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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3205, 2022 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35217680

RESUMO

The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is an important pest that affects rice (Oryza sativa) production in Asia. The flavone tricin (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxy flavone) is a valuable secondary metabolite commonly found in rice plants that can defend rice plants against infestation by BPH. BPH damage can reduce the metabolic level of tricin in rice. Our preliminary transcriptome research results showed that BPH salivary protein 7 (NlSP7), is highly responsive to tricin stimuli. However, the function of NlSP7 in mediating the interaction between the rice plant and the BPH is unknown. In this study, we cloned the NlSP7 gene in N. lugens and found that its mRNA level was greater in the presence of high tricin content than low tricin content, regardless of whether the BPHs were fed a rice plant diet or an artificial diet containing 100 mg/L tricin. Knocking down NlSP7 resulted in BPH individuals spending more time in the non-penetration and pathway phase, and less time feeding on the phloem of rice plants. These changes decreased BPH food intake, feeding behavior, and fitness, as well as the tricin content of the rice plants. These findings demonstrate that the salivary protein 7 of BPH functions as an effector for tricin metabolism in rice.


Assuntos
Flavonoides , Hemípteros , Oryza , Animais , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Hemípteros/genética , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas e Peptídeos Salivares/metabolismo
2.
Pathogens ; 10(12)2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959487

RESUMO

China has had a long history against schistosomiasis japonica. The most serious prognosis of chronic schistosome infection is hepatic fibrosis, which develops into advanced schistosomiasis if the process is not effectively controlled. After a more than seven decades endeavor, China has gained remarkable achievements in schistosomiasis control and achieved transmission control nationwide (infection rate of schistosomes in residents and domestic animals both less than 1%) by 2015. However, new advanced schistosomiasis cases emerge annually in China, even in areas where the transmission of schistosomiasis had been interrupted. In the present study, the residents (>5 years old) in a schistosomiasis endemic village were examined for schistosomiasis every year during 1995-2019 by the modified Kato-Katz thick smear method and/or miracidium hatching technique. Residents who were identified to have an active infection method were treated with praziquantel at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. Ultrasonography was carried out to assess the liver morbidity related to schistosomiasis in 1995 and 2019, respectively. The prevalence of schistosomiasis among residents presented a downward trend annually, from 17.89% (175/978) in 1995 to 0 (0/475) in 2019. Among 292 residents who received ultrasound scan both in 1995 and 2019, 141 (48.29%) presented stable liver damage, while liver fibrosis was developed severely in 86 (29.45%) and reversed in 65 (22.26%) residents. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that anti-fibrosis treatment was the protective factor against schistosomiasis hepatic fibrosis. Males, residents aged 38 and above, fishermen, and people who did not receive anti-fibrosis treatment were groups with higher risk of liver fibrosis development. Our results revealed that although the infection rate of schistosome dropped significantly in endemic areas, liver fibrosis was still developing among some residents, even though they had received deworming treatment. Liver protection/anti-fibrosis treatment should be administered in endemic regions and regions with historically uncontrolled transmission to slow down the deterioration of hepatic fibrosis among patients in schistosomiasis endemic areas.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19288, 2021 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34588587

RESUMO

Larval metamorphosis in bivalves is a key event for the larva-to-juvenile transformation. Previously we have identified a thyroid hormone receptor (TR) gene that is crucial for larvae to acquire "competence" for the metamorphic transition in the mussel Mytilus courscus (Mc). The mechanisms of thyroid signaling in bivalves are still largely unknown. In the present study, we molecularly characterized the full-length of two iodothyronine deiodinase genes (McDx and McDy). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that deiodinases of molluscs (McDy, CgDx and CgDy) and vertebrates (D2 and D3) shared a node representing an immediate common ancestor, which resembled vertebrates D1 and might suggest that McDy acquired specialized function from vertebrates D1. Anti-thyroid compounds, methimazole (MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU), were used to investigate their effects on larval metamorphosis and juvenile development in M. coruscus. Both MMI and PTU significantly reduced larval metamorphosis in response to the metamorphosis inducer epinephrine. MMI led to shell growth retardation in a concentration-dependent manner in juveniles of M. coruscus after 4 weeks of exposure, whereas PTU had no effect on juvenile growth. It is hypothesized that exposure to MMI and PTU reduced the ability of pediveliger larvae for the metamorphic transition to respond to the inducer. The effect of MMI and PTU on larval metamorphosis and development is most likely through a hormonal signal in the mussel M. coruscus, with the implications for exploring the origins and evolution of metamorphosis.


