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1.
Food Res Int ; 130: 108957, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32156396

RESUMO

Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) isoflavones are secondary metabolites of great interest because of their beneficial impact on human health. We profiled the seed isoflavone composition of 1168 soybean accessions collected from diverse ecoregions of China in three locations over two years. We observed significant differences in isoflavone content among the accessions, accession types, years of growth and ecoregions of origin. Total isoflavone (TIF) concentration of the soybean accessions ranged from 745 µg g-1 to 5253.98 µg g-1, which represents a 7-fold difference. The highest mean TIF concentration (2689.27 µg g-1) was observed in the Huang Huai Hai Valley Region (HR) accessions, followed by accessions from the Southern Region (SR) and Northern Region (NR) with TIF concentration of 2518.91 µg g-1 and 1942.78 µg g-1, respectively. Thirty-five accessions were identified as elite soybean resources based on their higher TIF concentration (4024.74 µg g-1 to 5253.98 µg g-1). Pairwise correlation analysis showed significant positive correlations between individual isoflavones and TIF concentrations. Malonyldaidzin and malonylgenistin showed the highest correlations with TIF concentration (r = 0.90 and r = 0.92, respectively), whereas acetyldaidzin showed the lowest correlation. The main isoflavone components had significant negative correlations with latitude and longitude, indicating that the geographical origin of the accessions influenced their seed isoflavone composition. Based on principal component analysis, glycosides and malonylglycosides of isoflavones were the major discriminative components for the soybean accessions. The present study demonstrated the geographical distribution of soybean seed isoflavone concentrations across the main ecoregion of China. The identified soybean accessions with both high and low TIF concentrations, which are desirable materials for industrial uses and could also be used as parents to breed soybean lines with improved isoflavone quantity and composition in the seeds.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159381

RESUMO

Objective: This study aimed at investigating the specific roles of laminarin from seaweed (Laminaria japonica) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its potential mechanisms related to senescence marker protein-30 (SMP-30). Materials and Methods: Human HCC cell lines, including Bel-7404 and HepG2, were incubated with different concentrations of laminarin (0, 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 mg/mL). The cell viability and apoptosis rates were detected by WST-8 cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Hepa 1-6 tumor-bearing mice were injected with different concentrations of laminarin (400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg·d), and tumor volume and weight were measured. The expression of SMP-30 was detected in laminarin-treated Bel-7404 and HepG2 HCC cells and LO2 normal liver cells by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. Results: The treatment with laminarin (48 h) significantly decreased the viability and increased the apoptosis rates of Bel-7404 and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The injection of laminarin also significantly decreased the tumor volumes (beginning on the 10th day) and tumor weights (30 d post-injection) of mice in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the treatment with laminarin (35 mg/mL for 48 h) significantly upregulated SMP-30 in Bel-7404 and HepG2 cells but not in LO2 cells. Conclusion: Laminarin inhibited the proliferation of Bel-7404 and HepG2 cells and inhibited the growth of tumors in Hepa 1-6 tumor-bearing mice by upregulating SMP-30.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 722: 137972, 2020 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208286

RESUMO

Magnetic carbonaceous adsorbents were synthesized by ball-milling biochar (BC) or activated carbon (AC) with Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and their capacities to sorb methylene blue (MB) from water were evaluated and compared. Ball milling with magnetite not only improved the surface properties of the carbonaceous adsorbents, especially BC, but also introduced magnetic properties through mechanical extrusion. Furthermore, ball-mill extrusion increased the MB adsorption capacity of BC at all pH values by 14-fold, on average, but BC ball milled with magnetite had even greater MB adsorption capacity (27-fold, greater, on average). While ball milling of AC also improved its MB adsorption capacity (by almost 3-fold, on average), ball milling with magnetite did not further improve its MB adsorption capacity. All the magnetic adsorbents showed fast MB adsorption kinetics, reaching equilibrium within about 8 h. The Langmuir maximum MB adsorption capacity of the magnetic ball-milled BC (MBM-BC) was the highest (500.5 mg/g) among all the samples including the ones derived from AC. After five adsorption-desorption cycles, MBM-BC maintained about 80% MB removal capacity. The high MB adsorption capacity of MBM-BC was attributed to its increased surface area, opened pore structure, functional groups and aromatic CC bonds, which promoted π-π and electrostatic interactions. Findings from this study indicate that the magnetic ball-milled BC is a promising adsorbent due to its environmentally friendly synthesis, high efficiency, low cost, and convenience in operation.

