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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0248796, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499661

RESUMO

Ammonium toxicity in plants is considered a global phenomenon, but the primary mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Here, we show that although the addition of potassium or nitrate partially alleviated the inhibition of rice seedling root growth caused by ammonium toxicity, the combination of potassium and nitrate clearly improved the alleviation, probably via some synergistic mechanisms. The combined treatment with potassium and nitrate led to significantly improved alleviation effects on root biomass, root length, and embryonic crown root number. The aberrant cell morphology and the rhizosphere acidification level caused by ammonium toxicity, recovered only by the combined treatment. RNA sequencing analysis and weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) revealed that the transcriptional response generated from the combined treatment involved cellulose synthesis, auxin, and gibberellin metabolism. Our results point out that potassium and nitrate combined treatment effectively promotes cell wall formation in rice, and thus, effectively alleviates ammonium toxicity.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 709986, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512630

RESUMO

Background: Nowadays, researchers are leveraging the mRNA-based vaccine technology used to develop personalized immunotherapy for cancer. However, its application against glioma is still in its infancy. In this study, the applicable candidates were excavated for mRNA vaccine treatment in the perspective of immune regulation, and suitable glioma recipients with corresponding immune subtypes were further investigated. Methods: The RNA-seq data and clinical information of 702 and 325 patients were recruited from TCGA and CGGA, separately. The genetic alteration profile was visualized and compared by cBioPortal. Then, we explored prognostic outcomes and immune correlations of the selected antigens to validate their clinical relevance. The prognostic index was measured via GEPIA2, and infiltration of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was calculated and visualized by TIMER. Based on immune-related gene expression, immune subtypes of glioma were identified using consensus clustering analysis. Moreover, the immune landscape was visualized by graph learning-based dimensionality reduction analysis. Results: Four glioma antigens, namely ANXA5, FKBP10, MSN, and PYGL, associated with superior prognoses and infiltration of APCs were selected. Three immune subtypes IS1-IS3 were identified, which fundamentally differed in molecular, cellular, and clinical signatures. Patients in subtypes IS2 and IS3 carried immunologically cold phenotypes, whereas those in IS1 carried immunologically hot phenotype. Particularly, patients in subtypes IS3 and IS2 demonstrated better outcomes than that in IS1. Expression profiles of immune checkpoints and immunogenic cell death (ICD) modulators showed a difference among IS1-IS3 tumors. Ultimately, the immune landscape of glioma elucidated considerable heterogeneity not only between individual patients but also within the same immune subtype. Conclusions: ANXA5, FKBP10, MSN, and PYGL are identified as potential antigens for anti-glioma mRNA vaccine production, specifically for patients in immune subtypes 2 and 3. In summary, this study may shed new light on the promising approaches of immunotherapy, such as devising mRNA vaccination tailored to applicable glioma recipients.

3.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 364, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving the overall production of rice with high quality is a major target of breeders. Mining potential yield-related loci have been geared towards developing efficient rice breeding strategies. In this study, one single-locus genome-wide association studies (SL-GWAS) method (MLM) in conjunction with five multi-locus genome-wide association studies (ML-GWAS) approaches (mrMLM, FASTmrMLM, pLARmEB, pKWmEB, and ISIS EM-BLASSO) were conducted in a panel consisting of 529 rice core varieties with 607,201 SNPs. RESULTS: A total of 152, 106, 12, 111, and 64 SNPs were detected by the MLM model associated with the five yield-related traits, namely grain length (GL), grain width (GW), grain thickness (GT), thousand-grain weight (TGW), and yield per plant (YPP), respectively. Furthermore, 74 significant quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) were presented across at least two ML-GWAS methods to be associated with the above five traits successively. Finally, 20 common QTNs were simultaneously discovered by both SL-GWAS and ML-GWAS methods. Based on genome annotation, gene expression analysis, and previous studies, two candidate key genes (LOC_Os09g02830 and LOC_Os07g31450) were characterized to affect GW and TGW, separately. CONCLUSIONS: These outcomes will provide an indication for breeding high-yielding rice varieties in the immediate future.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
4.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 86, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509071

