296) of cases. Two hundred and seventy-one patients were followed up for 6-72 months. The hematospermia of all the patients disappeared within 2-6 weeks, and 93.0% of the patients showed no further hematospermia during follow-up. No obvious postoperative complications were observed. The transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy technique and related procedures are safe and effective approaches for refractory hematospermia and EDO.

8.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 16(6): 547-556, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500401

RESUMO

Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells develop from CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) thymocytes and express an invariant Vα14-Jα18 T-cell receptor (TCR) α-chain. Generation of these cells requires the prolonged survival of DP thymocytes to allow for Vα14-Jα18 gene rearrangements and strong TCR signaling to induce the expression of the iNKT lineage-specific transcription factor PLZF. Here, we report that the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is essential for iNKT cell formation. Thymocytes lacking YY1 displayed a block in iNKT cell development at the earliest progenitor stage. YY1-deficient thymocytes underwent normal Vα14-Jα18 gene rearrangements, but exhibited impaired cell survival. Deletion of the apoptotic protein BIM failed to rescue the defect in iNKT cell generation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and deep-sequencing experiments demonstrated that YY1 directly binds and activates the promoter of the Plzf gene. Thus, YY1 plays essential roles in iNKT cell development by coordinately regulating cell survival and PLZF expression.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30519263

RESUMO

Qianlie Tongqiao Capsule (QTC) is clinically confirmed to be efficacious and safe in treating lower urinary tract syndromes and bladder dysfunction that are induced by benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the functional mechanisms of QTC remain unclear. We aim to investigate the effects of QTC on both bladder weight and several growth factors in the bladder tissue of rats with testosterone-induced BPH. BPH in the rats was established through bilateral orchiectomy and subcutaneous administration of testosterone propionate (5 mg/kg) dissolved in corn oil. At the end of the study, all bladder tissues were collected and weighed, and a histological examination was conducted using H&E staining. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were applied to detect the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transformation growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1) in the bladder tissue. The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in the bladder tissue was tested by Western Blot and qRT-PCR. We found that QTC, especially when administered in high-dosages, had a significant inhibitory effect on bladder weight gain and overexpression of NGF, bFGF, and TGF-ß1 in rats with BPH. In addition, QTC downregulated and upregulated protein and mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax in the bladder after prostatic obstruction, respectively. Furthermore, QTC balanced the Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Overall, these results reveal possible functional mechanisms of QTC in treating BPH-caused bladder dysfunction, and further studies are needed.

10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(50): e13344, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymph node detection in prostate cancer is challenging and critical to determine treatment policy. Choline PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used for the evaluation of lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer for the past decade. However, only limited patients underwent direct comparison studies. PURPOSE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of choline PET/CT compared with MRI imaging for detecting lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Relevant English-language articles published before February 2018 were searched in PubMed database, Embase database, and Cochrane Library databases search using the keywords: (Prostate Neoplasm OR Prostate Cancer OR prostate carcinoma) and (Lymph Node) and (PET/CT OR positron emission tomography/computed tomography) and (choline or 2-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium) and (magnetic resonance imaging OR MRI). Articles were included that directly compare the diagnostic performance and clinical utility of choline PET/CT and MRI for detecting lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients. Study quality was assessed with QUADAS criteria. Analyses were performed on a per patient and a per node basis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), positive likelihood ratio (LR+), and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) were calculated using Meta-Disc 1.4 software. Summary receiver-operating characteristic (SROC) curves constructed. RESULTS: A total of 362 patients from 8 studies involving fulfilled the inclusion criteria. On patient-based analysis, the pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for choline PET/CT imaging were 0.59 (95%CI, 0.50-0.67), 0.92 (95%CI, 0.87-0.96), 17.37 (95%CI, 4.42-68.33), and for MRI imaging, they were 0.52 (95%CI, 0.44-0.61), 0.87 (95%CI, 0.81-0.92), 6.05 (95%CI, 3.09-11.85), respectively. On node-based, the corresponding values for choline PET/CT imaging were 0.51 (95%CI, 0.46-0.57), 0.99 (95%CI, 0.98-0.99), 65.55 (95%CI, 23.55-182.45), and for MRI imaging, they were 0.39 (95%CI, 0.34-0.44), 0.97 (95%CI, 0.96-0.97), 15.86 (95%CI, 8.96-28.05), respectively. CONCLUSION: Choline PET/CT performed better than MRI imaging in evaluating the lymph nodes metastasis of prostate cancer patients and had the potential to be broadly applied in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/normas , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/normas , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Idoso , Colina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metástase Linfática/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Curva ROC
11.
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 36(5): 488-492, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This work aims to investigate the effect of stripping of steep sheep maxillary sinus by using 0.012 or 0.014 model new-type memory elastic silk sleeve stripper and umbrella stripper. METHODS: Goats with sinus floor gradients of 60° to 90° were selected by computed tomography of sheep head. A total of 72 animal models were established and randomized into three groups (n=24): group A (0.012 model), B (0.014 model) and C (umbrella stripper). Alveolar and maxillary sinus mucosa were stripped after crowning, and stripping length was measured when the stripping limit was reached or mucosal perforation occurred. RESULTS: The average stripping length of mucosa in group A was 11.3 mm±4.6 mm, and three cases experienced perforation of sinus floor mucosa. The average stripping length of mucosa in group B was 17.5 mm±5.0 mm, and one case experienced perforation of sinus floor mucosa. The average stripping length of mucosa in group C was 4.2 mm±1.3 mm, and four cases experienced perforation of sinus floor mucosa. The difference among the three groups was statistically significant (P<0.01) according to variance analysis. Moreover, the comparison between any two means was also statistically significant according to Dunnett's T3 test (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The new-type memory elastic silk sleeve stripper effectively stripped steep maxillary sinus mucosa. The 0.014 model exhibited superior peeling effect and was relatively safe.


