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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34636282

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a Streptomyces peucetius-derived antibiotic and is a member of the anthracyline family. DOX exerts strong anticancer activity and has been in the practice of cancer treatment since the 1960s. DOX is commonly used to treat different cancers, including bone sarcomas, soft tissue (tendons and muscles), bladder, ovary, stomach, thyroid, breast, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, and myeloblastic leukemia. Although, the cumulative doses of DOX above 550mg/m2 cause irreversible cardiotoxicity and other severe adverse effects. In this context, concerning DOX, several patents have been published in the last two decades. Consequently, due to the huge volume of available information, it is worth addressing and evaluating the existing research contents and propose innovative solutions regarding DOX. This activity highlights various aspects of DOX, including registered patent analysis, pharmacological action, toxicity minimization, formulation development such as those approved by FD, under clinical trials, and newly developed nano-delivery systems. AREAS COVERED: This review analyzes the different aspects of DOX-based chemotherapeutics and the development of drug delivery systems in the literature published from 2000 to early 2020. EXPERT OPINION: The pharmacological properties of DOX have been well documented, but DOX-based chemotherapy is still a few steps away from being a "perfect and safe" therapy. Certain severe systemic side effects are associated with DOX therapy. It is expected that, in the near future, DOX therapy can be much more effective by selecting an ideal nanocarrier system, DOX conjugates, proper structural modifications, DOX analogs, DOX-immunotherapy, and combination therapy. The advanced formulations of DOX from the registered patents and recent research articles need clinical trials to bring safe treatment to cancer patients.

2.
Plant J ; 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624152

RESUMO

Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox) is one of the most important ornamental plants, whose color is mainly determined by the middle tepals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the intriguing flower color development among different wintersweet groups are still largely unknown. In addition, wintersweet belongs to magnoliids, and the issue remains as to how to determine the phylogenetic position of magnoliids conclusively. Here, the whole genome of red flower wintersweet, a new wintersweet type, was sequenced and assembled with high-quality. The genome comprised 11 super-scaffolds (chromosomes) with a total size of 737.03 Mb. Based on the analyses of the long branch attraction (LBA), incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), sparse taxon sampling and other factors, we suggest that a bifurcating tree may not fully represent the complex early diversification of the angiosperms, and that magnoliids are most likely to be the sister of the eudicots. The wintersweet genome appears to have undergone two rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) events: a younger WGD event representing an independent event specific to the Calycanthaceae species; and an ancient WGD event shared by Laurales. By integrating genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic data, CpANS1 and transcription factor CpMYB1 were considered to play key roles in regulating tepal color development, whereas CpMYB1 needs to form a complex with bHLH and WD40 to fully perform its regulatory function. The present study not only provided novel insights into the evolution of magnoliids and the molecular mechanism for flower color development, but also laid the foundation for subsequent functional genomics study and molecular breeding of wintersweet.

3.
Innovations (Phila) ; : 15569845211040814, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: During robotic lobectomy (RL), the surgeon can elect to use either robotic staplers or hand-held laparoscopic staplers. It is assumed that either will result in similar outcomes, while robotic staplers increase cost. We sought to compare perioperative outcomes and costs between RL cases that utilized robotic staplers versus hand-held staplers in real-world clinical practice. METHODS: Patients who underwent an elective RL between October 2015 and December 2017 were identified in the Premier Hospital Perspective Database. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed to compare perioperative outcomes, healthcare resource utilization, and costs between cases using robotic staplers and hand-held staplers during RL. RESULTS: In the PSM analysis, RL cases that fully utilized robotic staplers compared to hand-held staplers were associated with significantly lower risks of developing bleeding (5.6% vs 9.8%, P = 0.03) and conversion to open surgery (0.3% vs 5.9%, P = 0.004). Additionally, in a multivariable regression analysis, robotic stapler was associated with reduced risk for air leak (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.98) and overall complications (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.58-0.99). The total index hospitalization costs were comparable between the 2 groups (median [IQR], $21,667 [$16,860-$29,033] in robotic stapler vs $21,398 [$17,258-$29,406] in hand-held stapler, P = 0.22). CONCLUSIONS: Among RL cases, utilization of robotic staplers was associated with significantly lower risks of perioperative bleeding, conversion, and possibly air leak and overall complications compared to RL cases utilizing hand-held staplers. The choice of stapler may have an impact on outcomes and robotic staplers do not increase total costs.