5.
Acta Diabetol ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025878

RESUMO

AIMS: We aim to systematically review the existing guidelines on physical activity for T2DM and assess the consistency of their recommendations, methodological quality, and reporting quality. METHODS: We performed a literature search on PubMed, China Biology Medicine disc, and four main guideline databases in order to identify existing T2DM guidelines. We then evaluated the methodological and reporting qualities of the guidelines using the AGREE II instrument and the RIGHT checklist. Fifteen guidelines were included in total, with eight of these (53.33%) assessed being "recommended" and five graded as having good reporting quality. RESULT: A total of 30 physical activity recommendations were extracted. Fifteen recommendations reported the levels of evidence, and of these, five were found to be based on a high quality of evidence. Aerobic exercise at least 3 days per week was recommended by most guidelines (10/15, 66.67%). Eight guidelines (53.33%) recommended resistance exercise, while combined aerobic and resistance exercise was recommended in three of the guidelines (20.0%). Only two guidelines recommended supervised exercise, and one recommended flexibility exercise. Four of the guidelines (26.67%) solely recommended physical activity or exercise, but with no added details. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of the guidelines concerning physical activity for T2DM was found to be moderate to low and varied substantially. Recommendations regarding physical activity for T2DM are not very specific or clear and remain incompletely consistent, while the level of evidence and the strength of the recommendations were seldom reported. Our findings suggest a need for guidelines for diabetes based on high levels of evidence.

6.
Bioresour Technol ; 302: 122850, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007849

RESUMO

This study analyzed the chemical speciation, leaching ability, and environmental risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in cow manure biochar (CMBC) pyrolyzed at various temperatures. The total content, chemical speciation, and leaching ability of the heavy metals were determined through microwave digestion, modified BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure, and leaching solution systems (TCLP, distilled water, and SPLP). The risk assessment code, Muller geo-accumulation index, potential ecological risk index, and germination index were used to evaluate the environmental safety and ecotoxicity of heavy metals. Significant differences were observed in the physicochemical properties of CMBCs. The heavy metal contents in CMBCs were higher than those in CM. The bioavailable fraction of heavy metals was transformed into a relatively stable fraction with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, the potential risks and ecotoxicity of biochar were reduced, thus improving environmental safety. The study results provide important data for biochar applications.


Assuntos
Esterco , Metais Pesados , Animais , Bovinos , Carvão Vegetal , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Pirólise , Medição de Risco , Temperatura Ambiente
7.
J Adv Nurs ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017183

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the effectiveness of music therapy on the quality of life, anxiety, depression and pain of patients with cancer. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Five electronic databases were searched in September 2018 for randomized controlled trials evaluating music therapy for patients with cancer. REVIEW METHODS: The quality of the studies was assessed using the risk of bias tool recommended by the Cochrane Handbook Version 5.1.0 and the Revman version 5.3 software was used to perform the meta-analysis. The outcomes were overall quality of life, anxiety, depression and pain. RESULTS: A total of 19 trials evaluating 1,548 patients were included in this study, of which 765 were in the control group and 783 in the experimental group. Compared with standard care, music therapy can significantly increase the score of the overall quality of life in patients with cancer. In addition, music therapy was found to be more effective for decreasing the score of anxiety, depression and pain. CONCLUSION: Music therapy can improve the overall quality of life of patients with cancer, with an observed optimal intervention duration of 1-2 months. Meanwhile, anxiety, depression and pain are improved as well. Nevertheless, high-quality trials are still needed to further determine the effects of music intervention in supportive cancer care.

