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1.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 266: 120443, 2022 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34619507

RESUMO

The popularmedicinal mushroomGanodermalucidum was often cultivated by the natural-log. Generally the short log after cultivation were discarded and became pollutant. Rapid and less destructive method of analysis technical by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Two-dimension Infrared (2DIR) correlation spectroscopy were selected to determine the composition changes of the logs after G.lucidum cultivation after first year to fifth year. The FTIR accumulated spectra formed without processed baseline showed the samples relied upon a sequenced increase of higher level than spectrum control Q (Q = Quercus acuttisima) from L + Q-5 (L = Lingzhi), L + Q-3, L + Q-1 to L + Q-2. The spectrum L + Q-4 has the optimum highest peak at box B, C and E from this lumped spectral view. The split spectra pinpointed on the fingerprint region of a sample begins from peak 1737 cm-1. ascribed C = O stretching vibration on acetyl and carboxyl hemicellulose group bonding gradually faded from L + Q-1 to L + Q-4 but appeared again on L + Q-5, possibly due to the degradation of hemicellulose. The absorption of peak around 1626 cm-1,1318 cm-1 and 781 cm-1 could be the characteristic absorption peak of calcium oxalate monohydrate. The correlation table indicated, most of the original structure of the building block of the wooden part was deteriorated and marked the lowest correlation value of the 4th year sample with control Q. The sudden changing pattern of 2nd derivative spectrum L + Q-3 to more flatten pattern spectrum L + Q-4 ascribed the changing contents of cellulose and hemicellulose included the lignin within one year during the G. lucidum cultivation. The 2DIR spectrum of the raw material sample precisely showed that the active site with red color was clustered with the area around 1800-1700 cm-1, 1450-800 cm-1 and 750-400 cm-1. In between, the range 1450-800 cm-1 was the most active cluster. Each of the sample showed the different sequence of autopeak comparison. This study has examined the impact of G. lucidum on the degradation of Q. acuttisima in term of their ecosystem life chain. The components of healthy Q. acuttisima wood including lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and calcium oxalate monohydrate underwent changes after different years of G. lucidum cultivation.


Assuntos
Quercus , Reishi , Ecossistema , Análise de Fourier , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150158, 2022 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537708

RESUMO

Using current wastewater treatment technologies, it can be challenging to remove the emerging contaminants (ECs) present in kitchen wastewater (KW) of complex compositions and high organic content. In this study, biochar, derived from straw, was modified as an adsorbent to remove ECs such as bisphenol A (BPA), tetracycline (TC) and ofloxacin (OFL) from a complex KW system. An alkali-modified biochar, having larger specific surface areas and stronger hydrophobicity, was found to exhibit a higher adsorption capacity, with more than 95% of the target ECs being removed. Indeed, in a static operation mode, the alkali-modified biochar had maximum adsorption capacities of 71.43, 101.01 and 54.05 mg/g for BPA, TC, and OFL, respectively. The adsorption kinetics and isotherms models indicated that the adsorption process was controlled by chemisorption, as well as the monolayer adsorption of contaminants onto the external and internal surfaces of the alkali-modified biochar. The adsorption of TC and OFL was significantly affected by the initial pH values of KW. However, the presence of different environmental factors (COD, NH4+ and PO43-) had little effects on the adsorption of the contaminants. The alkali-modified biochar was further tested in a fixed-bed column where the maximum dynamic adsorption capacities for BPA and OFL were 55 and 45 mg/g, representing about 75% and 83% of the static saturated adsorption capacities. These findings can be of major significance for the application of alkali-modified biochar in the removal of ECs from complex KW systems.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Álcalis , Antibacterianos , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Carvão Vegetal , Cinética , Fenóis
3.
J Integr Plant Biol ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850567