Assuntos
Seio Maxilar , Seda , Levantamento do Assoalho do Seio Maxilar , Animais , Cabras , Membrana Mucosa , Ovinos
12.
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue ; 24(8): 713-718, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173431

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of injection of botulinum-A toxin into the bulbospongiosus muscle in the treatment of primary premature ejaculation (PPE). METHODS: According to the inclusion criteria, we randomly assigned 70 outpatients with PPE to a trial and a control group of equal number, the former injected with 100 U botulinum-A toxin at 10 U/ml and the latter with the same volume of saline into the bulbospongiosus muscle. Then, we obtained the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT), scores of the Premature Ejaculation Profile (PEP), Male Sexual Health Questionnaire-Ejaculatory Dysfunction (MSHQ-EjD), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the incidence of adverse reactions between the two groups before and 4 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: Complete data were obtained from 69 of the patients, 34 in the trial and 35 in the control group. The effectiveness rate was 47.06% (16/34) in the former but 0 in the latter. At 4 weeks after treatment, the patients of the trial group showed a significantly longer IELT than the controls and the baseline (ï¼»2.35 ± 1.83ï¼½ vs ï¼»0.79 ± 0.21ï¼½ and ï¼»0.74 ±+ 0.27ï¼½ min, P < 0.01) and the controls. The patients in the trial group, in comparison with those in the saline control group and the baseline, also exhibited significant improvement in the scores of PEP-ejaculation control (1.21 ± 1.04 vs 0.49 ± 0.56 and 0.47 ± 0.51, P < 0.05), PEP-sexual satisfaction (1.32 ± 1.01 vs 0.71 ± 0.57 and 0.79 ± 0.48, P < 0.05), PEP-PE-related distress (2.12 ± 1.01 vs 2.80 ± 0.68 and 2.76 ± 1.26, P < 0.05), and PEP-PE-induced difficult relationship with the partners (1.38 ± 0.70 vs 2.37 ± 0.55 and 2.12 ± 1.49, P < 0.05). The sexual satisfaction score of the female partners after treatment was markedly improved in the trial group as compared with the control group and the baseline (1.18 ± 1.00 vs 0.57 ± 0.50 and 0.62 ± 0.60, P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in MSHQ-EjD and HADS scores between the two groups before and after treatment. Adverse reactions were observed in 6 cases (17.65%) in the trial group, including 4 cases of decreased erectile hardness (11.76%) and 2 cases of incomplete urination (5.88%), which occurred from the 3 to 4 days after injection, and those with decreased erectile hardness could complete sexual intercourse without any other treatment and recovered after 3 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Injection of botulinum-A toxin into the bulbospongiosus muscle can be used as an option for the treatment of PPE. Its clinical application value, however, needs to be verified by further studies with larger samples.


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuromusculares/administração & dosagem , Períneo , Ejaculação Precoce/tratamento farmacológico , Coito , Ejaculação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares , Masculino , Parceiros Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 26(6): 1017-1025, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732719