8.
Mol Plant ; 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32017998

RESUMO

Improved soybean cultivars have been adapted to grow at a wide range of latitudes, enabling expansion of cultivation worldwide. However, the genetic basis of this broad adaptation is still not clear. Here, we report the identification of GmPRR3b as a major flowering time regulatory gene that has been selected during domestication and genetic improvement for geographic expansion. Through a genome-wide association study of a diverse soybean landrace panel consisting of 279 accessions, we identified 16 candidate quantitative loci associated with flowering time and maturity time. The strongest signal resides in the known flowering gene E2, verifying the effectiveness of our approach. We detected strong signals associated with both flowering and maturity time in a genomic region containing GmPRR3b. Haplotype analysis revealed that GmPRR3bH6 is the major form of GmPRR3b that has been utilized during recent breeding of modern cultivars. mRNA profiling analysis showed that GmPRR3bH6 displays rhythmic and photoperiod-dependent expression and is preferentially induced under long-day conditions. Overexpression of GmPRR3bH6 increased main stem node number and yield, while knockout of GmPRR3bH6 using CRISPR/Cas9 technology delayed growth and the floral transition. GmPRR3bH6 appears to act as a transcriptional repressor of multiple predicted circadian clock genes, including GmCCA1a, which directly upregulates J/GmELF3a to modulate flowering time. The causal SNP (Chr12:5520945) likely endows GmPRR3bH6 a moderate but appropriate level of activity, leading to early flowering and vigorous growth traits preferentially selected during broad adaptation of landraces and improvement of cultivars.

9.
Nature ; 578(7796): 515, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32099122
10.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 56(12): 1819-1822, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950949

RESUMO

The non-directed hydrosilylation of cyclopropenes with earth-abundant and environmentally benign base metal catalysis was described. This protocol is effective for a wide array of 3,3-disubstituted and 1,2-disubstituted cyclopropenes, and hence provides a facile and straightforward route to synthetically valuable polysubstituted and challenging fully substituted cyclopropylsilanes with high efficiency and diastereoselectivity.

11.
Res Vet Sci ; 129: 103-108, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954314

RESUMO

To evaluate the protective role of lycopene (LYC) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced erythrocyte dysfunction and oxidative stress, male kunming mice were treated with LYC (5 mg/kg) and/or AFB1 (0.75 mg/kg) by intragastric administration for 30 d. Hematological indices were detected to assess erythrocyte function. The erythrocytes C3b receptor rate (E-C3bRR) and erythrocytes C3b immune complex rosette rate (E-ICRR) were detected to assess erythrocyte immune function. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were determined to evaluate erythrocyte oxidative stress. The results showed that LYC administration significantly relieved AFB1-induced erythrocyte dysfunction by increasing the levels of red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT), as well as reducing red blood cell volume distribution width (RDW) level, while the levels of mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean platelet volume (MPV) had no significant differences among the four groups. Besides, LYC ameliorated AFB1-induced erythrocyte immune dysfunction by increasing E-C3bRR and decreasing E-ICRR. Furthermore, LYC also alleviated AFB1-induced erythrocyte oxidative stress by decreasing H2O2 and MDA contents and increasing SOD and CAT activities. These results indicated that LYC protected against AFB1-induced erythrocyte dysfunction and oxidative stress in mice. The findings could lead a possible therapeutics for the management of AFB1-induced erythrocyte toxicity.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 124(1): 014801, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976698

RESUMO

Generation of circularly polarized (CP) and linearly polarized (LP) γ rays via the single-shot interaction of an ultraintense laser pulse with a spin-polarized counterpropagating ultrarelativistic electron beam has been investigated in nonlinear Compton scattering in the quantum radiation-dominated regime. For the process simulation, a Monte Carlo method is developed which employs the electron-spin-resolved probabilities for polarized photon emissions. We show efficient ways for the transfer of the electron polarization to the high-energy photon polarization. In particular, multi-GeV CP (LP) γ rays with polarization of up to about 95% can be generated by a longitudinally (transversely) spin-polarized electron beam, with a photon flux meeting the requirements of recent proposals for the vacuum birefringence measurement in ultrastrong laser fields. Such high-energy, high-brilliance, high-polarization γ rays are also beneficial for other applications in high-energy physics, and laboratory astrophysics.

13.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 727-734, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895560

RESUMO

T-2 toxin, an inevitable environmental pollutant, is the most toxic type A trichothecene mycotoxin. Reproductive disruption is a key adverse effect of T-2 toxin. Herein, this paper reviews the reproductive toxicity of T-2 toxin and its mechanisms in male and female members of different species. The reproductive toxicity of T-2 toxin is evidenced by decreased fertility, disrupted structures and functions of reproductive organs, and loss of gametogenesis in males and females. T-2 toxin disrupts the reproductive endocrine axis and inhibits reproductive hormone synthesis. Furthermore, exposure to T-2 toxin during pregnancy results in embryotoxicity and the abnormal development of offspring. We also summarize the research progress in counteracting the reproductive toxicity of T-2 toxin. This review provides information toward a comprehensive understanding of the reproductive toxicity mechanisms of T-2 toxin.


