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1.
Food Funct ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34195734

RESUMO

Bambusa multiplex cv Fernleaf (B. multiplex) is a species of bamboo. In the present study, B. multiplex leaf extract was prepared through the resin absorption/desorption procedure and analyzed by HPLC. C-Glycosyl flavonoids are the main constituents of B. multiplex extract, and the content of isoorientin and vitexin was 51.8 and 23.1 mg g-1, respectively. Besides, the extract exhibited inhibitory activities on pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase with IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.16 mg mL-1, respectively. The extract could bind to pancreatic lipase and showed mixed-type inhibition. An in vivo study showed that pre-administration of B. multiplex extract significantly reduced the fat absorption in rats and increased fat excretion through feces. The change in the C-glycosyl flavonoid content in feces was the same as that in the triglyceride content. The inhibitory activity of B. multiplex leaf extract on pancreatic lipase was confirmed both in vitro and in vivo.

2.
Virol J ; 18(1): 132, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193186

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To investigate the relationship between polymorphism of scavenger receptor class B member 2 (SCARB2) gene and clinical severity of enterovirus (EV)-71 associated hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). METHODS: Among the 100 recruited cases, 56 were in the severe HFMD group (case group) and 44 were in the general HFMD group (control group). By screening functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and hot SNPs, and performing SNP site optimization, some SNP sites of SCARB2 gene were selected for analysis. Genotyping was performed using a MassArray platform. PLINK software was used for statistical processing and analysis of the correlation differences between the mutant genotypes in the severe and general HFMD groups. The relationship between the SNPs and clinical severity of enterovirus (EV)-71 associated HFMD was assessed. RESULTS: 28 SNPs in SCARB2 were selected by site optimization. Then three loci were not in agreement with the minor allele frequency (MAF) in the 1000 Han Chinese in Beijing (CHB) dataset. Another three loci could not be detected. Nine loci were not suitable for further analysis (MAF < 0.01 and Hardy-Weinberg [HWE] P < 0.001). A total of 13 sites were subsequently analyzed. Through Fisher analysis, the frequency of the rs6812193 T allele was 0.134 and 0.034 in the severe and general HFMD groups, respectively (P 0.023 < 0.05, odds ratio [OR] 4.381 > 1). Logistic regression analysis of rs6812193 T alleles between the severe and general HFMD groups, respectively (P 0.023 < 0.05, OR 4.412 > 1, L95 1.210 > 1). Genotype logistic regression analysis of the rs6812193 alleles CT + TT versus CC gave an OR of 4.56 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.22-17.04, P = 0.012). CONCLUSION: The rs6812193 T allele was a susceptibility SNP for SHFMD, and the rs6812193 polymorphism might be significantly associated with the susceptibility to EV-71 infection.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212966

RESUMO

The design and synthesis of crystalline materials have been a subject of intensive research because of their interesting structures, physicochemical properties, and potential applications. However, the crystalline structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials collapses to lose the structural features of the original networks and/or frameworks when exposed to different stimuli such as pH, vapor, water, high temperature, and organic solvents. This hampers further studies focusing on practical applications. Although several review articles provide reasonable pathways for the preparation of stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and coordination polymers (CPs), the synthesis and design of stable materials containing organic species remain challenging. In this frontier article, we discuss the development of crystalline MOF, CP, metallophosphate, and metallophosphite materials, and provide a feasible approach for the formation of stable organic-inorganic hybrid compounds that combine MOFs (or CPs) and phosphate (or phosphite) building elements. In addition to their interesting structures, the synthetic strategies and structural stabilities of such hybrid composites are also presented.

4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(28): 7884-7897, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251802

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of oleanolic acid (OA) on hepatic lipid metabolism and gut-liver axis homeostasis in an obesity-related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) nutritional animal model and explored possible molecular mechanisms behind its effects. The results revealed that OA ameliorated the development of metabolic disorders, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obese rats. Meanwhile, OA restored high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction and endotoxin-mediated induction of toll-like-receptor-4-related pathways, subsequently inhibiting endotoxemia and systemic inflammation and balancing the homeostasis of the gut-liver axis. OA also reshaped the composition of the gut microbiota of HFD-fed rats by reducing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and increasing the abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria. Our results support the applicability of OA as a treatment for obesity-related NAFLD through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and prebiotic integration responses mediated by the gut-liver axis.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Ácido Oleanólico , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Fígado , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos
6.
Physiol Plant ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310717