RESUMO

Although the genetic basis for endosperm development in maize (Zea mays) has been well studied, the mechanism for coordinating grain filling with increasing kernel size remains elusive. Here, we report that increased kernel size was selected during modern breeding and identify a novel DELLA-like transcriptional regulator, ZmGRAS11, that positively regulates kernel size and kernel weight in maize. We find that Opaque2, a core transcription factor for zein protein and starch accumulation, transactivates the expression of ZmGRAS11. Our data suggest that the Opaque2-ZmGRAS11 module mediates synergistic endosperm enlargement with grain filling. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 45(6): 662-669, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862781

RESUMO

Physiological parameters monitoring is essential to direct medical staff to evaluate, diagnose and treat critical patients quantitatively. ECG, blood pressure, SpO2, respiratory rate and body temperature are the basic vital signs of patients in the ICU. The measuring methods are relatively mature at present, and the trend is to be wireless and more accurate and comfortable. Hemodynamics, oxygen metabolism and microcirculation should be taken seriously during the treatment of acute critical patients. The related monitoring technology has made significant progress in recent years, the trend is to reduce the trauma and improve the accuracy and usability. With the development of machine vision and data fusion technology, the identification of patient behavior and deterioration has become hot topics. This review is focused on current parameters monitoring technologies, aims to provide reference for future related research.

5.
Front Oncol ; 11: 724467, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34858812

RESUMO

Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the role of integrating the pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) into the eighth edition of the AJCC staging system for nasopharynx cancer in an endemic region. Methods: Between May 2007 and December 2012, a total of 713 cases with NPC were retrospectively analyzed. The separation ability in terms of overall survival (OS), local failure-free survival (LFFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), and failure-free survival (FFS) was evaluated. The discriminatory ability was assessed using Harrell's concordance index (c-index). Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was conducted and incorporated with pretreatment NLR. Results: When integrated with NLR, the separate and discriminatory abilities for N classifications were improved in terms of OS and DMFS, but not for T categories. By using Recursive partitioning analysis, five subgroups were generated. Compared with the overall stage, the integration of NLR could not enhance the separate and discriminatory abilities. However, patients in the RPA 4 group gained significant benefits in terms of OS (HR 0.390 (95%CI 0.212-0.716), P = 0.002) and FFS (HR 0.548 (95%CI 0.314-0.958), P = 0.032) from the additional adjuvant chemotherapy after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion: The integration of NLR into the 8th edition of the AJCC staging system could enhance the separation and discriminatory abilities for N classifications, but not for T categories. In addition, patients in the RPA 4 group could benefit from the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy to concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; : 152061, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861299

RESUMO

Traditional evaluation of chiral pesticides can lead to inaccurate results, as their enantiomers may show different properties. Penconazole, a chiral triazole fungicide with two enantiomers, is widely applied to protect against phytopathogens. In this study, its absolute configuration, bioactivity, ecotoxicity, and stereoselective degradation were investigated at the enantiomeric level in detail. The absolute configuration of the two enantiomers (R-(+)-penconazole and S-(-)-penconazole) was first confirmed by electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and their enantioseparation method was developed and optimized using UPLC-MS/MS. S-(-)-penconazole showed high bioactivity, as its fungicidal activity against four target phytopathogens (Alternaria alternate f. sp. mali, Botryosphaeria berengeriana f. sp. piricola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Fusarium oxysporum) was 1.8-4.4 times higher than that of R-(+)-penconazole. The results of an acute toxicity test showed that the LC50 values of S-(-)-penconazole against Daphnia magna were 32.5 times higher than those of R-(+)-penconazole at 24 h during the test period. Stereoselective degradation behaviors were found in nonbagging and bagging Fuji apples collected from three major apple-producing regions in China, with half-lives of 23.5-51.6 d (nonbagging treatment) and 23.0-57.5 d (bagging treatment) for R-(+)-penconazole and 41.1-60.9 d (nonbagging treatment) and 52.5-91.2 d (bagging treatment) for S-(+)-penconazole, respectively. This study provided new insights into the bioactivity, ecotoxicity, and stereoselective degradation of penconazole enantiomers. The above results also emphasized the importance of risk assessments of chiral pesticides at the enantiomeric level.