Assuntos
Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Animais , Gametogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
14.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(1): 808-824, 2020 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927530

RESUMO

Detecting low-abundance mutations is very important for cancer diagnosis and treatment. Here we describe an improved targeted sequencing analysis that dramatically increases sequencing depth. Seven colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and seven healthy adults were enrolled in this study. We examined genetic mutations in tissue samples from the central and peripheral regions of tumors from the CRC patients and in blood cells from the healthy adults. We observed that each CRC carried larger numbers of mutations more than previously estimated. These included numerous deletion mutations in the tumor tissue. While the cellular morphology in the surrounding normal colonic tissues was healthy, these cells also carried many mutations. Similarly, the blood cells from the healthy donors carried numerous mutations. These findings shed new light on the processes of tumorigenesis and aging, and also present a potentially effective method for detecting low-abundance mutations for cancer diagnosis and targeted treatments.

15.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) ; 52(1): 58-63, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681945

RESUMO

Cardiac hypertrophy is considered to be a leading factor in heart function-related deaths. In this study, we explored the potential mechanism underlying cardiac hypertrophy induced by isoproterenol. Our results showed that isoproterenol induced cardiac hypertrophy in AC16 cells, as reflected by the increased cell surface area and increased hypertrophic markers, which was accompanied by increased ubiquitin-protein ligase E3a (UBE3A) expression. Moreover, UBE3A knockdown by siRNAs accelerated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that increased UBE3A expression induced by isoproterenol might be a protective response and UBE3A might be a protective factor against cardiac hypertrophy. Our study also revealed that UBE3A knockdown increased the protein expression of the TLR4/MMP-9 pathway that has been shown to be associated with cardiac hypertrophy, which suggested that UBE3A-mediated protection is likely to be associated with the blockade of the TLR4/MMP-9 signaling pathway. UBE3A might be thus a potential target gene for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy.


Assuntos
Cardiomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Cardiomegalia/metabolismo , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Isoproterenol/efeitos adversos , Miócitos Cardíacos/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transfecção , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética
16.
Depress Anxiety ; 37(3): 234-246, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dignity is a vitally important aspect of the lives of advanced cancer patients. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of dignity therapy in this patient population. METHODS: We searched for randomized controlled trials comparing dignity therapy versus standard care for patients with advanced cancer in five comprehensive databases (March 2019), two clinical trial registries and one gray literature database (August 2019). The quality of the studies was assessed using the risk of bias tool recommended by the Cochrane Handbook Version 5.1.0. We used GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan version 5.3. Outcomes of interest included anxiety, depression, dignity-related distress and quality of life (QoL). RESULTS: Ten trials evaluating 904 patients (control, 449; experimental, 455) were identified. Six trials included patients with different types of advanced cancer, and four trials included patients with a single advanced cancer (lung cancer [20%], breast cancer [10%], and hepatocellular carcinoma [10%]). Compared with the standard care, dignity therapy decreased the score of anxiety, depression, and dignity-related distress of the advanced cancer patients (SMD = -1.07, 95% CI: [-1.57, -0.58], p < .05; SMD = -1.31, 95% CI: [-1.92, -0.70], p < .05; MD = -7.30, 95% CI: [- 12.04, - 2.56], p < .05). In addition, no significant differences were found in the patient's QoL (p > .05). CONCLUSION: Very low certainty evidence demonstrated that dignity therapy might be a promising treatment, especially in reducing anxiety and depression in advanced cancer patients.

17.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 501: 110669, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790716

RESUMO

The promotion of white adipose tissue (WAT) browning has emerged as a promising therapeutic target to increase energy expenditure and decrease weight gain. Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a newly identified adipokine that regulates lipid metabolism. It shows high expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT), but whether ZAG plays a key role in the browning of white adipose tissue is still largely unclear. In the present study, we explored the relationship between ZAG and the browning of WAT in cold-exposed ZAG knockout (KO) mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes with overexpressed ZAG. The results showed that cold stress induced marked accumulation of ZAG in wild type (WT) mice. Additionally, ZAG deficiency inhibited the loss of body weight and adipose tissue weight in cold stressed mice. ZAG KO mice were resistant to cold-induced expression of browning markers and energy metabolism in WAT. Furthermore, replenishment ZAG plasmid improved the reduction in cold-induced browning of WAT in ZAG KO mice. In vitro, ZAG overexpression promoted browning and mitochondrial biogenesis and increased the expression of ß3-AR and P-P38 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These findings demonstrate that ZAG can promote the browning of white adipose tissue and can serve as a potential therapeutic target for treating metabolic diseases such as obesity.