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of panicles per plant, number of grains per panicle, and 1000-grain weight are important factors contributing to the grain yield per plant in rice. The Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) contains a total of 421 purified, homozygous rice accessions representing diverse genetic variations within O. sativa. The release of High-Density Rice Array (HDRA, 700 k SNPs) dataset provides a new opportunity to discover the genetic variants of panicle architectures in rice. RESULTS: In this report, a new method genome-phenome wide association study (GPWAS) was performed with 391 individuals and 27 traits derived from RDP1 to scan the relationship between the genes and multi-traits. A total of 1985 gene models were linked to phenomic variation with a p-value cutoff of 4.49E-18. Besides, 406 accessions derived from RDP1 with 411,066 SNPs were used to identify QTLs associated with the total spikelets number per panicle (TSNP), grain number per panicle (GNP), empty grain number per panicle (EGNP), primary branch number (PBN), panicle length (PL), and panicle number per plant (PN) by GLM, MLM, FarmCPU, and BLINK models for genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses. A total of 18, 21, 18, 17, 15, and 17 QTLs were identified tightly linked with TSNP, GNP, EGNP, PBN, PL, and PN, respectively. Then, a total of 23 candidate genes were mapped simultaneously using both GWAS and GPWAS methods, composed of 6, 4, 5, 4, and 4 for TSNP, GNP, EGNP, PBN, and PL. Notably, one overlapped gene (Os01g0140100) were further investigated based on the haplotype and gene expression profile, indicating this gene might regulate the TSNP or panicle architecture in rice. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 30 % (30/106) QTLs co-located with the previous published genes or QTLs, indicating the power of GWAS. Besides, GPWAS is a new method to discover the relationship between genes and traits, especially the pleiotropy genes. Through comparing the results from GWAS and GPWAS, we identified 23 candidate genes related to panicle architectures in rice. This comprehensive study provides new insights into the genetic basis controlling panicle architectures in rice, which lays a foundation in rice improvement.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza , Grão Comestível/genética , Humanos , Oryza/genética , Fenômica , Locos de Características Quantitativas
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 441, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972357

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice is an important human staple food vulnerable to heavy metal contamination leading to serious concerns. High yield with low heavy metal contamination is a common but highly challenging goal for rice breeders worldwide due to lack of genetic knowledge and markers. RESULTS: To identify candidate QTLs and develop molecular markers for rice yield and heavy metal content, a total of 191 accessions from the USDA Rice mini-core collection with over 3.2 million SNPs were employed to investigate the QTLs. Sixteen ionomic and thirteen agronomic traits were analyzed utilizing two univariate (GLM and MLM) and two multivariate (MLMM and FarmCPU) GWAS methods. 106, 47, and 97 QTLs were identified for ionomics flooded, ionomics unflooded, and agronomic traits, respectively, with the criterium of p-value < 1.53 × 10- 8, which was determined by the Bonferroni correction for p-value of 0.05. While 49 (~ 20%) of the 250 QTLs were coinciding with previously reported QTLs/genes, about 201 (~ 80%) were new. In addition, several new candidate genes involved in ionomic and agronomic traits control were identified by analyzing the DNA sequence, gene expression, and the homologs of the QTL regions. Our results further showed that each of the four GWAS methods can identify unique as well as common QTLs, suggesting that using multiple GWAS methods can complement each other in QTL identification, especially by combining univariate and multivariate methods. CONCLUSIONS: While 49 previously reported QTLs/genes were rediscovered, over 200 new QTLs for ionomic and agronomic traits were found in the rice genome. Moreover, multiple new candidate genes for agronomic and ionomic traits were identified. This research provides novel insights into the genetic basis of both ionomic and agronomic variations in rice, establishing the foundation for marker development in breeding and further investigation on reducing heavy-metal contamination and improving crop yields. Finally, the comparative analysis of the GWAS methods showed that each method has unique features and different methods can complement each other.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fenótipo , Banco de Sementes , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture
6.
Front Genet ; 11: 565, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636871

