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1.
Anal Biochem ; 588: 113474, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614116

RESUMO

With Escherichia coli alkaline phosphatase (ECAP) as the tag fused to the N-terminus of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa arylsulfatase (PAAS) and its mutants via a flexible linker, the comparison of the activity ratios of an applicable enzyme and its mutants to a suitable enzyme tag in cell lysates of their fused forms was tested for high-throughput (HTP) screening of mutants. After both the induced expression of a fused form and alkaline lysis of the transformed cells in microplate wells, HTP assay of the activities of ECAP and PAAS/mutant was realized via spectrophotometric-dual-enzyme-simultaneous-assay to derive their activity ratio. The successful induced expression of fused forms required ECAP activities higher than 5.3 U/L in cell lysates. Of three representative fused PAAS/mutants in cell lysates, there were similar proteolytic fragments and the comparison of their activity ratios greatly enhanced the recognition of weakly positive mutants. After saturation mutagenesis at M72 of the fused PAAS, the activity ratios of PAAS/mutants to ECAP in cell lysates of their fused forms were proportional to specific activities of their non-fused counterparts in cell lysates by an immunoturbidimetric assay. Therefore, the proposed strategy was absorbing for both HTP screening of mutants and HTP elucidation of sequence-activity relationship of applicable enzymes.

2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 147: 111777, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634804

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination in environment and food has attracted intensive attention from the public since it poses serious threats to ecological system and human health. Traditional detection methods for heavy metals such as atomic absorption spectrometry have a fairly low detection limit, but the methods have many limitations and disadvantages. Therefore, it is of significance to develop a rapid technology for real-time and online detection of heavy metals. The electrochemical aptasensor-based technology is promising in the detection of heavy metals with advantages of high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Although its development is rapid, more researches should be carried out before this technology can be used for on-site detection. In this review, the origin, basic principles and development of electrochemical aptasensors are introduced. The applications of nanomaterials and electrochemical aptasensors for the detection of heavy metals (mainly mercury, lead, cadmium, and arsenic) are summarized. The research and application tendency of electrochemical aptasensors for detection of heavy metals are prospected.

3.
Nano Lett ; 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31793787

RESUMO

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) capable of eliciting a robust antitumor immune response has been considered an attractive therapeutic approach. However, adaptive immune resistance in PDT underlines the need to develop alternative strategies. The exquisite power of checkpoint blockade can be harnessed to reinvigorate antitumor immune response. Here, we demonstrate that PDT-triggered adaptive immune resistance can be overcome by inactivating indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1). We rationally designed a tumor-microenvironment-sheddable prodrug vesicle by integrating a PEGylated photosensitizer (PS) and a reduction-sensitive prodrug of IDO-1 inhibitor. The prodrug vesicles were inert during the blood circulation, whereas they specifically accumulated and penetrated at the tumor site through matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2)-mediated cleavage of the PEG corona to achieve fluorescence-imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). Compared to PDT alone, the prodrug-vesicle-mediated combination immunotherapy provoked augmented antitumor immunity to eradicate the tumor in both CT26 colorectal and 4T1 breast immunocompetent mouse models. The prodrug vesicles dramatically suppressed tumor reoccurrence, particularly in overexpressing IDO-1 tumor models, i.e., CT26. This study might provide novel insight into the development of new nanomedicine to enhance the efficacy of photodynamic immunotherapy while addressing the adaptive immune resistance.

