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1.
Environ Res ; 182: 109063, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896469

RESUMO

The quality of raw water and the current high level of pollution presents a phenomenon of high hardness and micropollution. An experimental study was conducted of the nanofiltration (NF) pilot-scale process combined with biological contact oxidation precipitation and ultrafiltration (UF) as the pretreatment process to treat this water. The study investigated the removal efficiency and membrane fouling of the NF process under the continuous and stable operating conditions of the combination process and studied the influence of high-hardness water on the membrane pollution of the combination process. The results showed that the combined process had a positive removal effect on conventional pollutants and characteristic pollutants, and the removal rates of conventional pollutants, such as turbidity, UV254 and CODMn, were 95%, 90% and 85%, respectively. The removal efficiency of total hardness, total alkalinity and soluble total solids reached 98%, 86% and 91%, respectively, and that of total desalination was above 95%. The removal rates of fluorescent organic substances, such as tryptophan, tyrosine, soluble microbial products (SMPs), fulvic acid and humus-like substances, as well as the precursors of disinfection byproducts reached over 88% and 50%, respectively. The pollutant removal efficiency of the combined process was mainly concentrated in the NF unit. The pretreatment process had certain removal effects on turbidity and macromolecular organic substances in the raw water, which provided a perfect operating environment for the NF process. Under long-term operation, the main elements of scaling on the surface of the NF membrane included C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Ti and Fe, which were mainly concentrated at the outlet of the membrane and mainly came from monomers or compounds composed of inorganic salts in the raw water and some organic compounds. High-hardness water accelerated the change in membrane process parameters, and the surface of the membrane had abundant inorganic scaling. The inorganic scale on the surface of the NF membrane increased noticeably when filtering water with high hardness. Regular cleaning of the UF and NF membranes could effectively restore the parameters of the process and prolong the service life of the membrane process.

2.
Food Funct ; 11(1): 871-882, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942589

RESUMO

This research focused on the effects of electron beam irradiation (EBI) on the hydrolysis and antioxidant activity of rice proteins (RPs). The RPs were treated with 0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kGy doses of EBI. The results showed that EBI pretreatment improved significantly (P < 0.05) the degree of hydrolysis, increasing the DH value by more than 15.09% at a dose of 30 kGy. In addition, radical scavenging results showed that EBI treatment had effects on antioxidant activity and could increase the DPPH and ABTS+ radical scavenging activity of rice protein hydrolysates (RPHs) by 32.06% and 79.11%, respectively (30 kGy). The CAA test also confirmed that EBI pretreatment could effectively improve the ability of RPHs to remove intracellular free radicals. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that EBI treatment destroyed microstructures and resulted in cracks and fragments of RPs. Circular dichroism analysis showed that EBI affected the secondary structure of RPs by destroying the α-helix structure. Changes in the UV visible spectra indicated unfolding of RPs by EBI. Amino acid and molecular weight distribution analysis revealed that EBI pretreatment could increase the ratio of antioxidant-related amino acids and produce smaller peptides. Therefore, EBI pretreatment is an efficient method to promote protein proteolysis due to its effect on the molecular conformation as well as on protein microstructure. Moreover, EBI treatment applied before enzymatic hydrolysis has the potential to prepare hydrolysates with high bioactivity.

3.
Luminescence ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999894

RESUMO

A dual-function fluorescent probe (Probe 1) was developed for discriminative detection of Hg2+ and N2 H4 . Probe 1 could discriminatively detect Hg2+ and N2 H4 through two different reaction sites, with the mechanism for Probe 1 for Hg2+ depending on a desulfurization reaction and for N2 H4 depending on the Schiff-base reaction. N2 H4 had minimal effect on Hg2+ detection in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/H2 O solution, but Hg2+ could interfere with N2 H4 detection in DMSO/buffer solution. Different concentrations of Hg2+ and N2 H4 resulted in different blue shades of Probe 1 test strips, and the shade of blue was different with the same concentration of Hg2+ or N2 H4 , as observed under ultraviolet light at 365 nm wavelength.