Assuntos
Antitireóideos/farmacologia , Metamorfose Biológica/fisiologia , Mytilus/fisiologia , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Animais , Iodeto Peroxidase/metabolismo , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metamorfose Biológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metimazol/farmacologia , Mytilus/efeitos dos fármacos , Propiltiouracila/farmacologia
4.
Gigascience ; 10(4)2021 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) is widely distributed in the temperate seas of East Asia and is an important commercial bivalve in China. Chromosome-level genome information of this species will contribute not only to the development of hard-shelled mussel genetic breeding but also to studies on larval ecology, climate change biology, marine biology, aquaculture, biofouling, and antifouling. FINDINGS: We applied a combination of Illumina sequencing, Oxford Nanopore Technologies sequencing, and high-throughput chromosome conformation capture technologies to construct a chromosome-level genome of the hard-shelled mussel, with a total length of 1.57 Gb and a median contig length of 1.49 Mb. Approximately 90.9% of the assemblies were anchored to 14 linkage groups. We assayed the genome completeness using BUSCO. In the metazoan dataset, the present assemblies have 89.4% complete, 1.9% incomplete, and 8.7% missing BUSCOs. Gene modeling enabled the annotation of 37,478 protein-coding genes and 26,917 non-coding RNA loci. Phylogenetic analysis showed that M. coruscus is the sister taxon to the clade including Modiolus philippinarum and Bathymodiolus platifrons. Conserved chromosome synteny was observed between hard-shelled mussel and king scallop, suggesting that this is shared ancestrally. Transcriptomic profiling indicated that the pathways of catecholamine biosynthesis and adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes might be involved in metamorphosis. CONCLUSIONS: The chromosome-level assembly of the hard-shelled mussel genome will provide novel insights into mussel genome evolution and serve as a fundamental platform for studies regarding the planktonic-sessile transition, genetic diversity, and genomic breeding of this bivalve.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Animais , Cromossomos/genética , Extremo Oriente , Genoma , Mytilus/genética , Filogenia
6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 103, 2020 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oncomelania hupensis is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum and plays a decisive role in its transmission. The variation of water level greatly affects the reproduction and growth of snails. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze the variations of water level in the Poyang Lake region from 1993 to 2016 combined with satellite imagery to elucidate the evolution of the snail breeding environment. METHODS: By employing remote sensing data from 1993 to 2016 (April-June and September-November), the vegetation area of Poyang Lake and the vegetation area at different elevations were extracted and calculated. Moreover, the average daily water level data from the four hydrological stations (Hukou station, Xingzi station, Tangyin station and Kangshan station) which represent the typical state of Poyang Lake were collected from 1993 to 2016. The variance of the monthly mean water level, inundation time and the average area were analyzed by variance to find a significance level of α = 0.05. RESULTS: According to hydrological data before and after 2003, the average water level after 2003 is significantly lower than that before 2003 in Poyang Lake. After 2003, the time of inundateing the snail breeding period was later in April to June than that before 2003, while the time of wate-falling stage in September to November moved forward after 2003 than before 2003. Of them, the lowest water level affecting the breeding and growing period of O. hupensis in the northern part of Poyang Lake decreased from 11 m to 9 m. After 2003, the expansion of meadow area in the north part of Poyang Lake was mainly concentrated in the elevation of 9-11 m, and the newly increased infested-meadow in the lake area was mainly concentrated in the north part of Poyang Lake. CONCLUSIONS: By comparing the change of water level characteristics in different parts of the Poyang Lake area as well as changes in meadow area before and after 2003, it is found that the water level changes mainly affect the snail breeding area in the northern part of Poyang Lake. The results are helpful for improving scientific measures for snail control in Jiangxi Province. This approach could also be applicible to Dongting Lake area and other lake areas affected by water level changes and can bring significant guidance for snail control in lake areas.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Lagos , Caramujos/fisiologia , Animais , China , Vetores de Doenças , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Schistosoma japonicum/patogenicidade , Caramujos/microbiologia , Água
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139347, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446082