4.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 12(1): 496, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fulminant hepatitis is a severe life-threatening clinical condition with rapid progressive loss of liver function. It is characterized by massive activation and infiltration of immune cells into the liver and disturbance of inflammatory cytokine production. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) showed potent immunomodulatory properties. Transplantation of MSCs is suggested as a promising therapeutic approach for a host of inflammatory conditions. METHODS: In the current study, a well-established concanavalin A (Con A)-induced fulminant hepatitis mouse model was used to investigate the effects of transplanting human umbilical cord Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (hWJ-MSCs) on fulminant hepatitis. RESULTS: We showed that hWJ-MSCs effectively alleviate fulminant hepatitis in mouse models, primarily through inhibiting T cell immunity. RNA sequencing of liver tissues and human T cells co-cultured with hWJ-MSCs showed that NF-κB signaling and glycolysis are two main pathways mediating the protective role of hWJ-MSCs on both Con A-induced hepatitis in vivo and T cell activation in vitro. CONCLUSION: In summary, our data confirmed the potent therapeutic role of MSCs-derived from Wharton's jelly of human umbilical cord on Con A-induced fulminant hepatitis, and uncovered new mechanisms that glycolysis metabolic shift mediates suppression of T cell immunity by hWJ-MSCs.

5.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(77): 9890-9893, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494033

RESUMO

Two newly synthesized ultra-small copper nanoclusters, [Cu3(µ3-H)(µ2-dppy)4](ClO4)2 (1) and [Cu4(µ4-H)(µ2-dppy)4(µ2-Cl)2](ClO4) (2) (dppy = diphenyl-2-pyridylphosphine), have been shown to exhibit ultrabright yellow and yellow-green room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) emission, with high quantum yields of 71.8% and 63.5%, respectively. Therefore, nanocluster 1 has been applied for the first time as a single component phosphor for yellow and white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with favourable characteristics.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 290: 118079, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488161

RESUMO

The residue of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exists throughout the environment and humans are subject to long-term exposure. As such, the potential environmental and health risk caused by low-dose exposure to PCBs has attracted much attention. 3, 3', 4, 4', 5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB126), the highest toxicity compound among dioxin-like-PCBs, has been widely used and mass-produced. Cardiotoxicity is PCB126's crucial adverse effect. Maintaining proper metabolism underlies heart health, whereas the impact of PCB126 exposure on cardiac metabolic patterns has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we administered 0.5 and 50 µg/kg bw of PCB126 to adult male mice weekly by gavage for eight weeks. Pathological results showed that low-dose PCB126 exposure induced heart injury. Metabolomic analysis of the heart tissue exposed to low-dose PCB126 identified 59 differential metabolites that were involved in lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Typical metabolomic characteristic of cardiac hypertrophy was reflected by accumulation of fatty acids (e.g. palmitic, palmitoleic, and linoleic acid), and disturbance of carbohydrates including D-glucose and intermediates in TCA cycle (fumaric, succinic, and citric acid). Low-dose PCB126 exposure increased glycine and threonine, the amino acids necessary for the productions of collagen and elastin. Besides, PCB126-exposed mice exhibited upregulation of collagen synthesis enzymes and extracellular matrix proteins, indicative of cardiac fibrosis. Moreover, the expression of genes related to TGFß/PPARγ/MMP-2 signaling pathway was perturbed in the PCB126-treated hearts. Together, our results reveal that low-dose PCB126 exposure disrupts cardiac metabolism correlated with hypertrophy and fibrosis. This study sheds light on the underlying mechanism of PCBs' cardiotoxicity and identifies potential sensitive biomarkers for environmental monitoring.