RESUMO

Gene function studies benefit from the availability of mutants. In plants, Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is widely used to create mutants. These mutants, also called transformants, contain one or several T-DNA copies in the host genome. Quantifying the copy number of T-DNA in transformants is beneficial to assess the number of mutated genes. Here, we developed a competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method to detect a single copy of a T-DNA insertion in transformants. The competitor line BHK- -1 which contains a single copy of competitor BHK- (BHK, Basta, Hygromycin, Kanamycin-resistant genes) was crossed with test transformants and the genomic DNA of F1 plants was subjected to competitive PCR. By analyzing the gray ratio between two PCR products, we were able to determine whether or not the test transformants contained a single copy of T-DNA insertion. We also generated the control lines BHK±1:1 and BHK±2:1 which contained the target (BHK+ ) and competitor (BHK- ) in a ratio of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. The ratios of their PCR products are useful references for quantitative analysis. Overall, this method is reliable and simple in experimental manipulations and can be used as a substitute for Southern-blot analysis to identify a single copy of T-DNA insertion in transformants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 142: 111939, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Osteosarcopenia (OS), characterized by the coexistence of osteoporosis (OP) and sarcopenia (SP), is associated with high morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Nevertheless, its pathogenesis and treatment remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of Zhuanggu Zhitong Capsule (ZGZT) in OS rats. METHODS: All the related targets of OS, corresponding targets for bioactive ingredients of ZGZT, intersection targets of ZGZT against OS, and signaling pathways were predicted and analyzed by network pharmacology. Next, a rat OS model was established by ovariectomy (OVX) and injection of dexamethasone (DXM). Rats were then randomly divided into a Control group, a Sham operation group, an OS model group, an OS+ZGZT group, and an OS+E2 group. The drug was given for 12 weeks. During treatment, body weight, forelimb grip and body composition were measured. In addition, bone mineral density (BMD) and micro CT were used to assess the left femur. After treatment, the left femur, left gastrocnemius, and left soleus, as well as uterus, liver, and kidney, were separated and analyzed using Histomorphology, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: ZGZT could effectively improve the phenotypes of OS by increasing forelimb grip strength, percentage lean mass of the whole body (SMI) or appendicular lean (RSMI), BMD, levels of bone formation markers, improving the microstructure of femur, and decreasing apoptotic rate in femur and gastrocnemius in OS rats by up-regulating PI3K/Akt/Bcl2 signal pathway. CONCLUSIONS: ZGZT may be a new treatment option for the prevention and treatment of OS.

8.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(4): 646-664, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311838

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A quantitative microbiological risk assessment was conducted for Salmonella spp. in fresh pork from retail stores to consumers in China in order to provide evidence for adopting effective risk management measures. METHODS: The national food safety and risk monitoring data was used to estimate the initial contamination level of Salmonella in the retail fresh pork. The growth model and the cross-contamination model of Salmonella were referenced from the ComBase data base and scientific literature, respectively. Then the human health risk was predicted by the consumption of Salmonella-contaminated fresh pork and the Beta-Poisson dose-response model. RESULTS: The number of Salmonellosis per year among 1 million residents due to fresh pork was estimated to be 4748.The sensitivity analysis showed that the risk of Salmonellosis was mainly and positively correlated with the preparation rate of ready to eat food, the consumption quantity of pork, the initial contamination level of Salmonella in fresh pork, and the proportion of improper cleaning of knives and chopping boards. When the contamination level of Salmonella in fresh pork is controlled below 1 CFU/g, the average probability of illness will be reduced by 59.39%; the average probability of illness will be reduced by 58.97% by increasing the ratio of complete cleaning of chopping boards or the separation ratio of chopping boards for raw and ready-to-eat food to 90%. CONCLUSION: The risk could be effectively reduced by controlling the concentration of Salmonella contamination in retail pork or improving hygiene practices.