4.
Mikrochim Acta ; 187(2): 119, 2020 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927667

RESUMO

A colorimetric microplate assay for determination of Staphylococcus aureus DNA is described. Linear padlock probes were designed to recognize target sequences. After DNA binding, the linear padlock probes were circularized by ligation and then hybridize with biotin-labeled capture probes. Biotin-labeled capture probes act as primers to initiate the RCA. The biotin-labeled RCA products hybridize with digoxin-labeled signal probes fixed on streptavidin-functionalized wells of a 96-well plate. To enhance sensitivity, an AuNP-anti-digoxigenin-POx-HRP conjugate was added to the wells and then bound to digoxin-labeled signalling probes. The oxidation of tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) by H2O2 produces a color change from colorless to blue via HRP catalysis. After the reaction was terminated, absorbance is measured at 450 nm. For target sequences of Staphylococcus aureus, the detection limit is 1.2 pM. For genomic DNA, the detection limit is 7.4 pg.µL-1. The potential application of the method was verified by analyzing spiked food samples. Graphical abstractSchematic representation of rolling circle amplification and functionalized AuNP-based colorimetric determination of Staphylococcus aureus. The method uses streptavidin-functionalized 96-well plates and RCA as a molecular tool and AuNP-anti-digoxigenin-POx-HRP as signal transduction markers to increase sensitivity.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31963670

RESUMO

On the basis of PM2.5 data of the national air quality monitoring sites, local population data, and baseline all-cause mortality rate, PM2.5-related health economic benefits of the Air Improvement Action Plan implemented in Wuhan in 2013-2017 were investigated using health-impact and valuation functions. Annual avoided premature deaths driven by the average concentration of PM2.5 decrease were evaluated, and the economic benefits were computed by using the value of statistical life (VSL) method. Results showed that the number of avoided premature deaths in Wuhan are 21,384 (95% confidence interval (CI): 15,004 to 27,255) during 2013-2017, due to the implementation of the Air Improvement Action Plan. According to the VSL method, the obtained economic benefits of Huangpi, Wuchang, Hongshan, Xinzhou, Jiang'an, Hanyang, Jiangxia, Qiaokou, Jianghan, Qingshan, Caidian, Dongxihu, and Hannan District were 8.55, 8.19, 8.04, 7.39, 5.78, 4.84, 4.37, 4.04, 3.90, 3.30, 2.87, 2.42, and 0.66 billion RMB (1 RMB = 0.1417 USD On 14 October 2019), respectively. These economic benefits added up to 64.35 billion RMB (95% CI: 45.15 to 82.02 billion RMB), accounting for 4.80% (95% CI: 3.37% to 6.12%) of the total GDP of Wuhan in 2017. Therefore, in the process of formulating a regional air quality improvement scheme, apart from establishing hierarchical emission-reduction standards and policies, policy makers should give integrated consideration to the relationship between regional economic development, environmental protection and residents' health benefits. Furthermore, for improving air quality, air quality compensation mechanisms can be established on the basis of the status quo and trends of air quality, population distribution, and economic development factors.

6.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 68, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964339

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global climate change is predicted to force the bathymetric migrations of shallow-water marine invertebrates. Hydrostatic pressure is proposed to be one of the major environmental factors limiting the vertical distribution of extant marine invertebrates. However, the high-pressure acclimation mechanisms are not yet fully understood. RESULTS: In this study, the shallow-water sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was incubated at 15 and 25 MPa at 15 °C for 24 h, and subjected to comparative transcriptome analysis. Nine samples were sequenced and assembled into 553,507 unigenes with a N50 length of 1204 bp. Three groups of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified according to their gene expression patterns, including 38 linearly related DEGs whose expression patterns were linearly correlated with hydrostatic pressure, 244 pressure-sensitive DEGs which were up-regulated at both 15 and 25 MPa, and 257 high-pressure-induced DEGs which were up-regulated at 25 MPa but not up-regulated at 15 MPa. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that the genes and biological processes involving high-pressure acclimation are similar to those related to deep-sea adaptation. In addition to representative biological processes involving deep-sea adaptation (such as antioxidation, immune response, genetic information processing, and DNA repair), two biological processes, namely, ubiquitination and endocytosis, which can collaborate with each other and regulate the elimination of misfolded proteins, also responded to high-pressure exposure in our study. The up-regulation of these two processes suggested that high hydrostatic pressure would lead to the increase of misfolded protein synthesis, and this may result in the death of shallow-water sea cucumber under high-pressure exposure.