7.
DNA Cell Biol ; 40(10): 1251-1260, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491823

RESUMO

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is emerging as a promising subtype related to immunotherapy in gastric cancer (GC). However, the underlying mechanism between MSI and microsatellite stability (MSS) remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a weighted gene co-expression network analysis and found that the expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L (HNRNPL) was significantly increased in MSI GC compared with MSS GC. This finding was further validated in public GC cohorts and commercialized human GC tissue microarray. The significant negative correlation with the expression of mismatch repair protein mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) may be one of the potential mechanisms for the upregulation of HNRNPL expression in MSI GC (R = -0.689, p = 8.59e-11). In addition, HNRNPL expression was markedly upregulated in GC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. High HNRNPL expression also predicted a poor prognosis in GC patients. Finally, gene set enrichment analysis revealed that high HNRNPL MSI GC samples were highly positive associated with the biological functions of inflammation and cell proliferation, such as interferon gamma response, MYC targets, E2F targets, and G2/M checkpoints. In conclusion, HNRNPL could be a new MSI-associated prognostic biomarker in GC and could be a new target for the MSI GC treatment.

8.
Nanotechnology ; 32(50)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34587602

RESUMO

Increasing requirements for wearable devices stimulate the development of flexible energy storage components. Herein, a flexible integrated electrode consisting of SnS2nanosheet arraysin situanchored on the functionalized carbon cloth was prepared via a facile one-step hydrothermal method. Through pretreatment of carbon cloth, rough morphology is appeared on the surface of carbon fiber, which is conducive to optimizing the accessible load of SnS2. The SnS2nanosheet arrays and the carbon fiber as conductive skeleton cooperate with each other to provide a highly open surface, leading to the enhancement in capacitance (194.4 mF cm-2) and the outstanding retention after long-term service (86.5% after 10 000 cycles). A quasi-solid-state asymmetric flexible supercapacitor was assembled to evaluate the practical application under various conditions, suggesting satisfactory electrochemical performance as a maximum energy density of 10.95µWh cm-2at the power density of 4.75 mW cm-2and mechanical stability under actual conditions.

9.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 55, 2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429126

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore disease severity and risk factors for 30-day mortality of adult immunocompromised (IC) patients hospitalized with influenza-related pneumonia (Flu-p). METHOD: A total of 122 IC and 1191 immunocompetent patients hospitalized with Flu-p from January 2012 to December 2018 were recruited retrospectively from five teaching hospitals in China. RESULTS: After controlling for confounders, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that immunosuppression was associated with increased risks for invasive ventilation [odds ratio: (OR) 2.475, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.511-4.053, p < 0.001], admittance to the intensive care unit (OR: 3.247, 95% CI 2.064-5.106, p < 0.001), and 30-day mortality (OR: 3.206, 95% CI 1.926-5.335, p < 0.001) in patients with Flu-p. Another multivariate logistic regression model revealed that baseline lymphocyte counts (OR: 0.993, 95% CI 0.990-0.996, p < 0.001), coinfection (OR: 5.450, 95% CI 1.638-18.167, p = 0.006), early neuraminidase inhibitor therapy (OR 0.401, 95% CI 0.127-0.878, p = 0.001), and systemic corticosteroid use at admission (OR: 6.414, 95% CI 1.348-30.512, p = 0.020) were independently related to 30-day mortality in IC patients with Flu-p. Based on analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), the optimal cutoff for lymphocyte counts was 0.6 × 109/L [area under the ROC (AUROC) = 0.824, 95% CI 0.744-0.887], sensitivity: 97.8%, specificity: 73.7%]. CONCLUSIONS: IC conditions are associated with more severe outcomes in patients with Flu-p. The predictors for mortality that we identified may be valuable for the management of Flu-p among IC patients.