5.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(44): 6551-6560, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Regimens involving direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are recommended for the treatment of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1, 2 and 3. But real-world data is still not enough, especially in Asia. AIM: To investigate the efficacy and safety of DAA-based regimens in a real-life setting in China. METHODS: This study included 366 patients infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3, with or without cirrhosis, who were observed between May 2015 and December 2018. They were treated with ledipasvir and sofosbuvir (SOF) (genotype 1) with or without ribavirin (RBV), SOF and RBV (genotype 2), or SOF and daclatasvir (genotype 3), with or without RBV, for 12 or more wk. The participants' sustained virological responses (SVR) at post-treatment week 12 (SVR12) was the primary endpoint. The occurrence of adverse events and drug-drug interactions were recorded. RESULTS: In the 366 patients, genotype 1 (59.0%) was the most common genotype, followed by genotypes 2 (34.4%) and 3 (6.6%). Liver cirrhosis was diagnosed in 154 (42.1%) patients. Fifty (13.7%) patients were treatment-experienced. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed that SVR12 was 86.3% (316/366). For modified intention-to-treat analysis, SVR12 was achieved in 96.6% of overall patients (316/327), 96.3% in patients with genotype 1, 97.5% in those with genotype 2, and 95.0% in those with genotype 3. Most of the treatment failures were due to lack of follow-up (3 cases had non-responses, 1 had virological breakthrough, 11 relapsed and 36 did not participate in the follow-up). There was no significant difference in SVR between different genotypes and liver statuses (P < 0.05). Patients with lower alanine aminotransferase levels at baseline who achieved an end of treatment response were more likely to achieve SVR12 (P < 0.05). High SVR was observed regardless of age, gender, liver status, alpha-fetoprotein, HCV RNA levels or history of antiviral therapy (P > 0.05 for all). The cumulative hepatocellular carcinoma occurrence and recurrence rate after using the DAAs was 0.9%. Most of the adverse events were mild. We found two cases of special adverse events. One case involved facial and bilateral lower extremity edema, and the other case showed an interesting change in lipid levels while on medication. No severe adverse events were noted. CONCLUSION: The DAA-based regimens tested in this study have excellent effectiveness and safety in all patients infected with HCV genotypes 1, 2 and 3, including those with cirrhosis.

6.
J Chromatogr A ; : 460668, 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706580

RESUMO

The bottleneck of analytical instrument itself and non-ideal instrumental performance will produce a certain degree of drifts between the measured isotopes and the true values. An AAID-IC algorithm was thereby proposed to keep the isotopic distributions more accurate in hyphenated instruments, e.g. Gas Chromatography (GC)/ Liquid Chromatography (LC) - Mass Spectrometry (MS). During this data mining process, chemical information will be fully used from dozens of data points in retention time (rt) dimension: the target isotopes were firstly re-constructed in mass charge ratio (m/z) dimension; their re-calculation values were then averaged from an interesting rt zone; the calibration functions were followed established based on a well-defined series of calibration ions. It is worth mentioning that natural metabolites in complex samples can be identified as reference materials to amend the target isotopes. Next, the corrected mass axes (m/z values)/isotope abundances were transformed into an ionic isotopic curve using Gaussian box. Taking herbal sample as an example, AAID-IC can better reduce the systematic and random errors of the m/z ions in one run environment, whether it's profile or bar graph from any type of MS and any ionization method employed. Finally, the calibrated values can be utilized to deduce the elemental compositions of molecular (fragment) ions in GC/LC-MS determination.

7.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 4257-4265, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31736361

RESUMO

Since DNA damage is a first incident occurred during a tumour attack, it is rational that histone H2A.X phosphorylation on tyrosine 39 (H2A.XY39ph) may act as a tumour-relevant factor. This study was aimed to test the authenticity of the hypothesis. Uveal melanoma MP65 cells were transfected for expression of KRas mutated. H2A.X phosphorylation and ERK1/2 was measured, and transwell experiment was performed to examine the consequents of H2A.XY39ph on MP65 cells developing and migration. Regulatory relationship between H2A.XY39ph and ERK1/2 downstream genes were measured. Moreover, whether JMJD6 and MDM2 are involved in H2A.X phosphorylation was studied. Mutation of Ras activated ERK1/2 signalling and inhibited H2A.X phosphorylation at Y39. Silence of H2A.XY39ph contributed to the regulation of MP65 cells growth, migration and transcription of ERK1/2 downstream genes, including CYR61, IGFBP3, WNT16B, NT5E, GDF15 and CARD16. The repressed H2A.X phosphorylation through Ras-ERK1/2 signalling might be through MDM2-mediated JMJD6 degradation. Our study suggested that Ras-ERK1/2 signalling inhibited H2A.X phosphorylation at Y39, which led to the uncontrolled developing and migration of uveal melanoma cells. In addition, H2A.X phosphorylation was mediated possibly through JMJD6 which could be degraded by MDM2.