7.
EMBO Mol Med ; 12(2): e10154, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31943789

RESUMO

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common complication of diabetes and leads to blindness. Anti-VEGF is a primary treatment for DR. Its therapeutic effect is limited in non- or poor responders despite frequent injections. By performing a comprehensive analysis of the semaphorins family, we identified the increased expression of Sema4D during oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced retinopathy. The levels of soluble Sema4D (sSema4D) were significantly increased in the aqueous fluid of DR patients and correlated negatively with the success of anti-VEGF therapy during clinical follow-up. We found that Sema4D/PlexinB1 induced endothelial cell dysfunction via mDIA1, which was mediated through Src-dependent VE-cadherin dysfunction. Furthermore, genetic disruption of Sema4D/PlexinB1 or intravitreal injection of anti-Sema4D antibody reduced pericyte loss and vascular leakage in STZ model as well as alleviated neovascularization in OIR model. Moreover, anti-Sema4D had a therapeutic advantage over anti-VEGF on pericyte dysfunction. Anti-Sema4D and anti-VEGF also conferred a synergistic therapeutic effect in two DR models. Thus, this study indicates an alternative therapeutic strategy with anti-Sema4D to complement or improve the current treatment of DR.

8.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 120: 105687, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927104

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS/AIMS: Pancreatic cancer is a digestive system tumour disease with a notably poor prognosis and a 5-year survival rate of less than 10 %. In recent years, peptide drugs have shown great clinical value in antitumour applications. We aim to identify differentially expressed peptides by using peptidomics techniques to explore the mechanisms involved in the development and pathology of pancreatic cancer. METHODS: We performed peptidomic analysis of pancreatic cancer and paired paracancerous tissues by using ITRAQ labelling technology and conducted in-depth bioinformatics analysis and functional studies on differentially expressed peptides. RESULTS: A total of 2,881 peptides were identified, of which 133 were differentially expressed (116 were upregulated and 17 were downregulated). By using GO analysis, the differentially expressed peptides were found to be closely related to the tumour microenvironment and extracellular matrix. KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that precursor proteins were closely related to the T2DM and RAS signalling pathways. The endogenous peptide P1DG can significantly inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. CONCLUSION: P1DG and its precursor GAPDH may be closely related to the proliferation, migration and invasion of pancreatic cancer. Peptidomics can aid in understanding the pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer more comprehensively.

9.
Anal Chem ; 92(1): 1363-1371, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794197

RESUMO

High-throughput drug discovery is highly dependent on the targets available to accelerate the process of candidates screening. Traditional chemical proteomics approaches for the screening of drug targets usually require the immobilization/modification of the drug molecules to pull down the interacting proteins. Recently, energetics-based proteomics methods provide an alternative way to study drug-protein interaction by using complex cell lysate directly without any modification of the drugs. In this study, we developed a novel energetics-based proteomics strategy, the solvent-induced protein precipitation (SIP) approach, to profile the interaction of drugs with their target proteins by using quantitative proteomics. The method is easy to use for any laboratory with the common chemical reagents of acetone, ethanol, and acetic acid. The SIP approach was able to identify the well-known protein targets of methotrexate, SNS-032, and a pan-kinase inhibitor of staurosporine in cell lysate. We further applied this approach to discover the off-targets of geldanamycin. Three known protein targets of the HSP90 family were successfully identified, and several potential off-targets including NADH dehydrogenase subunits NDUFV1 and NDUFAB1 were identified for the first time, and the NDUFV1 was validated by using Western blotting. In addition, this approach was capable of evaluating the affinity of the drug-target interaction. The data collectively proved that our approach provides a powerful platform for drug target discovery.