RESUMO

Polyol transporters (PLTs), also called polyol/monosaccharide transporters, is of significance in determining plant development and sugar transportation. However, the diverged evolutionary patterns of the PLT gene family in Gramineae crops are still unclear. Here a micro-evolution analysis was performed among the seven Gramineae representative crops using whole-genome sequences, i.e., Brachypodium distachyon (Bd), Hordeum vulgare (Hv), Oryza rufipogon (Or), Oryza sativa (Os), Sorghum bicolor (Sb), Setaria italica (Si), and Zea mays (Zm), leading to the identification of 12, 11, 12, 15, 20, 24, and 20 PLT genes, respectively. In this study, all PLT genes were divided into nine orthogroups (OGs). However, the number of PLT genes and the distribution of PLT OGs were not the same in these seven Gramineae species, and different OGs were also subject to different purification selection pressures. These results indicated that the PLT OGs of the PLT gene family have been expanded or lost unevenly in all tested species. Then, our results of gene duplication events confirmed that gene duplication events promoted the expansion of the PLT gene family in some Gramineous plants, namely, Bd, Or, Os, Si, Sb, and Zm, but the degree of gene family expansion, the type of PLT gene duplication, and the differentiation time of duplicate gene pairs varied greatly among these species. In addition, the sequence alignment and the internal repeat analysis of all PLTs protein sequences implied that the PLT protein sequences may originate from an internal repeat duplication of an ancestral six transmembrane helical units. Besides that, the protein motifs result highlighted that the PLT protein sequences were highly conserved, whereas the functional differentiation of the PLT genes was characterized by different gene structures, upstream elements, as well as co-expression analysis. The gene expression analysis of rice and maize showed that the PLT genes have a wide range of expression patterns, suggesting diverse biological functions. Taken together, our finding provided a perspective on the evolution differences and the functional characterizations of PLT genes in Gramineae representative crops.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(13)2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610550

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a widely cultivated food crop around the world, especially in Asia. However, rice seedlings often suffer from cold stress, which affects their growth and yield. Here, RNA-seq analysis and Meta-QTLs mapping were performed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cold tolerance in the roots of 14-day-old seedlings of rice (RPY geng, cold-tolerant genotype). A total of 4779 of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 2457 up-regulated and 2322 down-regulated DEGs. The GO, COG, KEEG, and Mapman enrichment results of DEGs revealed that DEGs are mainly involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, signal transduction mechanisms (plant hormone signal transduction), biosynthesis, transport and catabolism of secondary metabolites (phenylpropanoid biosynthesis), defense mechanisms, and large enzyme families mechanisms. Notably, the AP2/ERF-ERF, NAC, WRKY, MYB, C2H2, and bHLH transcription factors participated in rice's cold-stress response and tolerance. On the other hand, we mapped the identified DEGs to 44 published cold-stress-related genes and 41 cold-tolerant Meta-QTLs regions. Of them, 12 DEGs were the published cold-stress-related genes and 418 DEGs fell into the cold-tolerant Meta-QTLs regions. In this study, the identified DEGs and the putative molecular regulatory network can provide insights for understanding the mechanism of cold stress tolerance in rice. In addition, DEGs in KEGG term-enriched terms or cold-tolerant Meta-QTLs will help to secure key candidate genes for further functional studies on the molecular mechanism of cold stress response in rice.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Oryza/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Ásia , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Genótipo , Oryza/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2312, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32385230

RESUMO

Despite tremendous importance in catalysis, the design of oxide-metal interface has been hampered by the limited understanding of the nature of interfacial sites and the oxide-metal interaction (OMI). Through construction of well-defined Cu2O/Pt, Cu2O/Ag and Cu2O/Au interfaces, we find that Cu2O nanostructures (NSs) on Pt exhibit much lower thermal stability than on Ag and Au, although they show the same structure. The activities of these interfaces are compared for CO oxidation and follow the order of Cu2O/Pt > Cu2O/Au > Cu2O/Ag. OMI is found to determine the activity and stability of supported Cu2O NSs, which could be described by the formation energy of interfacial oxygen vacancy. Further, electronic interaction between Cu+ and metal substrates is found center to OMI, where the d band center could be used as a key descriptor. Our study provides insight for OMI and for the development of Cu-based catalysts for low temperature oxidation reactions.