7.
Int J Bioprint ; 7(4): 405, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805594

RESUMO

The rapid development of scaffold-based bone tissue engineering strongly relies on the fabrication of advanced scaffolds and the use of newly discovered functional drugs. As the creation of new drugs and their clinical approval often cost a long time and billions of U.S. dollars, producing scaffolds loaded with repositioned conventional drugs whose biosafety has been verified clinically to treat critical-sized bone defect has gained increasing attention. Carfilzomib (CFZ), an approved clinical proteasome inhibitor with a much fewer side effects, is used to replace bortezomib to treat multiple myeloma. It is also reported that CFZ could enhance the activity of alkaline phosphatase and increase the expression of osteogenic transcription factors. With the above consideration, in this study, a porous CFZ/ß-tricalcium phosphate/poly lactic-co-glycolic acid scaffold (designated as "cytidine triphosphate [CTP]") was produced through cryogenic three-dimensional (3D) printing. The hierarchically porous CTP scaffolds were mechanically similar to human cancellous bone and can provide a sustained CFZ release. The implantation of CTP scaffolds into critical-sized rabbit radius bone defects improved the growth of new blood vessels and significantly promoted new bone formation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows that CFZ-loaded scaffolds could treat nonunion of bone defect by promoting osteogenesis and angiogenesis while inhibiting osteoclastogenesis, through the activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Our results suggest that the loading of repositioned drugs with effective osteogenesis capability in advanced bone tissue engineering scaffold is a promising way to treat critical-sized defects of a long bone.

8.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 177: 326-336, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748910

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the dipeptide amino acid profiles correlated with xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity and guide screening to determine suitable sources for XOD inhibitor protein hydrolysate preparation. The XOD inhibitory activities of 400 dipeptides were predicted via molecular docking and measured in vitro, and amino acids containing aromatic structures and charged residues were correlated with high XOD inhibitory properties. Subsequently, the effects of Cys-Glu and Lys-Glu, which showed the highest in vitro activities, were examined in hyperuricaemic mice, and were found to alleviate hyperuricaemia and modulate the gut microbiota. Furthermore, a suitable protein from Oreochromis mossambicus with high contents of charged (8.6%) and aromatic (1.67%) amino acids was screened, and the in vitro inhibitory rates of protein hydrolysate prepared from O. mossambicus against XOD were found to be 21.90% and 44.51% at 40 and 100 mg/ml, respectively. This study provides a strategy for screening protein hydrolysate sources with certain activities based on amino acid profiles.

9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(11): e2136116, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846525

RESUMO

Importance: Several studies have explored the efficacy and toxic effects of concurrent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- or capecitabine-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT) with or without oxaliplatin in the neoadjuvant setting. Addition of oxaliplatin to 5-FU or capecitabine elicited similar outcomes but with significantly increased toxic effects; however, there is a need for randomized clinical trials comparing 2 CRT regimens for patients receiving CRT in the adjuvant setting. Objective: To explore the efficacy and toxic effects of oxaliplatin combined with postoperative concurrent capecitabine and radiotherapy (RT) for pathological stage II and III rectal cancer. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter randomized clinical trial enrolled patients from 7 centers in China between April 1, 2008, and December 30, 2015. Patients with pathologically confirmed stage II and III rectal cancer were randomized (1:1) to receive concurrent CRT with capecitabine or capecitabine plus oxaliplatin. Analysis was conducted from December 31, 2019, to March 15, 2020. Interventions: RT comprised 45 to 50 Gy in 25 fractions of 1.8 to 2.0 Gy over 5 weeks. In the capecitabine with RT group, concurrent chemotherapy included 2 cycles of capecitabine (1600 mg/m2) on days 1 to 14 and 22 to 35. The capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group received identical postoperative RT to that in the capecitabine with RT group combined with capecitabine (1300 mg/m2) on days 1 to 14 and 22 to 35 and a 2-hour infusion of oxaliplatin (60 mg/m2) on weeks 1, 2, 4, and 5. Patients in both groups received adjuvant chemotherapy (capecitabine or fluorouracil and oxaliplatin) after CRT. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was 3-year disease-free survival (DFS). Results: A total of 589 patients (median [IQR] age, 55 [47-52] years; 375 [63.7%] men and 214 [36.3%] women) were enrolled, including 294 patients randomized to the capecitabine with RT group and 295 patients randomized to the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group. Median (IQR) follow-up was 68 (45-96) months. Most patients had stage III disease (574 patients [75.9%]). Three-year DFS was 76.3% for the capecitabine with RT group and 74.1% for the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group, and 5-year DFS was 72.0% for the capecitabine with RT group and 71.1% for the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group (hazard ratio [HR], 1.07; 95% CI, 0.79-1.44; P = .68). There was no significant difference between groups in overall survival (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.64-1.34; P = .70) or local recurrence (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.31-1.22; P = .16). More grade 3 and 4 acute toxic effects were observed in the capecitabine and oxaliplatin with RT group than in the capecitabine with RT group (114 patients [38.6%] vs 84 patients [28.6%]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: This randomized clinical trial found that addition of oxaliplatin to capecitabine-based postoperative CRT did not improve the efficacy of treatment but increased the risk of severe acute toxic effects. This finding highlights the basic role of postoperative capecitabine with RT for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00714077.