9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712136

RESUMO

Corn silk polysaccharides (CSPs) were extracted from the corn silk cultivated in Jilin province, China, where is one of the golden corn belts worldwide. Three fractions (CSP-1, CSP-2 and CSP-3) were obtained by DEAE-52 cellulose and the former two fractions were further purified by Sephadex G-150 column chromatography to obtain CSP-S-1 and CSP-S-2. The molecular weights of CSP-S-1 and CSP-S-2 were calculated to be 586 kDa and 813 kDa, respectively. CSP-S-1 was composed of galactose, arabinose, xylose and rhamnose at a molar ratio of 4.16:1.00:1.01:6.32 and CSP-S-2 was composed of galactose, arabinose, glucose and rhamnose at a molar ratio of 8.71:3.58:0.169:1.00. CSP-S-2 outperformed CSP-S-1 in scavenging DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radicals, and significantly inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells. IR and NMR analysis indicated that CSP-S-2 was pyranose. CSP-S-2 consisted of 1 → 4 and 1 → 6 linkages and exhibited a triple helix configuration. In summary, CSP-S-2 possesses high potential to be developed as a novel antioxidant and anti-cervical cancer agent.

10.
Adv Mater ; 31(49): e1904156, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566275

RESUMO

Metastasis is the leading cause of cancer-associated death, with poor prognosis even after extensive treatment. The dormancy of metastatic cancer cells during dissemination or after colony formation is one major reason for treatment failure, as most drugs target cells of active proliferation. Immunotherapy has shown great potential in cancer therapy because the activity of effector cells is less affected by the metabolic status of cancer cells. In addition, metastatic cells out of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) are more susceptible to immune clearance, although these cells can achieve immune surveillance evasion via strategies such as platelet and macrophage recruitment. Since nanomaterials themselves or their carried drugs have the capability to modulate the immune system, a great amount of focus has been placed on nanomedicine strategies that leverage immune cells participating the metastatic cascade. These nanomedicines successfully inhibit the tumor metastasis and prolong the survival of model animals. Immune cells that are involved in the metastasis cascade are first summarized and then recent and inspiring strategies and nanomaterials in this growing field are highlighted.

11.
J Med Virol ; 2019 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587312

RESUMO

Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) remains the most common causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), and is related to high incidence and critical complications. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) activity might affect the outcome of CA16 infection. Our case-control research aims to evaluate the relationship between VDR polymorphisms in the gene encoding and susceptibility to and severity of HFMD due to CA16. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of VDR gene were selected according to functional prediction and linkage disequilibrium, and were examined utilizing the SNPscan method to identify possible associations with HFMD caused by CA16. A significant relationship was found in the HFMD cases of polymorphism rs11574129 (GA vs GG: odds ratio (OR) = 0.068, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.007-0.693, P = .023; GA + AA vs GG: OR = 0.322, 95%CI = 0.106-0.984, P = .047), and vitamin D levels in genotype AA were significantly higher than those in genotype GG (P < .05). These results suggest that VDR rs11574129 may influence genetic susceptibility to CA16-associated HFMD.

12.
Biomater Sci ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637384

RESUMO

Immunotherapy has revolutionized the field of cancer therapy. Nanomaterials can further improve the efficacy and safety of immunotherapy because of their tunability and multifunctionality. A supramolecular peptide assembly (SPA), as a close mimic of natural viruses, is a unique type of nanomaterial with high epitope valency, multifunctionality and biocompatibility. Given its great potential in cancer immunotherapy, especially in cancer vaccines, in the current review, we summarize the unique features of the SPA that are beneficial for cancer immunotherapy, and highlight the important progress in using SPAs as nanoscale carriers, antigens, adjuvants or multifunctional platforms. The current challenges faced by these SPAs are also briefly discussed.

13.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(13): 4084-4096, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574534

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate whole transcriptional differences between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) neovascular membranes (NVMs) and retinas, and the regulatory genes participating in retinal neovascularization in PDR. Methods: We used high-throughput sequencing technology to capture the whole-genome gene expression levels of all participants, including 23 patients with PDR or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), 3 normal retinal samples, and 2 retinal samples from type II diabetic (T2D) eyes by donation, followed by analyses of expression patterns using bioinformatics methods, then validation of the data by in situ hybridization and Western blotting. Results: We showed that transcriptional profiles of the NVMs were distinct from those of the retinas. Angiogenesis growth factors VEGFC, ANGPT1, ANGPT2, and EFNB2, and their receptors FLT4, TIE1, TIE2, and EPHB4, respectively, were overexpressed. Expression of VEGFA was highly upregulated in T2D retina, but low in the NVMs, while angiogenesis transcription factors, including ETS1 and ERG, were coordinately upregulated in NVMs. Conclusions: This study described a PDR neovascularization model in which pathological retina-secreted vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) enhanced the expression of a set of angiogenesis transcription factors and growth factors, to cooperatively induce the retinal neovascularization. Based on these results, novel potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers for PDR treatment and diagnosis are suggested.