10.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 1): 131968, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438214

RESUMO

The effective interception of membrane leads to the accumulation of microplastics (MPs) in membrane bioreactor (MBR) process for long-term operation. However, the influence of MPs accumulation on the performance of MBR hasn't been well understood. In this study, the accumulation of polypropylene microplastics (PP-MPs) in two MBRs run for 3 yr with or without discharging sludge was simulated by operating the lab-scale MBRs for 84 days. The variations of pollutant removal, membrane fouling, composition of soluble microbial product (SMP) and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), and microbial community of MBRs were systematically investigated. The results show that the removal efficiency of COD and NH4+-N was not depressed by PP-MPs accumulation. However, the presence of PP-MPs in the range of 0.14-0.30 g/L could inhibit the growth of microorganisms, enhance the secretion of SMP and EPS, and reduce the microbial richness and diversity. In the contrary, the high concentration of PP-MPs (2.34-5.00 g/L) exhibited the opposite effects and mitigated membrane fouling, suggesting the important role of MPs concentration. It was also found that the exposure to high concentration of PP-MPs enhanced relative abundance of Clostridia, and inhibited the growth of Proteobacteria. The findings of this study provide a foresight to understand the effects of MPs accumulation on the performance of MBRs.

11.
Surgery ; 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To evaluate national trends in adoption of different surgical approaches for colectomy and compare clinical outcomes and resource utilization between approaches. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients aged ≥18 years who underwent elective inpatient left or right colectomy between 2010 and 2019 from the Premier Healthcare Database. Patients were classified by operative approach: open, minimally invasive: either laparoscopic or robotic. Postoperative outcomes assessed within index hospitalization include operating room time, hospital length of stay, rates of conversion to open surgery, reoperation, and complications. Post-discharge readmission, hospital-based encounters, and costs were collected to 30 days post-discharge. Multivariable regression models were used to compare outcomes between operative approaches adjusted for patient baseline characteristics and clustering within hospitals. RESULTS: Among 206,967 patients, the robotic approach rates increased from 2.1%/1.6% (2010) to 32.6%/26.8% (2019) for left/right colectomy, offset by a decrease in both open and laparoscopic approaches. Median length of stay for both left and right colectomies was significantly longer in open (6 days) and laparoscopic (5 days) compared to robotic surgery (4 days; all P values <.001). Robotic surgery compared to open and laparoscopic was associated with a significantly lower conversion rate, development of ileus, overall complications, and 30-day hospital encounters. Robotic surgery further demonstrated lower mortality, reoperations, postoperative bleeding, and readmission rates for left and right colectomies than open. Robotic surgery had significantly longer operating room times and higher costs than either open or laparoscopic. CONCLUSIONS: Robotic surgery is increasingly being used in colon surgery, with outcomes equivalent and in some domains superior to laparoscopic.

12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 712109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394113

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells, unique to initiate and coordinate the adaptive immune response. In pigs, conventional DCs (cDCs), plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), and monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) have been described in blood and tissues. Different pathogens, such as viruses, could infect these cells, and in some cases, compromise their response. The understanding of the interaction between DCs and viruses is critical to comprehend viral immunopathological responses. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is the most important respiratory pathogen in the global pig population. Different reports support the notion that PRRSV modulates pig immune response in addition to their genetic and antigenic variability. The interaction of PRRSV with DCs is a mostly unexplored area with conflicting results and lots of uncertainties. Among the scarce certainties, cDCs and pDCs are refractory to PRRSV infection in contrast to moDCs. Additionally, response of DCs to PRRSV can be different depending on the type of DCs and maybe is related to the virulence of the viral isolate. The precise impact of this virus-DC interaction upon the development of the specific immune response is not fully elucidated. The present review briefly summarizes and discusses the previous studies on the interaction of in vitro derived bone marrow (bm)- and moDCs, and in vivo isolated cDCs, pDCs, and moDCs with PRRSV1 and 2.