RESUMO

Marine mussels are key ecological engineers that form dense aggregations to maintain the vital habitat in benthic systems. It is essential to understand the consequences of mussel byssus attachment in elevated temperatures associated with ocean warming. We evaluated byssus production and the mechanical performance of threads in the mussel Mytilus coruscus at 21° (control), 27 °C (average temperature in the M. coruscus habitat during the summer season) and 31 °C (4 °C raised) for 72 h. We quantified byssus secretion and shedding number, measured byssal breaking force, byssal polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, byssal thread length and diameter. Expression of byssus foot protein genes was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in foot tissue. High seawater temperature decreased the number of newly secreted byssus and the diameter of byssal threads, leading to the reduction of byssal breaking force and the alteration of the weakest part of the thread. Increased breakpoints in the upper part of the thread (proximal region) were higher at 27 °C than at 21 °C. High-temperature stress significantly reduced the PPO activity in byssus at 31 °C in comparison to 21 °C. The expression of mussel foot protein genes was affected by elevated temperature. The increased gene expression of byssus collagen-like protein 2 (Mccol2) at 31 °C conflicted with the number of byssuses produced. Suggesting the reduction of mussel foot protein abundance is not the cause of decreased byssus production at 31 °C. These results show that byssus, as an extracellular structure of mussels, may be highly susceptible to the adverse effects of ocean warming.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Mytilus , Animais , Oceanos e Mares , Proteínas , Água do Mar , Temperatura
8.
Zhongguo Gu Shang ; 33(5): 454-8, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452185

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of one-stage transpedicular debridement, posterior internal fixation, RBK mixed streptomycin filled bone grafting for the treatment of elderly patients with thoracolumbar tuberculosis. METHODS: The clinical data of 20 elderly patients with thoracolumbar tuberculosis underwent one stage transpedicular debridement, posterior internal fixation, OSTEOSET RBK mixed streptomycin-filled bone grafting from September 2006 to July 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 12 males and 8 females, aged from 62 to 83 years with an average of (72.4±6.9) years old. Visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI)were used to evaluate the pain and spinal function. The kyphosis angle (Cobb angle) of the lesion segment and the bone growth of the lesion area were observed by the X-ray films. RESULTS: All the operations were successful, the operation time was (160.9±23.8) min, and the intraoperative blood loss was (317.9± 112.7) ml. The incisions were healed by first intention, and no sinus and incision were delayed. Spinal tuberculosis was completely cured, Frankel grade has one or more improvements. The VAS score decreased from (7.50±1.15) points before surgery to (1.70±1.39) points at 12 months after surgery (P<0.05). The ODI score decreased from preoperative (92.50±1.17)% to (12.80±0.89)% at the final follow up (P<0.05). The sagittal Cobb angle of the lesion segment decreased from preoperative (24.2±1.6)° to (8.3±0.7)°at 12 months after surgery(P<0.05), the kyphosis deformity was significantly corrected. In all cases, bone fusion was achieved in bone graft area, without bone nonunion and device fracture complications. CONCLUSION: One-stage transpedicular debridement, posterior internal fixation, RBK mixed streptomycin filled bone grafting is suitable for thoracolumbar tuberculosis patients with good general condition and less vertebral destruction.