14.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 44(8): 878-884, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of immunohistochemical analysis for expressions of C3d, C4d, IgG, IgG4, and CD123 in the diagnosis of autoimmune skin diseases.
 Methods: We investigated the expressions of C3d, C4d, IgG, IgG4, and CD123 in paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissues from 27 lupus erythematosus cases, including 8 discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) cases, 4 subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) cases, and 15 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) cases. Tissues from 15 dermatomyositis (DM) cases, 15 bullous pemphigoid (BP) cases, and 15 pemphigus cases were examined by immunohistochemical analysis. The differences in expression rates of C3d, C4d, IgG, IgG4, and CD123 between immunohistochemical staining and direct immunofluorescence were compared in the diagnosis of these diseases.
 Results: In the lupus erythematosus group, the positive rates of C3d and C4d deposited along the dermoepidermal junction were 85.2% and 51.9%, respectively. In the dermatomyositis group, the positive rates of C3d and C4d deposited along the dermoepidermal junction were 40% and 0, respectively. The expressions of C3d and C4d in lupus erythematosus tissues were significantly higher than those in DM tissues (P<0.05). The expression of CD123 protein in skin lesions of the lupus group was significantly higher than that in the DM group (P<0.05). In the BP group, the positive rates of C3d and C4d deposited along the dermoepidermal junction were 100% and 86.7%, respectively. In the pemphigus group, the positive rates of C3d and C4d deposited in the intercellular space of keratinocytes were 100% and 60%, respectively. The expressions of IgG and IgG4 in pemphigus tissues were higher than those in BP tissues (P<0.05). And the ratios of IgG4 to IgG in the pemphigus group was significantly higher than that in the BP group (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: The assays of C3d and C4d define an important diagnostic adjunct in evaluation of lupus erythematosus, BP and pemphigus. In some cases, it may even replace the direct immunofluorescence as a diagnostic adjunct. The expression of CD123 possesses certain clinical significance for the differential diagnosis of lupus erythematosus, and IgG4 and IgG expressions have adjunctive diagnostic significance for pemphigus.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Pênfigo , Complemento C3d , Proteínas do Sistema Complemento , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-3
15.
Small ; 15(46): e1904043, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529772

RESUMO

Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is an efficient way to generate hydrogen fuel for the storage of renewable energy. Currently, the widely used Pt-based catalysts suffer from high costs and limited electrochemical stability; therefore, developing an efficient alternative catalyst is very urgent. Herein, one pot hydrothermal synthesis is reported of amorphous ruthenium-sulfide (RuSx ) nanoparticles (NPs) supported on sulfur-doped graphene oxide (GO). The as-obtained composite serves as a Pt-like HER electrocatalyst. Achieving a current density of -10 mA cm-2 only requires a small overpotential (-31, -46, and -58 mV in acidic, neutral, and alkaline electrolyte, respectively) with high durability. The isolated Ru active site inducing Volmer-Heyrovsky mechanism in the RuSx NPs is demonstrated by the Tafel analysis and X-ray absorption spectroscopy characterization. Theoretical simulation indicates the isolated Ru site exhibits Pt-like Gibbs free energy of hydrogen adsorption (-0.21 eV) therefore generating high intrinsic HER activity. Moreover, the strong bonding between the RuSx and S-GO, as well as pH tolerance of RuSx are believed to contribute to the high stability. This work shows a new insight for amorphous materials and provides alternative opportunities in designing advanced electrocatalysts with low-cost for HER in the hydrogen economy.

16.
Future Med Chem ; 11(15): 1889-1906, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517534

RESUMO

Aim: Wee1 kinase plays a key role in the arrest of G2/M checkpoint that prevents mitotic entry in response to DNA damage. This work is to discover potent Wee1 inhibitors which can be considered valuable. Materials & Methods: Herein, Ensemble docking using multiple crystal structures was considered an effective strategy in the virtual screening. The performance of 17 scoring functions obtained from different docking software was evaluated for molecular docking. Results: Two novel compounds B1 and A2 were identified as Wee1 inhibitors with IC50 values of 10.23 ± 0.505 and 8.72 ± 0.323 µM, respectively. Further cell viability assay demonstrated that the two active compounds exhibited good anticancer activities. Conclusion: This provides a meaningful starting point for further structure optimization to discover more potent Wee1 inhibitors.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517595