13.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(3): 963-976, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366348

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly and is characterized by a progressive decline in cognitive function. Amyloid-ß protein accumulation is believed to be the key pathological hallmark of AD. Increasing evidence has shown that the gut microbiota has a role in brain function and host behaviors. The gut microbiota regulates the bidirectional interactions between the gut and brain through neural, endocrine, and immune pathways. With increasing age, the gut microbiota diversity decreases, and the dominant bacteria change, which is closely related to systemic inflammation and health status. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is related to cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative diseases. The purpose of this review is to discuss the impacts of the gut microbiota on brain function and the development of AD. It is a feasible target for therapeutic invention. Modulating the composition of the gut microbiota through diet, physical activity or probiotic/prebiotic supplements can provide new prevention and treatment options for AD.

14.
J Med Virol ; 93(11): 6355-6361, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232523

RESUMO

The study was aimed to analyze the prevalence characteristics of non-16/18 high-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV) and the related risks for cervical abnormalities in south Shanghai. A total of 2291 HPV women who had been referred for a colposcopy due to HPV infection from @@@@@2016.12 to 2019.6 were enrolled. Combined with liquid-based thin-layer cell test (TCT) and pathological results of cervical biopsy, the infection spectrum and pathogenic risk of non-16/18 HR-HPV in local population were investigated. The results showed that the single HR-HPV infection rate was significantly higher than that of multiple infection, and the five most frequently detected types were HPV16, HPV52, HPV18, HPV53, HPV58 in the group. The total proportion of non-16/18 HR-HPV infection was 68.22%, more than twice of HPV16/18. In cases with high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) or cervical cancer, non-16/18 HR-HPV infections account for 50.84% (single infection: 28.57%, multiple infection: 22.27%). The risk of cervical abnormalities caused by single HPV infection was ranked as HPV16 > HPV52 > HPV18 = HPV58 > HPV51 > HPV53 = HPV56 > others. Notably, among non-16/18 HR-HPV infected patients with HSIL/cancer lesions, the omission diagnostic rate of TCT was 62.81%. The infection rate of non-16/18 HR-HPV in whole study population was much higher than that of 16/18 type, and the infection rate of the former was also slightly higher in patients with HSIL and cancer. Due to the high omission diagnostic rate of TCT, we suggest patients with persistent non-16/18 HPV infection should undergo colposcopy biopsy to reduce missed detection of HSIL and cancers.

15.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(9): e0069821, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228539

RESUMO

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) attributable to carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE-BSIs) are dangerous and a major cause of mortality in clinical settings. This study was therefore designed to define risk factors linked to 30-day mortality in CRE-BSI patients and to examine the relative efficacies of different antimicrobial treatment regimens in affected individuals. Data pertaining to 187 CRE-BSI cases from four teaching hospitals in China collected between January 2018 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. For the 187 patients analyzed in this study, the 30-day mortality of CRE-BSI was 41.7% (78/187). Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that Pitt bacteremia score, immunocompromised status, meropenem MIC of ≥8 mg/liter,absence of source control of infection, and appropriate empirical therapy were independent predictors of CRE-BSI patient 30-day mortality. After controlling for potential confounding factors relative to ceftazidime-avibactam (CAZ-AVI) treatment, combination therapies including CAZ-AVI (odds ratio [OR], 1.287; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.124 to 13.403; P = 0.833) were not related to any significant change in patient mortality risk, whereas the 30-day mortality risk was higher for patients administered other antimicrobial regimens (OR, 12.407; 95% CI, 1.684 to 31.430; P = 0.011). When patients were treated with antimicrobial regimens not containing CAZ-AVI, combination therapy (OR, 0.239; 95% CI, 0.077 to 0.741; P = 0.013) was related to a decreased 30-day mortality risk relative to monotherapy treatment. The mortality-related risk factors and relative antimicrobial regimen efficacy data demonstrated in this study may guide the management of CRE-BSI patients.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia , Sepse , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Carbapenêmicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Gene ; 798: 145798, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175391