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) to evaluate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) oxygenation in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and its associations with systemic metaflammation. METHODS: Five-week-old ZDF rats and Zucker lean (ZL) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks. A baseline BOLD-MRI scan of perirenal adipose tissue was performed after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, and then the rats were randomized to receive pioglitazone or a vehicle for the following 10 weeks. At sacrifice, BOLD-MRI scan, Hypoxyprobe-1 injection, and circulating T helper 17 (Th17), regulatory T (Treg) cells, and monocyte subtype flow cytometry analysis were performed. RESULTS: HFD feeding led to a significant increase in VAT BOLD-MRI R2* signals (20.14 ± 0.23 per second vs. 21.53 ± 0.20 per second; P = 0.012), an indicator for decreased oxygenation. R2* signal was significantly correlated with VAT pimonidazole adduct-positive area, insulin resistance, Th17 and Treg cells, CD43 + and CD43+ + monocyte subtypes, and VAT macrophage infiltration. Pioglitazone treatment improved the insulin resistance and was associated with a delayed progression of VAT oxygenation. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrated the feasibility of BOLD-MRI for detecting the VAT oxygenation status in ZDF rats, and the BOLD-MRI signals were associated with insulin resistance and systemic metaflammation in ZDF rats during the development of obesity.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/diagnóstico por imagem , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Tecido Adiposo , Animais , Insulina/sangue , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Obesidade/imunologia , Oxigênio/sangue , Ratos , Ratos Zucker
14.
Food Chem ; 257: 29-35, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622213

RESUMO

A very high pullulan producing yeast-like fungus, Aureobasidium melanogenum TN1-2 isolated from a natural honey was found to be able to produce 97.0 g/L of pullulan from 140.0 g/L sucrose at a flask level while it could yield 114.0 g/L of pullulan within 134 h during a 10-liter fermentation, the yield was 0.81 g/g and the productivity was 0.86 g/L/h. The high ability to biosynthesize pullulan by this yeast-like fungal strain TN1-2 was related to high glucosyltransferase activity, high phosphofructo-2-kinase activity, high content of its cellular glycerol and low glucose repressor. The Mw of the produced pullulan was 1.42 × 105 g/mol. The low Mw may be due to the high α-amylase, glucoamylase and isopullulanase activities. The intracellular level of trehalose had no influence on high pullulan production by the yeast-like fungal strain TN1-2.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Mel/microbiologia , Sacarose/metabolismo , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Biotransformação , Fermentação
16.
Crit Rev Biotechnol ; 38(7): 1049-1060, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385857

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Oleaginous yeasts, fatty acids biosynthesis and regulation in the oleaginous yeasts and the fatty acids from the oleaginous yeasts and their applications are reviewed in this article. RESULTS: Oleaginous yeasts such as Rhodosporidium toruloides, Yarrowia lipolytica, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Aureobasidium melanogenum, which can accumulate over 50% lipid of their cell dry weight, have many advantages over other oleaginous microorganisms. The fatty acids from the oleaginous yeasts have many potential applications. Many oleaginous yeasts have now been genetically modified to over-produce fatty acids and their derivatives. The most important features of the oleaginous yeasts are that they have special enzymatic systems for enhanced biosynthesis and regulation of fatty acids in their lipid particles. Recently, some oleaginous yeasts such as R. toruloides have been found to have a unique fatty acids synthetase and other oleaginous yeasts such as A. melanogenum have a unique highly reducing polyketide synthase (HR-PKS) involved in the biosynthesis of hydroxyl fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: It is necessary to further enhance lipid biosynthesis using metabolic engineering and explore new applications of fatty acids in biotechnology.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Engenharia Metabólica , Leveduras , Biotecnologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Leveduras/genética , Leveduras/metabolismo
17.
J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol ; 28(4): 190-200, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605900

RESUMO

In this study, in order to directly and efficiently convert inulin into a single-cell oil (SCO), an INU1 gene encoding inulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus was integrated into the genomic DNA and actively expressed in an SCO producer Aureobasidium melanogenum P10. The transformant API41 obtained produced 28.5 U/mL of inulinase and its wild-type strain P10 yielded only 8.62 U/mL. Most (97.5%) of the inulinase produced by the transformant API41 was secreted into the culture. During a 10-L fermentation, 66.2% (w/w) lipid in the yeast cells of the transformant API41 and 14.38 g/L of cell dry weight were attained from inulin of 80.0 g/L within 120 h, high inulinase activity (23.7 U/mL) was also produced within 72 h, and the added inulin was actively hydrolyzed. This confirmed that the genetically engineered yeast of A. melanogenum P10 is suitable for direct production of lipids from inulin. The lipids produced could be used as feedstocks for biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/biossíntese , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Inulina/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/biossíntese , Lipídeos/genética , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biocombustíveis , Clonagem Molecular , DNA Fúngico , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Vetores Genéticos , Microbiologia Industrial , Kluyveromyces , Transformação Genética/genética , Áreas Alagadas
18.
Diabetes Care ; 41(2): 293-302, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29150530