RESUMO

A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, catalase-positive and oxidase-positive bacterium, designated strain YIM MLB12T, was isolated from estuary sediment sampled at Maliao River where it flows into a plateau lake (Dianchi) in Yunnan, south-west PR China. Cells were non-motile and rod-shaped. Growth was observed at 15-35 °C (optimum, 25-30 °C), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 7.0-8.0) and in the presence of 0-7 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 0.5-2 %). Results of phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM MLB12T formed a tight phylogenic lineage with members of the genus Lampropedia and was closely related to 'Lampropedia puyangensis' 2-bin with 98.3 % sequence similarity and had low similarities to the type strains of Lampropediahyalina ATCC 11041T (96 %) and Lampropedia cohaerens CT6T (95.5 %). Average nucleotide identity and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization values between strain YIM MLB12T and 'L. puyangensis' KCTC 32235 were 76.5 and 22.6 %, respectively. Strain YIM MLB12T contained ubiquinone-8 as the major quinone. The predominant cellular fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1 ω7c and/or C16 : 1 ω6c), C16 : 0, C10 : 0 3-OH, summed feature 8 (C18 : 1 ω6c and/or C18 : 1 ω7c), C12 : 0 3-OH and C14 : 0. The polar lipid profile of strain YIM MLB12T was composed predominantly of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The major polyamine was spermidine. The genomic DNA G+C content of strain YIM MLB12T was 56.8 mol%. Based on its genotypic and chemotaxonomic features and results of phenotypic analyses, strain YIM MLB12T represents a novel species of the genus Lampropedia, for which the name Lampropediaaestuarii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM MLB12T (=KCTC 42886T=CGMCC 1.17071T).

18.
Opt Lett ; 44(18): 4523-4526, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31517921

RESUMO

Quantum key distribution (QKD) can generate secure key bits between remote users employing the features of quantum physics. However, a shared reference frame is necessary for QKD systems in most scenarios. A reference-frame-independent (RFI) scheme can tolerate the reference frame drifting between legitimate remote users, which is significant in the operation of relative moving terminals such as satellites and aircraft. We design and experimentally demonstrate an RFI-BB84-QKD system by joint encoding with the polarization and orbital angular momentum states of the photons. We use self-compensating fiber Sagnac interferometers to perform high-speed polarization modulation, and q-plates to passively manipulate the rotation-invariant photon states, which makes the system feasible for high-speed operation using off-the-shelf components.

19.
Small ; 15(43): e1902822, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482673

RESUMO

Drug delivery strategies possessing selectivity for cancer cells are eagerly needed in therapy of metastatic breast cancer. In this study, the chemotherapeutic agent, docetaxel (DTX), is conjugated onto heparan sulfate (HS). Aspirin (ASP), which has the activity of anti-metastasis and enhancing T cells infiltration in tumors, is encapsulated into the HS-DTX micelle. Then the cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI)-polyethylene glycol (PEG) copolymer binds to HS via electrostatic force, forming the ASP-loaded HS-DTX micelle (AHD)/PEI-PEG nanocomplex (PAHD). PAHD displays long circulation behavior in blood due to the PEG shell. Under the tumor microenvironment with weakly acidic pH, PEI-PEG separates from AHD, and the free cationic PEI-PEG facilitates the cellular uptake of AHD by increasing permeability of cell membranes. Then the overexpressed heparanase degrades HS, releasing ASP and DTX. PAHD shows specific toxicity toward tumor cells but not normal cells, with advanced activity of inhibiting tumor growth and lung metastasis in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. The number of CD8+ T cells in tumor tissues is also increased. Therefore, PAHD can become an efficient drug delivery system for breast cancer treatment.

20.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 40(9): 1129-1137, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31371782

RESUMO

The clinical performance of conventional cancer therapy approaches (surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy) has been challenged by tumor metastasis and recurrence that is mainly responsible for cancer-caused mortalities. The cancer immunotherapy is being emerged nowadays as a promising therapeutic modality in order to achieve a highly efficient therapeutic performance while circumventing tumor metastasis and relapse. Liposomal nanoparticles (NPs) may serve as an ideal platform for systemic delivery of the immune modulators. In this review, we summarize the cutting-edge progresses in liposomal NPs for cancer immunotherapy, with focus on dendritic cells, T cells, tumor cells, natural killer cells, and macrophages. The review highlights the major challenges and provides a perspective regarding the clinical translation of liposomal nanoparticle-based immunotherapy.

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