10.
JMIR Med Inform ; 9(11): e30277, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Stroke risk assessment is an important means of primary prevention, but the applicability of existing stroke risk assessment scales in the Chinese population has always been controversial. A prospective study is a common method of medical research, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive. Medical big data has been demonstrated to promote disease risk factor discovery and prognosis, attracting broad research interest. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to establish a high-precision stroke risk prediction model for hypertensive patients based on historical electronic medical record data and machine learning algorithms. METHODS: Based on the Shenzhen Health Information Big Data Platform, a total of 57,671 patients were screened from 250,788 registered patients with hypertension, of whom 9421 had stroke onset during the 3-year follow-up. In addition to baseline characteristics and historical symptoms, we constructed some trend characteristics from multitemporal medical records. Stratified sampling according to gender ratio and age stratification was implemented to balance the positive and negative cases, and the final 19,953 samples were randomly divided into a training set and test set according to a ratio of 7:3. We used 4 machine learning algorithms for modeling, and the risk prediction performance was compared with the traditional risk scales. We also analyzed the nonlinear effect of continuous characteristics on stroke onset. RESULTS: The tree-based integration algorithm extreme gradient boosting achieved the optimal performance with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.9220, surpassing the other 3 traditional machine learning algorithms. Compared with 2 traditional risk scales, the Framingham stroke risk profiles and the Chinese Multiprovincial Cohort Study, our proposed model achieved better performance on the independent validation set, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic value increased by 0.17. Further nonlinear effect analysis revealed the importance of multitemporal trend characteristics in stroke risk prediction, which will benefit the standardized management of hypertensive patients. CONCLUSIONS: A high-precision 3-year stroke risk prediction model for hypertensive patients was established, and the model's performance was verified by comparing it with the traditional risk scales. Multitemporal trend characteristics played an important role in stroke onset, and thus the model could be deployed to electronic health record systems to assist in more pervasive, preemptive stroke risk screening, enabling higher efficiency of early disease prevention and intervention.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 14(21)2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34771793