9.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(2): 465-474, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863176

RESUMO

Rice yield potential is partially affected by grain size and weight, which associates with a great number of genes and QTLs. However, it is still unclear that how multiple alleles in different genes take a combined effect on grain shape/size. Here, we investigated seven core grain size-related functional genes (GL7, GS3, GW8, GS5, TGW6, WTG1, and An-1) and observed a wide phenotypic variation for five agronomic traits (grain length, grain width, grain length-width ratio, grain thickness and thousand-grain weight) in 521 rice germplasm. The correlation analysis showed a strong association among these grain traits which have distinct impacts on determining the final rice grain size. Genotyping analysis demonstrated that a relatively small number of allele combinations were preserved in the diverse population and these allele combinations were significantly associated with differences in grain size. Furthermore, alleles were regarded as individual variables to develop the multiple regression equation. We found that B and C allelic types of GS3 and conventional type of WTG1 played relevant roles in grain size and thousand-grain weight, separately. The models would conduce to devise instructive approaches by selecting appropriate candidate alleles, which could fuel further research for breeding preferred grain shape and high-yielding crop.


Assuntos
Grão Comestível/genética , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Alelos , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Haplótipos/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo
10.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 11 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795257

RESUMO

The domain of unknown function (DUF) superfamily encodes proteins of unknown functions in plants. Among them, DUF668 family members in plants possess a 29 amino-acid conserved domain, and this family has not been described previously. Here, we report this plant-specific novel DUF668 gene family containing 12 OsDUF668 genes in rice (Oryza sativa) and 91 DUF668s for the other seven plant species. In our study, DUF668 genes were present in both dicot and monocot plants, indicating that DUF668 is a conserved gene family that originated by predating the dicot-monocot divergence. Based on the gene structure and motif composition, the DUF668 family consists of two distinct clades, I and II in the phylogenetic tree. Remarkably, OsDUF668 genes clustered on the chromosomes merely show close phylogenetic relationships, suggesting that gene duplications or collinearity seldom happened. Cis-elements prediction display that over 80% of DUF668s contain phytohormone and light responsiveness factors. Further comprehensive experimental analyses of the OsDUF668 family are implemented in 22 different tissues, five hormone treatments, seven environmental factor stresses, and two pathogen-defense related stresses. The OsDUF668 genes express ubiquitously in analyzed rice tissues, and seven genes show tissue-specific high expression profiles. All OsDUF668s respond to drought, and some of Avr9/Cf-9 rapidly elicited genes resist to salt, wound, and rice blast with rapidly altered expression patterns. These findings imply that OsDUF668 is essential for drought-enduring and plant defense. Together, our results bring the important role of the DUF668 gene family in rice development and fitness to the fore.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Família Multigênica , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Secas , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Especificidade de Órgãos , Oryza/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
11.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 1297, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681387

RESUMO

Glycoside hydrolase 3 (GH3) gene family belongs to auxin-responsive gene families and is tightly linked with hormone homeostasis and signaling pathways. However, our knowledge about the evolutionary dynamic of GH3 genes in Gramineae crops is limited. In this study, a comparative genomic and transcriptomic analysis was conducted to study evolutionary patterns and the driving selective forces of GH3 gene family in six representative Gramineae crops, namely, Setaria italica (Si), Zea mays (Zm), Sorghum bicolor (Sb), Hordeum vulgare (Hv), Brachypodium distachyon (Bd), and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica (Os). A total of 17, 13, 11, 9, 8, and 11 GH3 proteins (GH3s) were identified in Si, Zm, Sb, Hv, Bd, and Os, respectively. Phylogenetic, conserved motif, and gene structural analyses could divide all GH3s into two groups (I and II), and all GH3s consisted of seven orthogroups (Ors) on the basis of Or identification result. We further found that genes in the same Or showed similar sequence and structural features, whereas genes in the same groups exhibited intrinsic differences in exon numbers and intron lengths. These results revealed GH3 genes in the same groups have been differentiated. Obvious differences in total numbers of GH3 genes, Ors, and duplication events among these six tested Gramineae crops reflected lineage-specific expansions and homologous gene loss/gain of GH3 gene family during the evolutionary process. In addition, selective force and expression analyses indicated that all GH3 genes were constrained by strong purifying selection, and GH3 genes in conserved Ors showed higher expression levels than that in unconserved Ors. The current study highlighted different evolutionary patterns of GH3 genes in Gramineae crops resulted from different evolutionary rates and duplication events and provided a vital insight into the functional divergence of GH3 genes.