10.
J Sep Sci ; 43(1): 292-312, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521063

RESUMO

Cell surface proteins are essential for many important biological processes, including cell-cell interactions, signal transduction, and molecular transportation. With the characteristics of low abundance, high hydrophobicity, and high heterogeneity, it is difficult to get a comprehensive view of cell surface proteome by direct analysis. Thus, it is important to selectively enrich the cell surface proteins before liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In recent years, a variety of enrichment methods have been developed. Based on the separation mechanism, these methods could be mainly classified into three types. The first type is based on their difference in the physicochemical property, such as size, density, charge, and hydrophobicity. The second one is based on the bimolecular affinity interaction with lectin or antibody. And the third type is based on the chemical covalent coupling to free side groups of surface-exposed proteins or carbohydrate chains, such as primary amines, carboxyl groups, glycan side chains. In addition, metabolic labeling and enzymatic reaction-based methods have also been employed to selectively isolate cell surface proteins. In this review, we will provide a comprehensive overview of the enrichment methods for cell surface proteome profiling.

11.
J Investig Med ; 68(1): 68-74, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431469

RESUMO

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies in the world, and is well-known for its bad prognosis. Potassium calcium-activated channel subfamily N member 4 (KCNN4) is a type of intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel, and increasing evidence suggests that KCNN4 contributes to the regulation of invasion and metastasis in a number of cancers. However, its clinical significance and biological function remain unclear in the HCC disease process. In this study, the expression levels of KCNN4 in 86 HCC samples were compared with corresponding paracancerous tissues. sh-RNA was used to reduce the expression of KCNN4 in Hep3B HCC cells in vitro; this was confirmed by Real time-PCR and western blotting. Wound healing, transwell assays and high content analysis were performed to investigate the tumor-promoting characteristics of KCNN4 in Hep3B HCC cells. As results, KCNN4 expression was significantly associated with preoperative serum alpha-fetoprotein level (p=0.038) and TNM stage (p=0.039). Additionally, patients with high KCNN4 amplification in HCC tissue exhibited shorter disease-free survival, whereas there was no statistical significance between KCNN4 amplification and overall survival. Wound healing and transwell assays showed that knockdown of KCNN4 expression could reduce migration and invasion abilities of HCC cells. High content analysis result showed that down-regulated KCNN4 could inhibit the ability of HCC cell proliferation. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is active in cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, senescence, and apoptosis. Matrix metallopeptidase 9 and extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) were important biomarkers of MAPK/ERK pathway, knockdown of KCNN4 reduced the expression of MMP9 and ERK1/2. These findings showed that KCNN4 promotes HCC invasion and metastasis through the MAPK/ERK pathway.

12.
Anat Sci Educ ; 13(1): 80-90, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022327

RESUMO

Postmortem human brain donation is crucial to both anatomy education and research. The China Human Brain Banking Consortium was established recently to foster brain donation in China. The purpose of this study was to gain information about the public perception of and attitudes toward brain donation and to identify factors that may impact the willingness to participate in brain donation among the Chinese people. A specifically designed questionnaire was delivered to community residents in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan province) with a total of 1,249 completed forms returned and statistically analyzed. The majority of the participants considered that brain donation would help medical research and education, and 32.0% of respondents agreed that the brain donation would help change the traditional Chinese funeral belief in keeping the body intact after death. However, participants aged over 60 years old were less supportive of this concept. Among all participants, 63.7% stated that they were not knowledgeable about brain donation, while 26.4% explicitly expressed a willingness to participate in brain donation. Age, gender, monthly household income, and knowledge about brain donation significantly affected the willingness. Compared with other age groups, a higher proportion of participants aged over 60 years old preferred to be informed by a medical college. To promote brain donation in China, especially among the elderly, better communication of its medical benefits and a reinterpretation of the Confucius view of the human body should be provided. Efforts are also needed to provide appropriate forums and sources of brain donation information to targeted communities and society in general.