9.
J Environ Manage ; 296: 113219, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246026

RESUMO

Little is known about the relationship between traffic congestion and antimony (Sb) distribution in street dust, which is essential for Sb control and emission reduction in urban areas. Sb concentrations and mass load of the street dust collected in 19 cities of China were determined before investigating the mechanism of traffic influence on Sb distribution through diverse statistical means. The results showed that the Sb concentrations in each city were 1.10-4.76 times higher than the local background values. Sb concentrations in transportation areas were significantly higher than those in residential and industrial areas, and were significantly affected by road network density. The effect of congestion on Sb load of street dust was influenced by vehicle flowrate. Only when the vehicle flowrate was high, the traffic congestion would promote the increase of Sb load obviously. The improved accounting method showed that the Sb dissipation from brake wear in major Chinese cities were higher than that in Stockholm, Sweden, in 2005. The latent path analysis illustrated that a 1% increase in congestion index was correlated with a 0.886% increase in the Sb load. Compared with Switzerland, which has a typical industrialized Sb consumption pattern, China needs to recycle brake pads in addition to taking various measures to alleviate traffic congestion and reduce brake pad wear, despite the fact that the maximum health risk of Sb was far below the safety threshold. This study will provide valuable insights for urban traffic management and brake pad recycling.

10.
Eur J Pharmacol ; : 174375, 2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303666

RESUMO

AIMS: Hyperglycemia and insulin resistance drive intestinal barrier dysfunction in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Vaccarin, the main active component in the semen of traditional Chinese medicine Vaccaria has a definite effect on T2DM mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether vaccarin can enhance the intestinal barrier function in T2DM. MAIN METHODS: The T2DM mice model was established by streptozocin and high-fat diet. Vaccarin at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day was administered. We evaluated the effects of vaccarin on gut microbiota and intestinal barrier function by 16S rRNA sequencing, western blot, quantitative fluorescent PCR (qPCR), and morphological observation. Moreover, we constructed a single layer of the human intestinal epithelium model to determine the effect of vaccarin in vitro. RESULTS: The experimental results showed that vaccarin alleviated inflammatory mediators in serum and intestinal tissue of mice (P < 0.05), which may depend on the improvement of tight junctions and gut microbiota (P < 0.05). Activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (Erk1/2) stimulated myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). By inhibiting ERK expression (P < 0.05), vaccarin had similar effects to ERK inhibitors. In addition, the regulation of tight junction barriers also involved the abovementioned pathways in vivo. CONCLUSION: Vaccarin could protect the intestinal barrier by inhibiting the ERK/MLCK signaling pathway and modulate the composition of the microbiota. These results suggested that vaccarin may be an effective candidate for improving intestinal barrier changes in T2DM.

11.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4397-4406, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34308761

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of novel non-coding RNAs that are vital in modulating gene expression and biological processes. Nevertheless, in cervical cancer (CC), the role of circRNA is much less investigated. In this work, circ_0000228 expression in CC is measured and circ_0000228's function and related mechanism are investigated. Quantitative real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was utilized to examine the expression levels of circ_0000228, microRNA-195-5p (miR-195-5p) and lysyl oxidase-like protein 2 (LOXL2). Western blotting was employed to examine LOXL2 protein expression in CC cell lines. CC cell lines with circ_0000228 knockdown were constructed, and the CCK-8 experiment and Transwell experiment were executed to investigate the effect of circ_0000228 on the malignant characteristics of CC cells. Furthermore, a dual-luciferase reporter gene experiment was applied to validate the targeting relationship between circ_0000228 and miR-195-5p, miR-195-5p and LOXL2. In this study, we demonstrated that circ_0000228 showed a remarkable up-modulation in CC tissues and cell lines. Circ_0000228 knockdown repressed the growth and metastatic potential of CC cells. Mechanistically, circ_0000228 facilitated CC progression through sponging miR-195-5p and up-modulating LOXL2 expression. We conclude that circ_0000228 is an oncogenic circRNA, which participates in promoting CC progression via regulating the miR-195-5p/LOXL2 axis.

12.
Adv Mater ; : e2102258, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309084

RESUMO

Solar-driven interfacial steam generation (SISG) has been recognized as a promising strategy to solve water shortages in an eco-friendly and low-cost way. However, the practical application of SISG is vitally restricted by some inherent limits, especially for finite evaporation rate and insufficient working life of evaporator. Herein, a novel SISG system involving an all-fiber porous cylinder-like foam 3D evaporator, side area-assisted evaporation protocol, and aggregation-induced-emission-active solar absorber with "one stone two birds" function is explored. The solar absorber exhibits efficient photothermal conversion, endowing the side area-assisted evaporator with as high as 3.6 kg m-2 h-1 of solar evaporation rate, which is highly desirable for SISG under 1 sun of irradiation. Moreover, the solar absorber is capable of powerfully producing reactive oxygen species upon sunlight irradiation, which results in extraordinary photodynamic killing of bacteria nearby the fiber to prevent biofouling, consequently improving the working life of evaporator.

