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1.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196852

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Absorption of iodine through skin and an increased incidence of thyroid disorders due to iodophor exposure are reported. However, the risk of oral transmucosal absorption of povidone-iodine after intraoral preparation is not clear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possibility of oral transmucosal absorption of povidone-iodine after intraoral preparation and its effect on thyroxine level in blood. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized controlled study was carried out in the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Twenty- to 40-year-old healthy male adults planning to receive oral surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled. The study group received povidone-iodine irrigation of oral cavity for 3 min as intraoral preparation before operation. The control group received chlorhexidine gluconate irrigation of oral cavity for 3 min as intraoral preparation before operation. Iodine levels in blood and urine, and thyroxine levels in blood were tested and compared, before and after operation. RESULT(S): In total, 24 patients were included and analyzed finally. We found that after intraoral preparation with povidone-iodine, serum iodine level increased significantly to 2-3 times the pre-operation level in 15-30 min, and the urinary iodine level increased to 5 times the pre-operation level on the first day after operation. Iodine levels in blood and urine decreased significantly on the third day after operation but still significantly greater than the pre-operation levels. However, thyroxine levels were not altered accordingly. CONCLUSION(S): Oral transmucosal absorption of iodine is observed when povidone-iodine is used for intraoral preparation in healthy male adults, though the free thyroxine in blood is not affected accordingly. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Povidone-iodine is commonly used as an antiseptic in oral surgery and dental clinics. Based on our findings that iodine levels in blood and urine may elevate significantly after intraoral preparation with povidone-iodine prior to oral surgeries, care must be taken for individuals when excess iodine intakes can endanger the safety of the patient. REGISTRATION INFORMATION: Name of the trial registry: The Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ( http://www.chictr.org.cn/ ). Registration number: ChiCTR2100042028.

2.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34212783

RESUMO

A pair of new lignans [(+)- 1 and (-)- 1] and three new compounds (2-4), together with a known compound 5, were isolated from the fruits of Xanthium italicum Moretti. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, particularly HR-ESI-MS and 1 D and 2 D NMR. Compounds 2 and 3 showed antinociceptive effects in an acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice with the writhe inhibition rates of 80.50% and 67.89% at the dose of 20 mg/kg, respectively.

3.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxious-depressive-like behavior has been recognized as an early endophenotype in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies support early treatment of anxious-depressive-like behavior as a potential target to alleviate memory loss and reduce the risk of developing dementia. We hypothesize that photobiomodulation (PBM) could be an effective method to alleviate depression and anxiety at the early stage of AD pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of PBM treatment on anxious-depressive-like behavior at the early stage of AD. METHODS: Using a novel transgenic AD rat model, animals were divided into wild-type, AD+sham PBM, and AD+PBM groups. Two-minute daily PBM was applied transcranially to the brain of AD animals from 2 months of age to 10 months of age. After completing PBM treatment at 10 months of age, behavioral tests were performed to measure learning, memory, and anxious-depressive-like behavior. Neuronal apoptosis, neuronal degeneration, neuronal damage, mitochondrial function, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress were measured to test the effects of PBM on AD animals. RESULTS: Behavioral tests showed that: 1) no spatial memory deficits were detected in TgF344 rats at 10 months of age; 2) PBM alleviated anxious-depressive-like behavior in TgF344 rats; 3) PBM attenuated neuronal damage, degeneration, and apoptosis; and 4) PBM suppresses neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. CONCLUSION: Our findings support our hypothesis that PBM could be an effective method to alleviate depression and anxiety during the early stage of AD development. The mechanism underlying these beneficial effects may be due to the improvement of mitochondria function and integrity and the inhibition of neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.

4.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283558

RESUMO

Carrier mobility and density are intrinsically important in nanophoto/electronic devices. High-dielectric-constant coupled polarization-field gate ferroelectrics are frequently studied and partially capable in achieving large-scale tuning of photoresponse, but their light absorption and carrier density seem generally ineffective. This raises questions about whether a similarly high-dielectric-constant paraelectric gate dielectric could enable tuning and how the principles involved could be established. In this study, by deliberately introducing lattice defects in high-dielectric-constant paraelectric, cubic BaTiO3 (c-BTO) was explored to fabricate MoS2 photodetectors with ultrahigh detection ability and outstanding field-effect traits. An organic-metal-based spin-coating cum annealing method was used for the c-BTO synthesis, with an optimized thickness (300 nm), by introducing lattice defects properly but maintaining a large dielectric constant (55 at 1k Hz) and low dielectric loss (0.06 at 1k Hz), which renders the enhanced visible-light region absorption. As a result of the synergistically enhanced mobility and photoabsorption, the MoS2/BTO FET exhibits promising merits, for example, on/off ratio, subthreshold swing, and mobilities for high-performance photodetectors with excellent responsivity (600 AW-1) and detectivity (1.25 × 1012 Jones). Thus, this work facilitates the establishment of a lattice defect induced sub-bandgap absorption landmap for synergistically enhanced photoresponse for high-performance photodetector exploration.