13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 97: 483-492, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870969

RESUMO

Hydrothermal vents and cold seep zones are two special habitats in the deep sea. These habitats are always dark, and have extreme temperatures (low or high), heavy metals and toxic substances (sulfide, methane). Vesicomyidae clams, which maintain endosymbionts in their gills, are common species in these two special zones and are thought to develop an efficacious immune system against unusual habitats. In the present study, a novel galectin (Apgalectin) was identified from the Vesicomyidae clam Archivesica packardana. The phylogenetic tree indicated that Apgalectin had two CRDs and was closely clustered with galectins from invertebrates, especially mollusks. A branch-site model showed that 9 positively selected sites (ω2 = 6.83950) were identified comparing to galectins from the Order Veneroida, implying a different function of Vesicomyidae galectins. A microbe binding assay showed that rApgalectin could bind to gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungi. A PAMP binding assay indicated that Apgalectin could bind LPS, PGN, ß-1,3-glucan, glucan from yeast and Poly I:C in dose-dependent manner. Apgalectin only agglutinated Micrococcus luteus and agglutination could be inhibited by galactose which demonstrated that Apgalectin might be involved in immune defense by recognizing and binding bacteria in a ß-galactoside manner. Further experiments showed that Apgalectin might play an indirect effector role in the immune response because of its limited antibacterial spectrum. All analyses validated that Apgalectin from Archivesica packardana plays a variety of functions in immune responses and provided basal information for the immune study of deep-sea mollusks.

14.
Nanomedicine ; 23: 102095, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669856

RESUMO

Recent studies have indicated that multidrug resistance (MDR) can significantly limit the effects of conventional chemotherapy. In this study, PT (Pachymic acid and dehydrotumulosic acid) are the two major triterpenoid components purified and identified in P. cocos. A liposomal co-delivery system encapsulating doxorubicin (DOX) and PT was prepared. Notably, the mechanism of PT reversed P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated MDR mainly relied on the inhibition of the P-gp function, which further decreased the levels of P-gp and caveolin-1 proteins. In drug-resistant MCF cells, co-administration with 5 µg/ml PT significantly enhanced sensitivity of DOX. Finally, liposome-mediated co-delivery with PT significantly improved the anti-tumor effect of DOX in tumor-bearing mice when compared to other single therapy groups. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that DOX and PT act synergistically as an "all-in-one" treatment to reverse MDR during tumor treatment and, thus, should be studied further for a wide range of anti-cancer applications.

15.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 2566, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31787956

RESUMO

Histone methylation is associated with transcription regulation, but its role for glycoside hydrolase (GH) biosynthesis is still poorly understood. We identified the histone H3 lysine 79 (H3K79)-specific methyltransferase PoDot1 in Penicillium oxalicum. PoDot1 affects conidiation by regulating the transcription of key regulators (BrlA, FlbC, and StuA) of asexual development and is required in normal hyphae septum and branch formation by regulating the transcription of five septin-encoding genes, namely, aspA, aspB, aspC, aspD, and aspE. Tandem affinity purification/mass spectrometry showed that PoDot1 has no direct interaction with transcription machinery, but it affects the expressions of extracellular GH genes extensively. The expression of genes (amy15A, amy13A, cel7A/cbh1, cel61A, chi18A, cel3A/bgl1, xyn10A, cel7B/eg1, cel5B/eg2, and cel6A/cbh2) that encode the top 10 GHs was remarkably downregulated by Podot1 deletion (ΔPodot1). Consistent with the decrease in gene transcription level, the activities of amylases and cellulases were significantly decreased in ΔPodot1 mutants in agar (solid) and fermentation (liquid) media. The repression of GH gene expressions caused by PoDot1 deletion was not mediated by key transcription factors, such as AmyR, ClrB, CreA, and XlnR, but was accompanied by defects in global demethylated H3K79 (H3K79me2) and trimethylated H3K79 (H3K79me3). The impairment of H3K79me2 on specific GH gene loci was observed due to PoDot1 deletion. The results implies that defects of H3K79 methylation is the key reason of the downregulated transcription level of GH-encoding genes and reveals the indispensable role of PoDot1 in extracellular GH biosynthesis.