Assuntos
Fusão Vertebral , Tuberculose da Coluna Vertebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transplante Ósseo , Desbridamento , Feminino , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(11): 1312-1321, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rectal cancer (RC) is a malignant tumor that seriously threatens human health. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital role in tumor regulation. Nevertheless, their exact expression features and functions remain obscure, and therefore was the aim of the current study. METHODS: We utilized the Affymetrix human GeneChip to screen differentially expressed profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs from the cancer tissues and matched paracancer tissues of 6 RC patients. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses identified crucial functions and pathways of the aberrantly expressed mRNAs. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to verify the significant expression differences of 11 candidate lncRNAs between the cancer and paracancer tissues. LncRNA-mRNA coexpression networks were built by calculating the Pearson correlation value to identify significant correlation pairs. Online bioinformatics tools GEPIA2, ONCOMINE, and PROGgeneV2 were used to mine the expression and prognosis of three crucial mRNAs and six verified lncRNAs. Competing endogenous RNA networks were constructed by predicting microRNA response elements and calculating free energy. RESULTS: We found 1658 differentially expressed lncRNAs (778 up-regulated and 880 down-regulated) and 1783 aberrantly expressed mRNAs (909 up-regulated and 874 down-regulated). GO and pathway enrichment analyses revealed the vital functions of the differentially expressed mRNAs, including cell proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis, and cellular response to zinc ion. The canonical signaling pathways mainly included the interleukin-17, cell cycle, Wnt, and mineral absorption signaling pathways. Six lncRNAs including AC017002.2 (P = 0.039), cancer susceptibility 19 (CASC19) (P = 0.021), LINC00152 (P = 0.013), NONHSAT058834 (P = 0.007), NONHSAT007692 (P = 0.045), and ENST00000415991.1 (P = 0.045) showed significant differences in expression levels between the cancer tissue and paracancer tissue groups. AC017002.2, NONHSAT058834, NONHSAT007692, and ENST00000415991.1 have not yet been reported in RC. The crucial mRNAs myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (MYC), transforming growth factor beta induced (TGFBI), and solute carrier family 7 member 5 (SLC7A5) were selected. AC017002.2 and LINC00152 were positively correlated with MYC, TGFBI, and cytochrome P450 family 2 sub-family B member 6 (All r > 0.900, P < 0.050). NONHSAT058834 was positively associated with MYC (r = 0.930, P < 0.001), and CASC19 was positively correlated with SLC7A5 (r = 0.922, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study offers convincing evidence of differentially expressed lncRNAs and mRNAs as potential biomarkers in RC.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante , Neoplasias Retais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Humanos , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Neoplasias Retais/genética
10.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1319-1327, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175699

RESUMO

To evaluate how eucalyptus leaf polyphenol extract (EPE) affects chicken meat color and taste, we added different levels of EPE (0%, 0.06%, 0.09%, and 0.12%) to chicken feed. The redness (a* value) and the myoglobin content of breast muscle in EPE group were remarkably higher. Furthermore, the guanosine monophosphate, histidine, and glycine muscle contents were also enhanced. Transcriptome analysis showed that 10 candidate genes related to meat quality were affected by EPE treatment. The identified genes, with functions critical to chicken meat color and taste, will help to determine the molecular mechanisms of EPE.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Eucalyptus/química , Carne/análise , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas , Cor , Dieta/veterinária , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Músculos/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/administração & dosagem , Polifenóis/química , RNA-Seq , Paladar
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(3)2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973117

RESUMO

Taking a photo has become a part of our daily life. With the powerfulness and convenience of a smartphone, capturing what we see may have never been easier. However, taking good photos may not be always easy or intuitive for everyone. As numerous studies have shown that photo composition plays a very important role in making a good photo, in this study, we, therefore, propose to develop a photo-taking app to give a real-time suggestion through a scoring mechanism to guide a user to take a good photo. Due to the concern of real-time performance, only eight commonly used composition rules are adopted in our system, and several detailed evaluations have been conducted to prove the effectiveness of our system.