13.
New Phytol ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289124

RESUMO

Despite a much higher proportion of intragenic heterochromatin-containing genes in crop genomes, the importance of intragenic heterochromatin in crop development remains unclear. Intragenic heterochromatin can be recognized by a protein complex, ASI1-AIPP1-EDM2 (AAE) complex, to regulate alternative polyadenylation. Here, we investigated the impact of rice ASI1 on global poly(A) site usage through poly(A) sequencing and ASI1-dependent regulation on rice development. We found that OsASI1 is essential for rice pollen development and flowering. OsASI1 dysfunction has an important impact on global poly(A) site usage, which is closely related to heterochromatin marks. Intriguingly, OsASI1 interacts with the intronic heterochromatin of OsXRNL, a nuclear XRN family exonuclease gene involved in the processing of miRNA precursor, to promote the processing of full-length OsXRNL and regulates miRNA abundance. We found that OsASI1-mediated regulation of pollen development partially depends on OsXRNL. Finally, we characterized rice AAE complex and its involvement in alternative polyadenylation and pollen development. Our findings help to elucidate an epigenetic mechanism governing miRNA abundance and rice development, and provide a valuable resource for studying the epigenetic mechanisms of many important processes in crops.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34291316

RESUMO

Lime is one of the commonly used amendments for acidic soils. The reasonable application of lime can effectively improve the current status of acid tailings and reduce harm to the environment. In this study, we analyzed the pH alternation of acid tin tailing as a function of lime dose based on three methods-single titration method, K-bicarbonate titration method, and buffer curve method-to predict the accurate lime requirement (LR) in acid tin tailing treatments. Of these prediction methods, the buffer curve method was best suited for the prediction of lime dose, and the prediction values agreed with the experimental data by factors of 1.0‒1.4. Thus, we determined that the buffer curve method was more suitable for predicting the lime requirement of acid tailings. This study of acid tailings lime requirement provides scientific research for the subsequent modification of tailings.

15.
Nat Metab ; 3(7): 890-891, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34211181
16.
Mol Cell Endocrinol ; 535: 111392, 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246727

RESUMO

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in reproductive-aged women, and its pathogenesis is still under debate. Recent studies suggest crucial roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in PCOS development. The let-7 family miRNAs constitute the most abundant miRNAs in human granulosa cells (GCs), and plays an important role in follicular development. However, research on the let-7e implications of the non-hyperandrogenic (non-HA) phenotype remains unclear. This study aimed at determining the role of let-7e in the progression of PCOS. We performed quantitative real-time PCR to examine the levels of let-7e in fifty-two non-HA PCOS patients and fifty-two controls. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used to reveal the diagnostic value of let-7e in non-HA PCOS. Using an immortalized human granulosa cell line, KGN, we investigated the influence of let-7e on cell proliferation and autophagy. Our data substantiated the expression of let-7e was significantly increased in non-HA PCOS group, and associated with an increased antral follicle count. The ROC curve indicated a major separation between non-HA PCOS group and the control group. Let-7e knockdown suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced cell autophagy by activating p21 pathway. Conversely, let-7e overexpression promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cell autophagy by suppressing p21 pathway. Our results indicate that increased let-7e levels in non-HA PCOS GCs may contribute to excessive follicular activation and growth, thereby involving in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Let-7e may thus be a potential therapeutic target in non-HA PCOS.

17.
J Integr Neurosci ; 20(2): 375-383, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258936

RESUMO

This research investigates the characteristics of spontaneous brain activity in dysthyroid optic neuropathy patients using the regional homogeneity technique. Sixteen patients with dysthyroid optic neuropathy and 16 thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy patients without dysthyroid optic neuropathy were recruited, matched for weight, height, age, sex, and educational level. All participants underwent resting-state functional nuclear resonance imaging, and the characteristics of spontaneous brain activity were evaluated using the regional homogeneity technique. Each participant in the dysthyroid optic neuropathy group also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare brain activity between the two groups. Pearson correlation analysis evaluated the relationship between regional homogeneity and clinical manifestations in dysthyroid optic neuropathy patients. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and regional homogeneity. We found that the regional homogeneity values at the corpus callosum/cingulate gyrus and parietal lobe/middle frontal gyrus significantly decreased in dysthyroid optic neuropathy patients. Regional homogeneity values at the corpus callosum/cingulate gyrus and parietal lobe/middle frontal gyrus were negatively correlated with Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and disease duration. It was found that the regional homogeneity signal values were significantly lower than in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy without in dysthyroid optic neuropathy, which may indicate a risk of regional brain dysfunction in dysthyroid optic neuropathy. The results show that regional homogeneity has the potential for early diagnosis and prevent dysthyroid optic neuropathy. In addition, the findings suggest possible mechanisms of dysthyroid optic neuropathy optic nerve injury. They may provide a valuable basis for further research on the pathological mechanisms of dysthyroid optic neuropathy.