RESUMO

This research investigates the flexural and durability performances of reinforced concrete (RC) beams made with induction furnace steel slag aggregate (IFSSA) as a replacement for fired clay brick aggregate (FCBA). To achieve this, 27 RC beams (length: 750 mm, width: 125 mm, height: 200 mm) were made with FCBA replaced by IFSSA at nine replacement levels of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 80%, and 100% (by volume). Flexural tests of RC beams were conducted by a four-point loading test, where the deflection behavior of the beams was monitored through three linear variable displacement transducers (LVDT). The compressive strength and durability properties (i.e., porosity, resistance to chloride ion penetration, and capillary water absorption) were assessed using the same batch of concrete mix used to cast RC beams. The experimental results have shown that the flexural load of RC beams made with IFSSA was significantly higher than the control beam (100% FCBA). The increment of the flexural load was proportional to the content of IFSSA, with an increase of 27% for the beam made with 80% IFSSA than the control beam. The compressive strength of concrete increased by 56% and 61% for the concrete made with 80% and 100% IFSSA, respectively, than the control concrete, which is in good agreement with the flexural load of RC beams. Furthermore, the porosity, resistance to chloride ion penetration, and capillary water absorption were inversely proportional to the increase in the content of IFSSA. For instance, porosity, chloride penetration, and water absorption decreased by 43%, 54%, and 68%, respectively, when IFSSA entirely replaced FCBA. This decreasing percentage of durability properties is in agreement with the flexural load of RC beams. A good linear relationship of porosity with chloride penetration resistance and capillary water absorption was observed.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813479

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is spreading worldwide. Considering the limited clinicians and resources and the evidence that computed tomography (CT) analysis can achieve comparable sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, the automatic segmentation of lung infection from CT scans supplies a rapid and effective strategy for COVID-19 diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up. It is challenging because the infection appearance has high intraclass variation and interclass indistinction in CT slices. Therefore, a new context-aware neural network is proposed for lung infection segmentation. Specifically, the autofocus and panorama modules are designed for extracting fine details and semantic knowledge and capturing the long-range dependencies of the context from both peer level and cross level. Also, a novel structure consistency rectification is proposed for calibration by depicting the structural relationship between foreground and background. Experimental results on multiclass and single-class COVID-19 CT images demonstrate the effectiveness of our work. In particular, our method obtains the mean intersection over union (mIoU) score of 64.8%, 65.2%, and 73.8% on three benchmark datasets for COVID-19 infection segmentation.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846663

RESUMO

COVID-19 has dealt an unprecedented blow to the aviation industry since 2020. This paper applies the interval epsilon-based measure (IEBM) model to evaluate the optimal quarterly environmental efficiency of 14 global airlines of passenger and cargo subsystems during 2018-2020. Then, the time series prediction method is applied to forecast the interval data of inputs and outputs from 2021 to 2022. Finally, we can calculate the quarterly efficiency. Thus, the future development trends of airlines can be predicted. The results show that (1) COVID-19 has hit the passenger subsystem harder, while the freight subsystem has become more efficient; (2) the efficiency of the freight subsystem has inevitably declined in the post-epidemic era; and (3) therefore, the airlines will have a "√" shaped recovery curve in the next few years.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1185, 2021 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34742270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various randomized trials have demonstrated that postmastectomy radiotherapy (RT) to the chest wall and comprehensive regional nodal areas improves survival in patients with axillary node-positive breast cancer. Controversy exists as to whether the internal mammary node (IMN) region is an essential component of regional nodal irradiation. Available data on the survival benefit of IMN irradiation (IMNI) are conflicting. The patient populations enrolled in previous studies were heterogeneous and most studies were conducted before modern systemic treatment and three-dimensional (3D) radiotherapy (RT) techniques were introduced. This study aims to assess the efficacy and safety of IMNI in the context of modern systemic treatment and computed tomography (CT)-based RT planning techniques. METHODS: POTENTIAL is a prospective, multicenter, open-label, parallel, phase III, randomized controlled trial investigating whether IMNI improves disease-free survival (DFS) in high-risk breast cancer with positive axillary nodes (pN+) after mastectomy. A total of 1800 patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive IMNI or not. All patients are required to receive ≥ six cycles of anthracycline and/or taxane-based chemotherapy. Randomization will be stratified by institution, tumor location (medial/central vs. other quadrants), the number of positive axillary nodes (1-3 vs. 4-9 vs. ≥10), and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (yes vs. no). Treatment will be delivered with CT-based 3D RT techniques, including 3D conformal RT, intensity-modulated RT, or volumetric modulated arc therapy. The prescribed dose is 50 Gy in 25 fractions or 43.5 Gy in 15 fractions. Tiered RT quality assurance is required. After RT, patients will be followed up at regular intervals. Oncological and toxilogical outcomes, especially cardiac toxicities, will be assessed. DISCUSSION: This trial design is intended to overcome the limitations of previous prospective studies by recruiting patients with pN+ breast cancer, using DFS as the primary endpoint, and prospectively assessing cardiac toxicities and requiring RT quality assurance. The results of this study will provide high-level evidence for elective IMNI in patients with breast cancer after mastectomy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrails.gov , NCT04320979 . Registered 25 Match 2020, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04320979.