RESUMO

Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) is an important oil crop with a huge genome. This study used next generation sequencing technology to develop SSR markers in rapeseed. A total of 213,876 sequence reads were obtained in 58.8 Mb. For these reads, 21,523 SSRs were recovered from 18,575 microsatellites sequences and 8,964 SSR primer pairs were identified. Di- and mono-nucleotides were the most abundant, accounting for 47.5% and 30.7% of all SSRs, respectively. A total of 8,776 SSRs were designed from contigs and 100 SSR primers were tested for validation of SSR locus amplification. Nearly all (94%) of the markers were found to produce clear amplicons and to be reproducible. For these markers, forty-three SSRs showed polymorphic bands in eight rapeseed accessions. Thirty-four SSRs were then applied to 78 rapeseed accessions from China to evaluate the genetic diversity. Result showed that the allele number varied from two to seven, with a mean value of 3.59. The effective allele number of ranged from 1.14 to 3.25, with an average of 2.09. The average values of observed heterozygosity and expected heterozygosity were 0.54 and 0.49, respectively. The Nei's gene diversity varied from 0.12 to 0.69, with a mean value of 0.48. Resulting of the markers testing showed that the identified genome-wide SSRs were useful in rapeseed genetic studies, including genetic diversity, QTL mapping and marker-assisted selection for breeding.


Assuntos
Brassica napus/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Genoma de Planta , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
17.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 81(2): 265-271, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114054

RESUMO

The sorption, desorption, and mobility of microencapsulated chlorpyrifos (CPF-MC) in two typical soils, namely, silt loam and sandy, were investigated in this study. Sorption/desorption experiments were carried out by using the batch equilibration method. Results showed that the sorption isotherms of CPF-MC and emulsifiable concentrate of chlorpyrifos (CPF-EC) in silt loamy soil were similar. However, a considerable difference was observed in the sorption isotherms of two chlorpyrifos (CPF) formulations in sandy soil. The amounts of CPF desorbed from two soils in four desorption steps decreased sequentially in CPF-EC treatments, while the desorbed amounts remained stable in CPF-MC treatments. Hence, the sorption/desorption processes of CPF-EC were mainly controlled by soil affinity to CPF. However, these processes of CPF-MC were affected by the release rate of CPF from capsules. The mobility of two CPF formulations in soil was estimated in vertical columns packed with soils. Results showed that there was leaching of CPF-EC in silt loam column, whereas CPF-MC was not vertically mobile in silt loam column under the same leaching conditions. However, in column with sandy soil, the percentage of CPF-MC leaching from the column was 86.54%, which was higher than the 73.75% that leached from the column in the treatment with CPF-EC.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Poluentes do Solo , Adsorção , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34177915

RESUMO

The present study delineates the interaction of a typical PRRSV1.1 isolate 3267 (moderate virulence) with in vitro derived pig conventional dendritic cells, cDC1, cDC2, and a CD14+ population (designated as CD14+ DCs). cDC1 and cDC2 were not susceptible to 3267 infection, but a fraction of CD14+ DCs were infected. After exposure to the virus, all three DC types remained immature as determined by no increase of maturation molecules (MHC-I, MHC-II, CD80/86, CCR7), no release of cytokines, no modification of antigen presentation abilities, and no alteration of endocytic/phagocytic capabilities. However, when infected MARC-145 cells were used as a source of viral antigens, cDC2 and CD14+ DCs showed a significant increase in the expression of maturation molecules and substantial release of cytokines, notably IL-12/IL-23p40 (by both DC types) and IL-10 (by CD14+ DCs). To address the impact of PRRSV1 3267 on TLR3- and TLR7-mediated activation, cDC1, cDC2, and CD14+ DCs were inoculated by the virus (live or UV-inactivated) for 6 h prior to or simultaneously with the addition of poly I:C (TLR3 ligand) or gardiquimod (TLR7 ligand; not used for cDC1). Compared with using TLR ligand alone, combination with the virus did not result in any alteration to the maturation markers on all DC types but changed the cytokine response to either TLR3 or TLR7 ligand. Pre-exposure of cDC2 or CD14+ DCs to the live virus resulted in an increased production of IFN-α upon poly I:C stimulation, while pre-exposure to UV-inactivated virus tended to enhance the release of IL-10 upon gardiquimod stimulation. Simultaneous addition of the live virus and the TLR ligand either had no effect (mainly in cDC2) or impaired most of the cytokine release after gardiquimod stimulation (in CD14+ DCs). When used as antigen presenting cells, cDC2 pre-inoculated by the live virus before addition of gardiquimod impaired the proliferation of CD4-CD8- T cells. In the case of CD14+ DCs, pre-exposure to the live virus or simultaneously added with TLR3 or TLR7 ligand largely decreased the proliferation of CD4-CD8+ and CD4-CD8+ T-cell subsets. For cDC1, no significant changes were observed in cytokine responses or T-cell proliferation after poly I:C stimulation. Of note, cDC1 had a short life during in vitro culturing, for which the results obtained might be biased. Overall, exposure to PRRSV1 did not induce maturation of cDC1, cDC2, or CD14+ DCs, but modified TLR3 and TLR7-associated responses (except for cDC1), which may affect the development of adaptive immunity during PRRSV1 infection. Moreover, the sensing of infected cells was different from that of the free virus.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115303