5.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299477

RESUMO

As a traditional Chinese medicine, Patrinia scabiosifolia Link has been used to treat various inflammatory-related diseases, and recent studies have shown that it possesses potent anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, phytochemical investigation on whole plants of P. scabiosifolia were carried out, which led to the isolation of two new iridoid glucosides, patriniscabiosides A (1) and B (2), together with six known compounds (3-8). The structural elucidation of all compounds was performed by HRESIMS and extensive spectroscopic analyses including IR, 1D, 2D NMR, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD). All the isolated compounds were tested for their anti-inflammatory activity using the NF-κB-Dependent Reporter Gene Expression Assay, and compound 3 displayed anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of the NF-κB pathway, with an inhibitory rate of 73.44% at a concentration of 10 µM.

6.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infliximab (IFX) has revolutionised the treatment for Crohn's disease (CD) recently, while a part of patients show no response to it at the end of the induction period. We developed a random forest-based prediction tool to predict the response to IFX in CD patients. METHODS: This observational study retrospectively enrolled the patients diagnosed with active CD and received IFX treatment at the Gastroenterology Department in Xiangya Hospital of Central South University between January 2017 and December 2019. The baseline data were recorded in the beginning and were used as predictor variables to construct models to forecast the outcome of the response to IFX. RESULTS: Our cohort identified a total of 174 patients finally with a response rate of 29.3% (51/174). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the model, based on the random forest was 0.90 (95%CI: 0.82-0.98), compared to the logistic regression model with AUC of 0.68 (95%CI: 0.52-0.85). The optimal cut-off value of the random forest model was 0.34 with the specificity of 0.94, the sensitivity of 0.81 and the accuracy of 0.85. We demonstrated a strong association of IFX response with the levels of complement C3 (C3), high density lipoprotein, serum albumin, Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score and visceral fat area/subcutaneous fat area ratio (VSR). CONCLUSION: A novel random forest model using the clinical and serological parameters of baseline data was established to identify CD patients with baseline inflammation to achieve IFX response. This model could be valuable for physicians, patients and insurers, which allows individualised therapy.

7.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4289-4303, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304715

RESUMO

Hepatoblastoma is a kind of extreme malignancy frequently diagnosed in children. Although surgical resection is considered as the first-line treatment for hepatoblastoma, a relatively large population of patients have lost the preferred opportunity for surgery. Administration of locoregional ablation enables local tumor control but with the deficiency of insufficient ablation, residual tumor, and rapid progression. In this study, we integrated 219 hepatoblastoma and 121 non-cancer liver tissues to evaluate the expression of NR2F6, from which a higher NR2F6 level was found in hepatoblastoma compared with non-cancer livers with a standard mean difference (SMD) of 1.04 (95% CI: 0.79, 1.29). The overexpression of NR2F6 also appeared to be an efficient indicator in distinguishing hepatoblastoma tissues from non-cancer liver tissues from the indication of a summarized AUC of 0.90, with a pooled sensitivity of 0.76 and a pooled specificity of 0.89. Interestingly, nude mouse xenografts provided direct evidence that overexpressed NR2F6 was also detected in residual tumor compared to untreated hepatoblastoma. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-binding data in HepG2 cells and transcriptome analysis of HepG2 xenografts were combined to identify target genes regulated by NR2F6. We finally selected 150 novel target genes of NR2F6 in residual tumor of incomplete ablation, and these genes appeared to be associated with the biological regulation of lipid metabolism-related pathway. Accordingly, targeting NR2F6 holds a therapeutic promise in treating residual recurrent hepatoblastoma after incomplete ablation.

8.
Plant J ; 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34309935

RESUMO

Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is an economically important fruit crop worldwide. Although a high-quality peach genome has previously been published, Sanger sequencing was used for its assembly, which generated short contigs. Here, we report a chromosome-level genome assembly and sequence analysis of Chinese Cling, an important founder cultivar for peach breeding programs worldwide. The assembled genome contained 247.33 megabases (Mb) with a contig N50 of 4.13 Mb and a scaffold N50 of 29.68 Mb, representing 99.8% of the estimated genome. Comparisons between this genome and the recently published one (Lovell peach) uncovered a total of 685 407 single nucleotide polymorphisms, 162 655 insertions and deletions, and 16 248 structural variants. Gene family analysis highlighted the contraction of the gene families involved in flavone, flavonol, flavonoid, and monoterpenoid biosynthesis. Then, the volatile compounds of 256 peach varieties were quantitated in mature fruits in 2015 and 2016 to perform a genome wide association analysis. A comparison with the identified domestication genomic regions allowed us to find a total of 25 quantitative trait loci, associated with seven volatile compounds, in the domestication region, which is consistent with the differences in volatile compounds between wild and cultivated peaches. Finally, a gene encoding terpene synthase, located within a previously reported QTL region, was identified to be associated with linalool synthesis. Such findings highlight the importance of this new assembly for the analysis of evolutionary mechanisms and gene identification in peach species. Furthermore, this high-quality peach genome provides valuable information for future fruit improvement.