12.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224962, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697744

RESUMO

Nitrate signaling integrates and coordinates gene expression and plant growth; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. Our previous study revealed that rice calcineurin B-like protein 1 (OsCBL1) modulates lateral root elongation by affecting auxin biosynthesis. Here, we report that OsCBL1 also modulates nitrate signaling to regulate rice seedlings growth. Compared with wild-type seedlings, seedlings of OsCBL1-knockdown (OsCBL1-KD) plants showed a suppressed growth phenotype, which included reduced root and shoot fresh weights and shorter radicles, crown roots, and lateral roots, when grown in nitrogen-free conditions. Although the growth defects of OsCBL1-KD plants could be partially rescued by the addition of nitrate to the growth conditions, the nitrate uptake capability of the OsCBL1-KD plants did not differ from that of wild-type plants as assessed via nitrate content and 15NO3- influx experiments. The nitrate-regulated expression of nitrate signal sentinel genes (OsNRT2.1 and OsNRT2.2) was affected in the OsCBL1-KD plants under both long- and short-term nitrate treatments. Overall, our results showed a novel role for OsCBL1 in the regulation of nitrate signaling and nitrate-mediated rice growth.


Assuntos
Cálcio/metabolismo , Nitratos/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Transporte Biológico , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Fenótipo
13.
Cells ; 8(6)2019 06 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181814

RESUMO

Sugar transporter proteins (STPs), such as H+/sugar symporters, play essential roles in plants' sugar transport, growth, and development, and possess an important potential to enhance plants' performance of multiple agronomic traits, especially crop yield and stress tolerance. However, the evolutionary dynamics of this important gene family in Gramineae crops are still not well-documented and functional differentiation of rice STP genes remain unclear. To address this gap, we conducted a comparative genomic study of STP genes in seven representative Gramineae crops, which are Brachypodium distachyon (Bd), Hordeum vulgare (Hv), Setaria italica (Si), Sorghum bicolor (Sb), Zea mays (Zm), Oryza rufipogon (Or), and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica (Os). In this case, a total of 177 STP genes were identified and grouped into four clades. Of four clades, the Clade I, Clade III, and Clade IV showed an observable number expansion compared to Clade II. Our results of identified duplication events and divergence time of duplicate gene pairs indicated that tandem, Whole genome duplication (WGD)/segmental duplication events play crucial roles in the STP gene family expansion of some Gramineae crops (expect for Hv) during a long-term evolutionary process. However, expansion mechanisms of the STP gene family among the tested species were different. Further selective force studies revealed that the STP gene family in Gramineae crops was under purifying selective forces and different clades and orthologous groups with different selective forces. Furthermore, expression analysis showed that rice STP genes play important roles not only in flower organs development but also under various abiotic stresses (cold, high-temperature, and submergence stresses), blast infection, and wounding. The current study highlighted the expansion and evolutionary patterns of the STP gene family in Gramineae genomes and provided some important messages for the future functional analysis of Gramineae crop STP genes.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Poaceae/metabolismo , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/classificação , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Poaceae/genética , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 10: 565, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139200

RESUMO

The SPL (SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like) gene family is one of the plant-specific transcription factor families and controls a considerable number of biological functions, including floral development, phytohormone signaling, and toxin resistance. However, the evolutionary patterns and driving forces of SPL genes in the Oryza genus are still not well-characterized. In this study, we investigated a total of 105 SPL genes from six AA genome Oryza representative species (O. barthii, O. glumipatula, O. nivara, O. rufipogon, O. glaberrima, and O. sativa). Phylogenetic and motif analyses indicated that SPL proteins could be divided into two distinct lineages (I and II), and further studies showed lineage II consisted of three clades (IIA, IIB, and IIC). We found that clade I had comparable structural features with clade IIA, whereas genes in clade IIC displayed intrinsic differences, such as lower exon numbers and the presence of miR156 regulation elements. Nineteen orthologous groups of OsSPLs in Oryza were also identified, and most exons within those genes maintained constant length, whereas length of intron changed relatively. All groups were constrained by stronger purifying selection and diversified continually including alterative gene number, intron length, and miR156 regulation. Subsequently, cis-acting element analyses revealed the potential role of SPLs in wild rice, which might participate in light-responsive, phytohormone response, and plant growth and development. Our results shed light on that different evolutionary rates and duplication events might result in divergent evolutionary patterns in each lineage of SPL genes, providing a guide in exploring diverse function in the rice gene family among six closely related Oryza species.