16.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(5): 2139-2147, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813880

RESUMO

Different polymorphic forms can affect the performance of the drug product. In addition, isomorphic crystals show different chemical and physical properties due to the changes in the crystal habit. However, it is unclear whether the crystal habit results in different pharmacological activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the pharmacological effect of ibuprofen could be affected due to the variety of the crystal habit. Solvent change technique and conventional fusion method were carried out to modify the characteristics of ibuprofen. The physicochemical properties of each were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed differences in the surface characteristics of the crystals obtained. Further study revealed that the samples crystallized exhibited the remarkable variation on the dissolution profiles in different dissolution medium. Moreover, in vivo antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory findings demonstrated that the crystal habit modifications resulted in the different therapeutic efficacy. Taken together, these results indicate that the modification of the crystal habit had a great influence on the in vivo pharmacological activity of ibuprofen crystals.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838695

RESUMO

The safety disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) has become an important issue for nuclear energy and environmental protection. Water chemistry and environmental isotope are accepted as feasible ways to trace groundwater circulation; it can effectively reveal the conversion relationship between different groundwater of the disposal site. Geochemical and isotopic tracers were used to constrain origins and chemical evolution of groundwater in the arid fissure system of the Xinchang preselected site for high-level radioactive waste geological disposal in China. Groundwater level, water temperature, and water chemistry information at different depths were obtained by multi-layer groundwater monitoring. The results show that the chemical and isotopic composition of groundwater in this fissure system is mainly controlled by evaporation, the water chemistry type of the shallow groundwater is mainly Na-Cl-SO4 or Na-Ca-Cl-SO4, and the deep groundwater is mainly Na-Cl-SO4. Based on the values of monitoring data in deep borehole, the fluctuation of groundwater level is less than 0.40 m with weak hydrodynamic condition, and the geothermal gradient is 1.91 °C/100 m. The isotope analyses indicate that the groundwater in the system recharged by local atmospheric precipitation, and the deep groundwater recharged capacity of the site is weak and with no deep cycle.

18.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 44(12): 873-7, 2019 Dec 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867905

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (EIF2α), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), glucose regulator protein-78 / immunoglobulin heavy-chain-binding protein (GRP78/Bip) in the substantia nigra (SN) in rats with Parkinson's disease (PD), so as to explore its mechanism underlying improvement of PD. METHODS: Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into control, sham-operation, model and EA groups (n=12 in each group). The PD model was established by 28-day consecutive subcutaneous injection of rotenone (1 mg/kg dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and normal saline) at the back shoulder. EA (2 Hz, 1 mA) was applied to "Fengfu" (GV16) and "Taichong" (LR3) for 30 min, once daily for 2 weeks. The behavio-ral changes of rats in each group were measured and scored at 28th day and 44th day, respectively. The expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and α-synuclein (α-syn) in the SN were observed by immunohistochemistry, and the expressions of EIF2α, ATF4 and GRP78/Bip were detected by Western blot. RESULTS: Following modeling and compared with the control and sham-operation groups, the behavioral scores of rats in the model group were elevated (P<0.01), which were significantly decreased by EA intervention (P<0.01). The expression of TH decreased whereas the α-syn, EIF2α, ATF4 and GRP78/Bip increased in the rats of model group, and EA intervention reversed these changes (all P<0.01). CONCLUSION: EA at GV16 and LR3 can improve PD rats' behavioral changes, which is probably related with its effects in up-regulating the expression of TH in the SN and down-regulating the expression of α-syn and EIF2α-ATF4-GRP78/Bip signaling.


Assuntos
Eletroacupuntura , Doença de Parkinson , Fator 4 Ativador da Transcrição , Animais , Masculino , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substância Negra
20.
Chemistry ; 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31880368

RESUMO

As a newly emerging crystalline porous materials, covalent organic frameworks (COFs) possess fascinating structures and some specific features such as modularity, crystallinity, porosity, stability, versatility, and biocompatibility. Besides adsorption/separation, sensing, catalysis and energy, COFs recently show a new trend in biomedical application. This contribution provides an overview of recent developments of COF-based medicines in cancer therapeutics, including drug delivery, photodynamic therapy (PDT), photothermal therapy (PTT), and combined therapy. Furthermore, major challenges and developing trend in this field are also discussed. These recent developments are summarized and discussed to help encourage further contributions in this emerging and promising field.

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