12.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 287: 113347, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794730

RESUMO

Many marine invertebrate larvae undergo a dramatic morphological and physiological transition from a planktonic larva to a benthic juvenile. The mechanisms of this metamorphosis in bivalves are mainly unknown. The recent identification in bivalves of a thyroid hormone receptor (TR) gene raises the possibility that as occurs in vertebrate metamorphosis, TRs regulate this developmental process. An evolutionary study of TR receptors revealed they are ubiquitous in the molluscs. Knock-down of the TR gene in pediveliger larvae of the hard-shelled mussel, Mytilus coruscus (Mc), using electroporation of siRNA significantly (p < 0.01) reduced TR gene expression. TR gene knock-down decreased pediveliger larval metamorphosis by 54% and was associated with a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in viability compared to control larvae. The TR in the hard-shelled mussel appears to be an essential regulatory factor for the successful epinephrine-induced metamorphosis of the pediveliger larvae to post-larvae. It is hypothesised that the knock-down of TR by siRNA transfection affects the "competence" of pediveliger larvae for the metamorphic transition by reducing their ability to respond to the inducer. The involvement of TR in the epinephrine-induced metamorphosis of a mollusc, the hard-shelled mussel, suggests the role of TR in this process probably emerged early during evolution.


Assuntos
Epinefrina/efeitos adversos , Larva/metabolismo , Metamorfose Biológica/fisiologia , Mytilus , Receptores dos Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Animais , Transfecção
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16391, 2019 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704981

RESUMO

Haemolymph microbiome was considered to be unique to healthy invertebrates and beneficial to the host against external pathogens, including disease resistance and maintenance of homeostasis. Here, we investigated the effects of elevated water temperature on infection of haemolymph microbiome of the hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus). Exposure to Vibrio. cyclitrophicus resulted in high mortality of mussels on day nine at 27 °C. The haemolymph was collected to determine the microbiota by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. Exposure to waterborne V. cyclitrophicus increased the mortality of mussels that was associated with a reduction in the diversity of their microbial community. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that temperature was an essential factor in shaping microbial communities in mussel haemolymph. Vibrio exposure promoted the proliferation of opportunistic pathogens (e.g., Arcobacter and Francisella) at a lower temperature. A high abundance of Vibrio present in live and dead mussels, at 27 °C might contribute greatly to mortality, as indicated by linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe). These data suggested that the dynamics of microbial community have unique biomarker species in mussel haemolymph that could be used as health indicators. An elevated temperature may reduce the ability of bacterial elimination function against infection in mussel haemolymph.


Assuntos
Hemolinfa/microbiologia , Microbiota , Mytilus/microbiologia , Vibrio/patogenicidade , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , China , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Microbiota/genética , Temperatura
14.
Biofouling ; 35(9): 986-996, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724449

RESUMO

Metamorphosis is crucial in the life-cycle transition between the larval and juvenile stages of marine invertebrates. Although a number of agonists and antagonists of the adrenergic receptor (AR) are known to regulate larval metamorphosis in Mytilus coruscus (Mc), the molecular basis of the modulation of larval metamorphosis by the AR gene in this species remains elusive. Herein, the role of the AR gene in M. coruscus larval metamorphosis using the RNA interference technique was examined. The Mcα2AR transcript was observed to be present during the entire process of larval development and its level in the post-larvae was significantly increased compared to that in the pediveligers. Mcα2AR-knockdown resulted in a substantial reduction in the abundance of the Mcα2AR transcript and significantly inhibited the metamorphosis of M. coruscus larvae. These findings provide new insights into the molecular basis of modulation of larval metamorphosis in M. coruscus by the AR gene.


Assuntos
Larva/fisiologia , Metamorfose Biológica/genética , Mytilus/fisiologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Larva/genética , Mytilus/genética , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
15.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1086, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507449

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is essential for utilization of energy and nutrition and may have a role in host immunity in response to environmental shifts. The present study evaluated the temperature stress (increasing from 21 to 27°C) on gut microbiome and dynamics of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing with the aim of discovering the gut microbiome resilience to warming. Exposure to high temperature of 27°C significantly reduced the survival of M. galloprovincialis associated with increased microbial diversity of gut. The microbial communities were shifted with elevated temperature (from 21 to 27°C) and different exposure time (from day 0 to day 7) by principal coordinate analysis (PCoA). Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) revealed that the relative abundance of Vibrio and Arcobacter presented in live animals as the top genus-level biomarkers during the initial exposure to 27°C and followed by microbiomes fluctuation with increasing exposure time at day 4 and day 7. The proliferation of opportunistic pathogens such as genus Vibrio and Arcobacter might increase host susceptibility to disease and contributed greatly to mortality. The results obtained in this study provide the knowledge on ecological adaptation for south domestication of M. galloprovincialis and host-bacteria interaction during temperature stress (27°C).