9.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(8): 263, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287706

RESUMO

The fabrication of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-responsive coordination polymer (CP) composite is demonstrated for establishing a fluorescent immunoassay. The CP composite (ThT@GMP/Eu) was synthesized by encapsulating thioflavin T (ThT) into the CP host that was composed of europium ion (Eu3+) and guanine monophosphate (GMP). The ThT@GMP/Eu composite shows a strong fluorescence in aqueous solution due to the confinement effect of GMP/Eu CPs, which restricts the conformational rotation of ThT. However, upon the addition of ALP, the structure of GMP/Eu CPs was disrupted to release ThT into solution. This results in the quenching of the fluorescence of ThT@GMP/Eu. The fluorescence of ThT@GMP/Eu has a linear response that covers 0.8 to 120 mU/mL ALP with a detection limit of 0.26 mU/mL and exhibits excellent specificity towards ALP against other enzymes. On this basis, inspired by the wide application of ALP as an enzyme label in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an ALP-based fluorescent immunoassay was further developed for the detection of mouse immunoglobulin G (mIgG). The developed immunoassay displays a linear fluorescent response towards mIgG from 0.8 to 100 ng/mL, and the detection limit is 0.16 ng/mL. The fluorescent immunoassay was successfully applied to the determination of mIgG in serum samples. Schematic of the responsivity of ThT@GMP/Eu to ALP that hydrolyzes GMP to release ThT, which leads to fluorescent quenching, and its application in the construction of a fluorescent immunoassay for mIgG determination.

10.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 3737-3752, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34288817

RESUMO

Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable complication associated with liver surgical procedures, and its pathological process remains elusive. Therefore, the present study investigated the role and mechanism of hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) in hepatic IRI. Here, we constructed rat models with hepatic IRI and BRL-3A cell models with hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) insult. The extent of liver injury was assayed by measuring serum ALT/AST levels and performing H&E staining; the levels of SOD, MDA, MPO, IL-6 and TNF-α were determined using commercial kits; apoptosis was detected using the TUNEL assay and flow cytometry; and the expression of HIF-1α/A2BAR signaling-related molecules and apoptosis-associated indicators was detected using Western blotting or qRT-PCR. The expression level of HIF-1α was significantly upregulated in the liver of rats subjected to IRI, as well as in BRL-3A cells treated with H/R. HIF-1α overexpression exerted a protective effect on hepatic IRI or H/R insult by reducing serum aminotransferase levels and hepatic necrosis, inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis of hepatocytes, and alleviating oxidative stress. In contrast, inhibition of HIF-1α expression exacerbated hepatic injury induced by IR or H/R. Mechanistically, the expression level of A2BAR was markedly increased during hepatic IRI or H/R insult. Moreover, A2BAR expression increased with HIF-1α upregulation and decreased with HIF-1α downregulation. Importantly, inhibition of A2BAR signaling abolished HIF-1α overexpression-mediated hepatoprotection. Taken together, HIF-1α exerts protective effects on hepatic IRI by attenuating liver necrosis, the inflammatory response, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and its mechanism may be related to the upregulation of A2BAR signaling.

11.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 43(3): 481-487, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238427