18.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(13): 2789-2798, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220307

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread widely in the communities in many countries. Although most of the mild patients could be cured by their body's ability to self-heal, many patients quickly progressed to severe disease and had to undergo treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU). Thus, it is very important to effectively predict which patients with mild disease are more likely to progress to severe disease. A total of 72 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in Shandong Provincial Public Health Clinical Center and 1141 patients included in the published papers were enrolled in this study. We determined that the combination of interleukin-6 (IL-6), Neutrophil (NEUT), and Natural Killer (NK) cells had the highest prediction accuracy (with 75% sensitivity and 95% specificity) for progression of COVID-19 infection. A binomial regression equation that accounted for a multiple risk score for the combination of IL-6, NEUT, and NK was also established. The multiple risk score is a good indicator for early stratification of mild patients into risk categories, which is very important for adjusting the treatment plan and preventing death.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , COVID-19/etiologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Células Matadoras Naturais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 639239, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248933

RESUMO

Background: Obesity is a recognized risk factor for low fertility and is becoming increasingly prevalent in many countries around the world. Obesity changes intestinal microbiota composition, causes inflammation of various organs, and also reduces sperm quality. Several microorganisms are present in the testis. However, whether obesity affects the changes of testicular microbiota and whether these changes are related to reduced fertility in obese men remain to be elucidated. Methods: In the present study, a zebrafish obesity model was established by feeding with egg yolk powder. Sperm motility was measured by the Computer Assisted Sperm Analysis system, testicular microbial communities was assessed via 16s RNA sequencing, the immune response in zebrafish testis was quantified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the testicular tissue structure was detected by electron microscopy and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Results: Compared with the control group, zebrafish sperm motility was dramatically reduced, the expression of testicular proinflammatory cytokines in the testes was upregulated, and the blood-testis barrier structure was disrupted in the obese group. In addition, testicular microbiome composition was clearly altered in the obese group. Conclusion: Obesity alters testicular microbiota composition, and the reason behind the decreased sperm motility in obese zebrafish may be related to changes in the testicular microbial communities.

20.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253560

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This randomized controlled-feeding trial aimed to determine the impact of fried meat intake on the gut microbiota and fecal cometabolites and whether such impacts influenced host glucose homoeostasis, intestinal endotoxin levels, and systemic inflammation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 117 overweight adults were randomized into two groups. Fifty-nine participants were provided fried meat four times per week, and 58 participants were restricted from fried meat intake, while holding food group and nutrient compositions constant, for 4 weeks. The gut microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Glucose and insulin concentrations at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min of an oral glucose tolerance test, fecal microbiota-host cometabolite levels, and intestinal endotoxin and inflammation serum biomarker levels were measured. The area under the curve (AUC) for insulin, insulinogenic index (IGI), and muscle insulin resistance index (MIRI) were calculated. RESULTS: The participants who consumed fried meat had lower IGI values than the control subjects, but they had higher MIRI and AUC values of insulin and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-1ß levels (P < 0.05). Fried meat intake lowered microbial community richness and decreased Lachnospiraceae and Flavonifractor abundances while increasing Dialister, Dorea, and Veillonella abundances (P FDR <0.05), provoking a significant shift in the fecal cometabolite profile, with lower 3-indolepropionic acid, valeric acid, and butyric acid concentrations and higher carnitine and methylglutaric acid concentrations (P FDR <0.05). Changes in these cometabolite levels were significantly associated with changes in IGI and MIRI values and LPS, FGF21, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-10 levels (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Fried meat intake impaired glucose homoeostasis and increased intestinal endotoxin and systemic inflammation levels by influencing the gut microbiota and microbial-host cometabolites.

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