16.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 90: 134-140, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055019

RESUMO

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a large family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that play a critical role in innate immunity. TLRs are activated when they recognize microbial associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) of bacteria, viruses, or fungus. In the present study, two TLRs were isolated from the mantle of the hard-shelled mussel (Mytilus coruscus) and designated McTLR2 and McTLR3 based on their sequence similarity and phylogenetic clustering with Crassostrea gigas, CgiTLR2 and CgiTLR3, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that McTLR2 and McTLR3 were constitutively expressed in many tissues but at low abundance.


Assuntos
Hemócitos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Mytilus/genética , Mytilus/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Filogenia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Receptores Toll-Like/química
17.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 97(7): e993-e997, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963731

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To find the potential relation between changes in retinal large vessels and terminal vessels using colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to compare the respective advantages of CDFI and OCTA in evaluating vascular changes in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients. METHODS: A prospective series of case study was conducted to enrol RP patients and age-matched controls, who were, respectively, imaged by CDFI and OCTA. Repeatability and reproducibility of both CDFI and OCTA were performed among healthy volunteers. The central retinal artery (CRA) was detected by CDFI analysis to provide parameters of peak systolic velocity (PSV), end-diastolic velocity (EDV) and time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMV). Retinal parameters were evaluated from OCTA images, including vascular area density (VAD) of the superficial vascular layer, the fovea avascular zone (FAZ) area and retinal thickness. RP patients were separated into a high-vision group and a low-vision group, according to median vision (0.3, LogMAR 0.5). Multiple comparisons were used to analyse the data between groups. A correlation analysis was used to determine the correlation between CDFI and OCTA parameters. RESULTS: Twenty RP patients (40 eyes) and thirteen normal volunteers (26 eyes) were enrolled in this study. Repeatability and reproducibility of the measurements by CDFI had higher CVs, from 4.5% to 15.4%, than those measurements by OCTA (<5%). All the CDFI and OCTA parameters examined had significant reductions in RP patients compared to those in the controls (p < 0.01). Compared to the high-vision group, the low-vision group exhibited a statistically significant decrease in vascular parameters of the FAZ area, fovea VAD and parafovea nasal side VAD (p < 0.05); as well as in the parameters of the fovea thickness, and the parafovea nasal, superior and inferior side thickness (p < 0.05). From the correlation analysis, a significant association was found between the vision and CDFI parameters (PSV and time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMX), p < 0.05), and the vision and OCTA parameters (FAZ area, fovea and nasal side VAD, retinal thickness in all sides, p < 0.05). PSV and TAMX of the CRA were closely related to the OCTA superficial VAD in all sides, whereas the CDFI parameters showed poor correlation with retinal thickness. CONCLUSIONS: Colour Doppler flow imaging (CDFI) and OCTA parameters revealed a significant reduction in RP patients when compared to the controls. OCTA can detect vision-related microvascular and thickness changes around the macula between high- and low-vision groups, which happen earlier than the changes in large vessels. In addition to good repeatability and reproducibility, OCTA may have significant utility in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in RP patients.


Assuntos
Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo/fisiologia , Angiofluoresceinografia/métodos , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional/fisiologia , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Retinite Pigmentosa/diagnóstico , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Ultrassonografia Doppler em Cores/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vasos Retinianos/fisiopatologia , Retinite Pigmentosa/fisiopatologia , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
18.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 23, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922403