RESUMO

Fifty-seven riverine samples in three typical regions, namely, upper mountainous (zone 1), middle hilly (zone 2), and lower plain (zone 3) regions, were collected in May (low flow) and August (high flow) of 2016, and chemical parameters and isotopes were analyzed to enrich the knowledge of riverine nitrate sources and transformations in the Taizi River basin. Results showed that NO3- concentrations in zone 3 were the highest, followed by zones 2 and 1. NO3-/Cl- molar ratios and nitrate dual isotopes indicated that NO3- was mainly from chemical fertilizer (CF) in zones 1 (57.0%) and 2 (43.1%) according to a Bayesian mixing model (SIAR) and mixed sources of CF, nitrification of soil organic nitrogen (SON), and manure and sewage (M&S) in zone 3 (92.8%), during the high-flow season. NO3- was mainly from CF and SON in zones 1 (76.7%) and 2 (74.0%), during the low-flow season. NO3-sources were different in the three rivers of zone 3 mainly due to various urban inputs. Contributions of CF, SON, and M&S increased by 13%, 8.3%, and 7.5% in zones 1, 2, and 3, respectively, from the low-flow to the high-flow season. NO3- in the Taizi River was mainly influenced by nitrification in soils, while no significant denitrification was found in the three zones. Measures for reducing NO3- inputs to rivers should be considered by improving effectively utilizing rate of chemical fertilizer and inhibit nitrification.

20.
J Physiol Biochem ; 77(3): 461-468, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043161

RESUMO

Little is known about the biological functions and underlying mechanisms of long non-coding RNA AFAP1-AS1 in degenerative calcified aortic valve disease (DCAVD). This study aims to explore whether AFAP1-AS1 regulates macrophage polarization in aortic valve calcification. Macrophage polarization and AFAP1-AS1 expression were detected in normal and calcified aortic valves of DCAVD patients. To explore the effect of AFAP1-AS1 on macrophage polarization, gain and loss of function were performed in THP-1 cells, and the percentage of M1 and M2 and the expressions of M1 and M2 markers were analyzed. Meanwhile, osteogenic differentiation was examined in valve interstitial cells (VICs). Compared with normal valves, there were more M1, less M2, and high AFAP1-AS1 expressions in calcified aortic valves, which may indicate a relationship between AFAP1-AS1 and macrophage polarization. AFAP1-AS1 overexpression promoted M1 polarization in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-treated THP-1 cells but inhibited M2 polarization, as well as augmented VIC osteogenic differentiation. On the contrary, the silence of AFAP1-AS1 could induce macrophage to M2-type and inhibit VIC osteogenic differentiation. These results elucidate that AFAP1-AS1 can promote M1 macrophages polarization to aggravate VIC osteogenic differentiation, playing a role in aortic valve calcification.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Valva Aórtica/patologia , Calcinose/metabolismo , Macrófagos/citologia , Osteogênese , RNA Longo não Codificante/fisiologia , Idoso , Valva Aórtica/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Polaridade Celular , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Humanos , Ativação de Macrófagos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cultura Primária de Células
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