15.
Clin Exp Optom ; : 1-6, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34780311

RESUMO

CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A wide range of supplements are available for age-related macular degeneration (AMD); however, clinicians may not be aware of which supplements contain an evidence-based formula. BACKGROUND: Vitamin and antioxidant supplementation has been shown to be effective in slowing the progression of AMD. The Age-Related Eye Disease Studies (AREDS) group reported an evidence-based formula in the AREDS 2 trials. Commercially available products carry varying degrees of resemblance to this formula. METHODS: A review of commercially available supplements in pharmacies and websites across Australasia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada was undertaken. Supplements containing all the ingredients of the AREDS 2 recipe were included. The dose, formulation, and cost of the supplements were reviewed. RESULTS: Sixty-six products were reviewed. Forty-three products contained all the AREDS 2 ingredients and were therefore included for analysis. Twenty products contained all ingredients at 100% or more of the recommended dose, and 23 products contained some ingredients at a lower dose. The cost of the products varied from Australian dollar (AUD) $0.12 to AUD $6.72 per day. Seven (35%) products were available online only and 13 (65%) products were available both online and in pharmacies. Eight products were available in the United States pharmacies, five products were available in Canadian pharmacies, three products were available in the United Kingdom pharmacies, and one product was available in Australasian pharmacies. CONCLUSIONS: Commercially available AMD supplements vary widely in price and resemblance to the AREDS 2 formulation. Clinician awareness of this information is important when counselling patients on which supplement is most suitable. The categorisation of products in Table 1 may assist with patient counselling of vitamin supplementation for AMD.

16.
World J Gastrointest Oncol ; 13(10): 1532-1543, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (ACRT) with oral capecitabine and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were well tolerated in a phase I study in patients who had undergone partial or total gastrectomy for locally advanced gastric cancer (GC). This phase II study aimed to further determine the efficacy and toxicity of this combination after radical resection and D1/D2 lymph node dissection (LND) for patients with locally advanced GC. AIM: To further determine the efficacy and toxicity of this combination after radical resection and D1/D2 LND for patients with locally advanced GC. METHODS: Forty patients (median age, 53 years; range, 24-71 years) with pathologically confirmed adenocarcinoma who underwent D1/D2 LND were included in this study. The patients received ACRT comprising IMRT (total irradiation dose: 45 Gy delivered in daily 1.8-Gy fractions on 5 d a week over 5 wk) and capecitabine chemotherapy (dose: 800 mg/m² twice daily throughout the duration of radiotherapy). The primary study endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS), and the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), toxic effects, and treatment compliance. RESULTS: The 3-year DFS and OS were 66.2% and 75%, respectively. The median time to recurrence was 19.5 mo (range, 6.1-68 mo). Peritoneal implantation (n = 10) was the most common recurrence pattern, and the lung was the most common site of extra-abdominal metastases (n = 5). Nine patients developed grade 3 or 4 toxicities during ACRT. Two patients discontinued ACRT, while eleven underwent ACRT without receiving the entire course of capecitabine. There were no treatment-related deaths. CONCLUSION: The ACRT protocol described herein showed acceptable safety and efficacy for patients with locally advanced GC who received radical gastrectomy and D1/2 LND.