15.
Biomolecules ; 9(5)2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096659

RESUMO

Plant cell walls play a fundamental role in several ways, providing structural support for cells, resistance against pathogens and facilitating the communication between cells. The glycosyltransferase family 8 (GT8) is involved in the formation of the plant cell wall. However, the evolutionary relationship and the functional differentiation of this important gene family remain obscure in Gramineae crop genomes. In the present investigation, we identified 269 GT8 genes in the seven Gramineae representative crop genomes, namely, 33 in Hordeum vulgare, 37 in Brachypodium distachyon, 40 in Oryza sativa ssp. japonica, 41 in Oryza rufipogon, 36 in Setaria italica, 37 in Sorghum bicolor, and 45 in Zea mays. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that all identified GT8 proteins belonged to seven subfamilies: galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT), galacturonosyltransferase-like (GATL), GATL-related (GATR), galactinol synthase (GolS), and plant glycogenin-like starch initiation proteins A (PGSIP-A), PGSIP-B, and PGSIP-C. We estimated that the GAUT subfamily might be further divided into four subgroups (I-IV) due to differentiation of gene structures and expression patterns. Our orthogroup analysis identified 22 orthogroups with different sizes. Of these orthogroups, several orthogroups were lost in some species, such as S. italica and Z. mays. Moreover, lots of duplicate pairs and collinear pairs were discovered among these species. These results indicated that multiple duplication modes led to the expansion of this important gene family and unequal loss of orthogroups and subfamilies might have happened during the evolutionary process. RNA-seq, microarray analysis, and qRT-PCR analyses indicated that GT8 genes are critical for plant growth and development, and for stresses responses. We found that OsGolS1 was significantly up-regulated under salt stress, while OsGAUT21, OsGATL2, and OsGATL5 had remarkable up-regulation under cold stress. The current study highlighted the expansion and evolutionary patterns of the GT8 gene family in these seven Gramineae crop genomes and provided potential candidate genes for future salt- and cold- resistant molecular breeding studies in O. sativa.


Assuntos
Resposta ao Choque Frio , Evolução Molecular , Glicosiltransferases/genética , Família Multigênica , Oryza/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Salino , Duplicação Gênica , Glicosiltransferases/metabolismo , Oryza/classificação , Oryza/metabolismo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
16.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(3)2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30871082

RESUMO

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops worldwide, while its growth and productivity are threatened by various abiotic stresses, especially salt stress. Unraveling how rice adapts to salt stress at the transcription level is vital. It can provide valuable information on enhancing the salt stress tolerance performance of rice via genetic engineering technologies. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of different rice genotypes at the seedling stage based on 96 public microarray datasets, aiming to identify the key salt-responsive genes and understand the molecular response mechanism of rice under salt stress. In total, 5559 genes were identified to be differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under salt stress, and 3210 DEGs were identified during the recovery process. The Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment results revealed that the salt-response mechanisms of shoots and roots were different. A close-knit signaling network, consisting of the Ca2+ signal transduction pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, multiple hormone signals, transcription factors (TFs), transcriptional regulators (TRs), protein kinases (PKs), and other crucial functional proteins, plays an essential role in rice salt stress response. In this study, many unreported salt-responsive genes were found. Besides this, MapMan results suggested that TNG67 can shift to the fermentation pathway to produce energy under salt stress and may enhance the Calvin cycle to repair a damaged photosystem during the recovery stage. Taken together, these findings provide novel insights into the salt stress molecular response and introduce numerous candidate genes for rice salt stress tolerance breeding.