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the closure of the Three Gorges Dam in 2003 the hydrology of Poyang Lake was altered dramatically leading to significant changes in the environment. In order to assess the impact on schistosomiasis this study assessed the spatial and temporal patterns of the snail intermediate host, Oncomelania hupensis in the Poyang Lake tributaries. The results of the study have important implications for future snail control strategies leading to disease elimination. METHODS: The marshland area surrounding Poyang Lake was divided randomly into 200 × 200 m vector grids using ArcGIS software, and the surveyed grids were randomly selected by the software. The snail survey was conducted in each selected grid using a survey frame of 50 × 50 m with one sideline of each grid serving as the starting line. No less than ten frames were used in each surveyed grid with Global Positioning System (GPS) recordings for each. All snails in each frame were collected to determine infection status by microscopy. Altitude data for all frames were extracted from a lake bottom topographic map in order to analyze the average altitude. All snail survey data were collected and statistically analyzed with SPSS 20.0 software in order to determine the difference of the percentage of frames with living snails and mean density of living snails in different regions of Poyang Lake. The altitude of the snail-infested marshlands and snail dens were subsequently identified. RESULTS: A total of 1159 potential snail sampling grids were surveyed, of which 15 231 frames (0.1 m2/frame) were investigated. 1241 frames had live Oncomelania snails corresponding to 8.15% of the total number of frames. The mean density of living snails was 0.463/0.1 m2 with a maximum of 57 snails per frame. The percent of frames with snails in the southern sector (8.13%) of Poyang Lake did not differ statistically from the north (8.21%). However, the mean density of live snails in the northern sector (0.164/0.1 m2) of the lake was statistically higher (F = 6.727; P = 0.010) than the south (0.141/0.1 m2). In the south of the lake, the elevation of snail-inhabited marshland ranged between 11 - 16 m, and could be further subdivided into two snail-concentrated belts at 12-13 m of elevation and 15-16 m of elevation respectively. In the north of the lake, the elevation of snail-inhabited marshland ranged between 9- 16 m with the elevation of 12-14 m being the snail-concentrated zone. CONCLUSIONS: The elevation of snail-infested marshlands in the Poyang Lake region ranged from 9 to 16 m. The snail distribution and habitat has moved north of the lake and to a lower altitude due to changes in the water level post dam closure. Based on the current geological features of the snail habitant focused mollusciciding should occur in snail dense northern regions with frequent bovine and human traffic. Targeting these identified 'hotspots' of transmission will assist in elimination efforts.


Assuntos
Lagos/parasitologia , Esquistossomose Japônica/transmissão , Caramujos/parasitologia , Animais , China , Vetores de Doenças , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , Geografia , Humanos , Esquistossomose Japônica/prevenção & controle
19.
Environ Int ; 124: 511-520, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endocrine disruption is one of the consequences of industrialization and chemicals released into the environment have a profound impact on organisms. Waterborne micromolar concentrations of ioxynil (IOX) and diethylstilbestrol (DES) in fish affect the development of the heart, vasculature and thyroid gland. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine how IOX and DES disrupt the crosstalk between the developing thyroid gland and cardio-vascular system in zebrafish. METHODS: Twelve hours post fertilization (hpf) wild type, Tg(fli1:GFP) or Tg(cmalc2:GFPCaaX) zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0.1 µM IOX or DES for 36 h (up until 48 hpf) or 60 h (up until 72 hpf). Embryos were used for vascular endothelial cell sorting, whole-mount immunohistochemistry, tissue selective transcriptomics, selected gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and determination of heart rate by live imaging. RESULTS: Exposure of zebrafish embryos to IOX and DES (0.1 µM) increased heart beat frequency and reduced ventricle volume and aorta diameter. The transcriptome of endothelial cells from blood vessels of hypertrophic, dilated and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy was significantly changed and compound-specific toxic effects were found in IOX and DES exposed embryos. Both DES and IOX directly affected vascular and heart development and this indirectly impaired thyroid gland development in zebrafish. Even though the toxicity end-point of the two chemicals was similar, their action seemed to be via different gene regulatory pathways and physiological mechanisms. CONCLUSION: IOX and DES directly disrupt cardiovascular development and there is an associated disruption of thyroid tissue that most likely has long term consequences for this endocrine axis.


Assuntos
Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Cardiovascular/embriologia , Dietilestilbestrol/toxicidade , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Nitrilas/toxicidade , Animais , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Iodobenzenos/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia
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