18.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 18(2): 389-401, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278885

RESUMO

Landraces often contain genetic diversity that has been lost in modern cultivars, including alleles that confer enhanced local adaptation. To comprehensively identify loci associated with adaptive traits in soya bean landraces, for example flowering time, a population of 1938 diverse landraces and 97 accessions of the wild progenitor of cultivated soya bean, Glycine soja was genotyped using tGBS® . Based on 99 085 high-quality SNPs, landraces were classified into three sub-populations which exhibit geographical genetic differentiation. Clustering was inferred from STRUCTURE, principal component analyses and neighbour-joining tree analyses. Using phenotypic data collected at two locations separated by 10 degrees of latitude, 17 trait-associated SNPs (TASs) for flowering time were identified, including a stable locus Chr12:5914898 and previously undetected candidate QTL/genes for flowering time in the vicinity of the previously cloned flowering genes, E1 and E2. Using passport data associated with the collection sites of the landraces, 27 SNPs associated with adaptation to three bioclimatic variables (temperature, daylength, and precipitation) were identified. A series of candidate flowering genes were detected within linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks surrounding 12 bioclimatic TASs. Nine of these TASs exhibit significant differences in flowering time between alleles within one or more of the three individual sub-populations. Signals of selection during domestication and/or subsequent landrace diversification and adaptation were detected at 38 of the 44 flowering and bioclimatic TASs. Hence, this study lays the groundwork to begin breeding for novel environments predicted to arise following global climate change.

19.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122318, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675650

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate how pyrolysis temperature influences the yield and physicochemical properties of biochar. We produced biochar from four feedstocks (wheat straw, corn straw, rape straw, and rice straw) pyrolyzed at 300, 400, 500, and 600 °C for 1 h, respectively. The results showed that all biochar yields decreased consistently with increasing temperature during pyrolysis and showed a steady decrease over 400 °C. Rice straw derived biochar had high yield superiority due to its higher content of ash. Pyrolysis temperature has significant effects on the properties of biochar; demonstrating a negative relationship with H, O, H/C, O/C, (O + N)/C, and functional groups, whilst having a positive relationship with C, ash, pH, electrical conductivity, and surface roughness. Higher pyrolysis temperature was beneficial to the formation of a more recalcitrant constitutions and crystal structure, making it available for material application.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Pirólise , Temperatura Alta , Temperatura Ambiente
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 701: 135077, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733399

RESUMO

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an unavoidable environmental pollutants, which seriously endangers human and animal health. AFB1 has male reproductive toxicity, yet the underlying mechanisms remain inconclusive. Mitochondra are a kind of crucial organelle for maintaining spermatogenesis in testis. Thus, we hypothesized that AFB1 can impair mitochondria to aggravate testicular damage and spermatogenesis disorder. To verify this hypothesis, 48 male mice were intragastrically administered with 0, 0.375, 0.75 or 1.5 mg/kg body weight AFB1 for 30 days, respectively. In this study, we found AFB1 caused testicular histopathological lesions and spermatogenesis abnormalities, with the elevation of oxidative stress (increased H2O2, whereas decreased SOD and GSH). Significant mitochondria structure damage of germ cells and Leydig cells, MMP loss, ATP contents reduction, and inhibited activities of mitochondrial complexes I-IV in mice testis were found in AFB1 treatment groups. Besides, AFB1 inhibited mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial dynamics, presenting as the decreased mRNA and protein expressions of PGC-1α, Nrf1, Tfam, Drp1, Fis1, Mfn1 and Opa1. The results revealed that the mitochondrial damage were involved in AFB1-induced testicular damage and spermatogenesis disorder, providing a considerable direction to clarify potential mechanisms of AFB1 reproductive toxicity.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade
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