17.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(3)2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897847

RESUMO

Sugars are critical for plant growth and development as suppliers of carbon and energy, as signal molecules, or as solute molecules for osmotic homeostasis. Monosaccharide transporter (MST) genes are involved in various processes of plant growth and development as well as in response to abiotic stresses. However, the evolution and their roles of MST genes in growth and development and in coping with abiotic stresses in rice are poorly known. Here, we identified 64 MST genes in rice genome, which are classified into seven subfamilies: STP, PLT, AZT, ERD, pGlcT, INT, and XTPH. MST genes are not evenly distributed between chromosomes (Chrs) with a bias to Chr 3, 4, 7, and 11, which could be a result of duplication of fragments harboring MST genes. In total, 12 duplication events were found in the rice MST family, among which, two pairs were derived from fragmental duplications and ten pairs were from tandem duplications. The synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates of duplicate gene pairs demonstrated that the MST family was under a strong negative selection during the evolution process. Furthermore, a comprehensive expression analysis conducted in 11 different tissues, three abiotic stresses, five hormone treatments, and three sugar treatments revealed different expression patterns of MST genes and indicated diversified functions of them. Our results suggest that MST genes play important roles not only in various abiotic stresses but also in hormone and sugar responses. The present results will provide a vital insight into the functional divergence of the MST family in the future study.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/genética , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Estresse Ocupacional , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual
18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(14): 4617-4621, 2019 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30737877

RESUMO

The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a sluggish electrocatalytic reaction in solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) at high temperatures (600-850 °C). Perovskite oxide has been widely investigated for catalyzing the OER; however, the formation of cation-enriched secondary phases at the oxide/oxide interface blocks the active sites and decreases OER performance. Herein, we show that the Au/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) interface possesses much higher OER activity than the lanthanum strontium manganite/YSZ anode. Electrochemical characterization and density functional theory calculations suggest that the Au/YSZ interface provides a favorable path for OER by triggering interfacial oxygen spillover from the YSZ to the Au surface. In situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirm the existence of spillover oxygen on the Au surface. This study demonstrates that the Au/YSZ interface possesses excellent catalytic activity for OER at high temperatures in SOECs.

19.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(2)2019 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682815

RESUMO

Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3), a member of the Auxin-responsive gene family, is involved in plant growth, the plant developmental process, and various stress responses. The GH3 gene family has been well-studied in Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays. However, the evolution of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species remains unknown and the function of the GH3 gene family in Oryza sativa is not well-documented. Here, a systematic analysis was performed in six Oryza species/subspecies, including four wild rice species and two cultivated rice subspecies. A total of 13, 13, 13, 13, 12, and 12 members were identified in O. sativa ssp. japonica, O. sativa ssp. indica, Oryza rufipogon, Oryza nivara, Oryza punctata, and Oryza glumaepatula, respectively. Gene duplication events, structural features, conserved motifs, a phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, and Ka/Ks ratios of this important family were found to be strictly conservative across these six Oryza species/subspecies, suggesting that the expansion of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species might be attributed to duplication events, and this expansion could occur in the common ancestor of Oryza species, even in common ancestor of rice tribe (Oryzeae) (23.07~31.01 Mya). The RNA-seq results of different tissues displayed that OsGH3 genes had significantly different expression profiles. Remarkably, the qRT-PCR result after NaCl treatment indicated that the majority of OsGH3 genes play important roles in salinity stress, especially OsGH3-2 and OsGH3-8. This study provides important insights into the evolution of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species and will assist with further investigation of OsGH3 genes' functions under salinity stress.

20.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 2071, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259615

RESUMO

D-Lactate is oxidized by two classes of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH), namely, NAD-dependent and NAD-independent D-LDHs. Little is known about the characteristics and biological functions of D-LDHs in rice. In this study, a functional NAD-independent D-LDH (LOC_Os07g06890) was identified in rice, as a result of alternative splicing events. Characterization of the expression profile, subcellular localization, and enzymatic properties of the functional OsD-LDH revealed that it is a mitochondrial cytochrome-c-dependent D-LDH with high affinity and catalytic efficiency. Functional analysis of OsD-LDH RNAi transgenic rice demonstrated that OsD-LDH participates in methylglyoxal metabolism by affecting the activity of the glyoxalase system and aldo-keto reductases. Under methylglyoxal treatment, silencing of OsD-LDH in rice resulted in the accumulation of methylglyoxal and D-lactate, the decrease of reduced glutathione in leaves, and ultimately severe growth inhibition. Moreover, the detached leaves of OsD-LDH RNAi plants were more sensitive to salt stress. However, the silencing of OsD-LDH did not affect the growth under photorespiration conditions. Our results provide new insights into the role of NAD-independent D-LDHs in rice.

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