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Reductions in heart attack and stroke hospitalizations are well documented in the U.S. population with diabetes. We extended trend analyses to other cardiovascular disease (CVD) conditions, including stroke by type, and used four additional years of data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Using 1998-2014 National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample (NIS) data, we estimated the number of discharges having acute coronary syndrome (ACS) (ICD-9 codes 410-411), cardiac dysrhythmia (427), heart failure (428), hemorrhagic stroke (430-432), or ischemic stroke (433.x1, 434, and 436) as first-listed diagnosis and diabetes (250) as secondary diagnosis. Hospitalization rates for adults aged ≥35 years were calculated using estimates from the population with and the population without diabetes from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population. Joinpoint regression was used to analyze trends and calculate an average annual percentage change (AAPC) with 95% confidence limits (CLs). RESULTS: From 1998 to 2014, in the population with diabetes, age-adjusted hospitalization rates declined significantly for ACS (AAPC -4.6% per year [95% CL -5.3, -3.8]), cardiac dysrhythmia (-0.7% [-1.1, -0.2]), heart failure (-3.6% [-4.6, -2.7]), hemorrhagic stroke (-1.1% [-1.4, -0.7]), and ischemic stroke (-2.9% [-3.9, -1.8]). In the population without diabetes, rates also declined significantly for these conditions, with the exception of dysrhythmia. By 2014, rates in the population with diabetes population remained two to four times as high as those for the population without diabetes, with the largest difference in heart failure rates. CONCLUSIONS: CVD hospitalization rates declined significantly in both the population with diabetes and the population without diabetes. This may be due to several factors, including new or more aggressive treatments and reductions in CVD risk factors and CVD incidence.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/tendências , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/classificação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/terapia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/complicações , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Ther Adv Neurol Disord ; 10(5): 229-239, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28529544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complementary and alternative interventions for fatigue after traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We searched multiple online sources including ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library database, MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, the Web of Science, AMED, PsychINFO, Toxline, ProQuest Digital Dissertations, PEDro, PsycBite, and the World Health Organization (WHO) trial registry, in addition to hand searching of grey literature. The methodological quality of each included study was assessed using the Jadad scale, and the quality of evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. A descriptive review was performed. RESULTS: Ten RCTs of interventions for post-TBI fatigue (PTBIF) that included 10 types of complementary and alternative interventions were assessed in our study. There were four types of physical interventions including aquatic physical activity, fitness-center-based exercise, Tai Chi, and aerobic training. The three types of cognitive and behavioral interventions (CBIs) were cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and computerized working-memory training. The Flexyx Neurotherapy System (FNS) and cranial electrotherapy were the two types of biofeedback therapy, and finally, one type of light therapy was included. Although the four types of intervention included aquatic physical activity, MBSR, computerized working-memory training and blue-light therapy showed unequivocally effective results, the quality of evidence was low/very low according to the GRADE system. CONCLUSIONS: The present systematic review of existing RCTs suggests that aquatic physical activity, MBSR, computerized working-memory training, and blue-light therapy may be beneficial treatments for PTBIF. Due to the many flaws and limitations in these studies, further controlled trials using these interventions for PTBIF are necessary.

20.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 96(11): e6138, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28296726

RESUMO

To develop a new prostate cancer predictor (PCP) model using the combination of total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA), and complexed PSA (cPSA).The diagnoses of all the included patients were confirmed pathologically in Daping Hospital between December 1, 2011 and December 1, 2014. There were 54 PCa cases and 579 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) cases with tPSA levels of 2 to 10 ng/mL, and 48 PCa cases and 147 BPH cases with tPSA levels of 10 to 20 ng/mL. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were employed to compare the value of PCP (PCP = tPSA / fPSA × √cPSA) with tPSA, fPSA, the ratio of fPSA to tPSA (%fPSA), and cPSA for the differential diagnosis of PCa and BPH. Meanwhile, bootstrapping analysis was used to calculate the distribution and confidence intervals (CIs) for the area under the curve (AUC), and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to calculate P values.When tPSA levels were 2 to 10 ng/mL, the AUC of PCP (0.680) was significantly higher than that of tPSA (0.588), fPSA (0.571), %fPSA (0.675), and cPSA (0.613). When the sensitivity for the diagnosis of PCa was 90.7%, the specificity of PCP (22.8%) was higher than that of tPSA (11.1%), fPSA (11.2%), %fPSA (17.4%), and cPSA (15.5%). When tPSA levels were 10 to 20 ng/mL, the AUC of PCP (0.686) was significantly higher than that of tPSA (0.603), fPSA (0.643), %fPSA (0.679), and cPSA (0.647). When the sensitivity for the diagnosis of PCa was 91.7%, the specificity of PCP (29.3%) was higher than that of tPSA (10.9%), fPSA (10.2%), %fPSA (23.1%), and cPSA (18.4%).PCP is a novel model for the prediction of PCa; it has more predictive value than tPSA, fPSA, %fPSA, and cPSA when tPSA levels are 2 to 20 ng/mL.


Assuntos
Modelos Teóricos , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
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