17.
Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes ; 14: 4371-4380, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737593

RESUMO

Obesity-related glomerulopathy (ORG) is a secondary glomerular disease caused by obesity, with clinical manifestations such as proteinuria and glomerulomegaly. Currently, the high incidence of obesity brings a change in the spectrum of kidney diseases across the globe, including China. ORG has become another important secondary nephropathy leading to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and its incidence has increased significantly. This trend is bound to bring about a serious socioeconomic burden. Therefore, it is urgent to study its pathogenesis and intervention measures. Currently, the occurrence and development mechanisms in ORG are complicated by many factors, which are still unclear. In the past 20 years, with the continuous intensive research on mechanisms such as hypoxia in the metabolic process, immune inflammation, and pyroptosis, there have been new advances in the mechanism of ORG, especially the important role of inflammation in podocyte injury and its impact on the progress of ORG. Here, we briefly review the possible pathogenic role of the inflammasome in the podocyte damage in ORG and summarize the possible therapeutical strategies targeting inflammasome.

18.
Quant Imaging Med Surg ; 11(11): 4522-4529, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737920

RESUMO

Background: To validate the feasibility of generating high-resolution intravascular 3.0 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging of the coronary artery wall to further plaque imaging. Methods: A receive-only 0.014-inch diameter magnetic resonance imaging guidewire (MRIG) was manufactured for intravascular imaging within a phantom experiment and the coronary artery wall of the swine. For coronary artery wall imaging, both high-resolution images and conventional resolution images were acquired. A 16-channel commercial surface coil for magnetic resonance imaging was employed for the control group. Results: For the phantom experiment, the MRIG showed a higher signal-to-noise ratio than the surface coil. The peak signal-to-noise ratio of the MRIG and the surface coil-generated imaging were 213.6 and 19.8, respectively. The signal-to-noise ratio decreased rapidly as the distance from the MRIG increased. For the coronary artery wall experiment, the vessel wall imaging by the MRIG could be identified clearly, whereas the vessel wall imaging by the surface coil was blurred. The average signal-to-noise ratio of the artery wall was 21.1±5.40 by the MRIG compared to 8.4±2.19 by the surface coil, where the resolution was set at 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm × 2 mm. As expected, the high-resolution sequence clearly showed more details than the conventional resolution sequence set at 0.7 mm × 0.7 mm × 2.0 mm. Histological examination showed no evidence of mechanical injuries in the target vessel walls. Conclusions: The study validated the feasibility of generating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 0.2 mm × 0.2 mm × 2 mm for the coronary artery wall using a 0.014 inch MRIG.

19.
Front Neural Circuits ; 15: 732183, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744636

RESUMO

Identifying the cellular origins and mapping the dendritic and axonal arbors of neurons have been century old quests to understand the heterogeneity among these brain cells. Current Brainbow based transgenic animals take the advantage of multispectral labeling to differentiate neighboring cells or lineages, however, their applications are limited by the color capacity. To improve the analysis throughput, we designed Bitbow, a digital format of Brainbow which exponentially expands the color palette to provide tens of thousands of spectrally resolved unique labels. We generated transgenic Bitbow Drosophila lines, established statistical tools, and streamlined sample preparation, image processing, and data analysis pipelines to conveniently mapping neural lineages, studying neuronal morphology and revealing neural network patterns with unprecedented speed, scale, and resolution.

20.
ACS Omega ; 6(43): 28569-28578, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34746552

RESUMO

Iodine plays a key role in maintaining thyroid homeostasis, which is influenced by hormones through almost all nucleated cells and is essential for growth and metabolism. The most common kinds of thyroid dysfunction, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, are markedly related to iodine intake. In addition, the prevalence and incidence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are much higher in women than in men. However, the association between thyroid homeostasis and the gut microbiota is not yet completely clear, especially when comparing women and men. In this study, differences in the gut microbiota compositions, metabolic syndromes, and molecular mechanisms of female and male mice were investigated after iodine supplementation. The gut microbiota in male mice was changed more than that of female mice. The abundances of Muribacium intestinale, Barnesiella, Alloprevotella, Enterococcus, Desulfovibrionaceae, and Clostridium were significantly increased in female mice. This finding indicates that the high risk of thyroid disease in women could be related to the gut microbiota composition.

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