RESUMO

In addition to acute respiratory symptoms,coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)could cause olfactory dysfunction,which becomes the only clinical manifestation of COVID-19 in some cases.We review the epidemiological characteristics,pathological mechanism,screening value,treatment and prognosis of olfactory dysfunction in patients with COVID-19,aiming to achieve an in-depth understanding of the early diagnosis,quarantine,scientific treatment and prognosis of COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Olfato
12.
Lancet Oncol ; 2021 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal perioperative chemotherapeutic regimen for locally advanced gastric cancer remains undefined. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of perioperative and postoperative S-1 and oxaliplatin (SOX) compared with postoperative capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CapOx) in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer undergoing D2 gastrectomy. METHODS: We did this open-label, phase 3, superiority and non-inferiority, randomised trial at 27 hospitals in China. We recruited antitumour treatment-naive patients aged 18 years or older with historically confirmed cT4a N+ M0 or cT4b Nany M0 gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, with Karnofsky performance score of 70 or more. Patients undergoing D2 gastrectomy were randomly assigned (1:1:1) via an interactive web response system, stratified by participating centres and Lauren classification, to receive adjuvant CapOx (eight postoperative cycles of intravenous oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on day one of each 21 day cycle plus oral capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 twice a day), adjuvant SOX (eight postoperative cycles of intravenous oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on day one of each 21 day cycle plus oral S-1 40-60 mg twice a day), or perioperative SOX (intravenous oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 on day one of each 21 day plus oral S-1 40-60 mg twice a day for three cycles preoperatively and five cycles postoperatively followed by three cycles of S-1 monotherapy). The primary endpoint, assessed in the modified intention-to-treat population, 3-year disease-free survival to assess the superiority of perioperative-SOX compared with adjuvant-SOX and the non-inferiority (hazard ratio non-inferiority margin of 1·33) of adjuvant-SOX compared with adjuvant-CapOx. Safety analysis were done in patients who received at least one dose of the assigned treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01534546. FINDINGS: Between Aug 15, 2012, and Feb 28, 2017, 1094 patients were screened and 1022 (93%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat population, of whom 345 (34%) patients were assigned to the adjuvant-CapOx, 340 (33%) patients to the adjuvant-SOX group, and 337 (33%) patients to the perioperative-SOX group. 3-year disease-free survival was 51·1% (95% CI 45·5-56·3) in the adjuvant-CapOx group, 56·5% (51·0-61·7) in the adjuvant-SOX group, and 59·4% (53·8-64·6) in the perioperative-SOX group. The hazard ratio (HR) was 0·77 (95% CI 0·61-0·97; Wald p=0·028) for the perioperative-SOX group compared with the adjuvant-CapOx group and 0·86 (0·68-1·07; Wald p=0·17) for the adjuvant-SOX group compared with the adjuvant-CapOx group. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events was neutropenia (32 [12%] of 258 patients in the adjuvant-CapOx group, 21 [8%] of 249 patients in the adjuvant-SOX group, and 30 [10%] of 310 patients in the perioperative-SOX group). Serious adverse events were reported in seven (3%) of 258 patients in adjuvant-CapOx group, two of which were related to treatment; eight (3%) of 249 patients in adjuvant-SOX group, two of which were related to treatment; and seven (2%) of 310 patients in perioperative-SOX group, four of which were related to treatment. No treatment-related deaths were reported. INTERPRETATION: Perioperative-SOX showed a clinically meaningful improvement compared with adjuvant-CapOx in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer who had D2 gastrectomy; adjuvant-SOX was non-inferior to adjuvant-CapOx in these patients. Perioperative-SOX could be considered a new treatment option for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer. FUNDING: National Key Research and Development Program of China, Beijing Scholars Program 2018-2024, Peking University Clinical Scientist Program, Taiho, Sanofi-Aventis, and Hengrui Pharmaceutical. TRANSLATION: For the Chinese translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.

13.
Surg Endosc ; 2021 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of comparative analyses on the use of carbon nanoparticle suspension injection (CNSI) and indocyanine green (ICG) tracer technology for lymph node detection and their perioperative safety in robotic radical gastrectomy. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients who underwent robotic distal gastrectomy between November 2019 and November 2020. Patients were assigned to the CNSI group, the ICG group, or the control group. The number of lymph nodes detected, number of lymph nodes detected at each station, number of micro lymph nodes detected, rate of lymph node metastasis, and inoperative and postoperative recovery were compared. RESULTS: Of the 93 patients analyzed, 34 were in the CNSI group, 27 were in the ICG group, and 32 were in the control group. The mean number of lymph nodes retrieved in the CNSI group (48.44) was higher than that in the ICG (39.19) and control (35.28) groups (P = 0.004; P < 0.001), and there was no difference between the ICG and control groups (P = 0.102). The mean number of micro lymph nodes retrieved in the CNSI group (13.24) was higher than that in the ICG (5.74) and control (5.66) groups (P < 0.001). The lymph node metastasis rates in the CNSI, ICG, and control groups were 5.03, 4.63, and 5.93%, respectively (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The effect of CNSI on lymph node dissection and sorting was better than that of ICG, and CNSI improved the surgical quality and reduced lymph node staging deviation to a greater extent. CNSI was better than ICG in terms of improving the number of micro lymph nodes detected.

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; : 1-35, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260340

RESUMO

Eleven highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 viruses (clade 2.3.4.4b) were detected in migratory birds in Central China between November and December 2020, which were highly homologous to strains isolated in Europe from October to December 2020. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the strains in the study possibly spread from Siberia by migratory birds. In this study, we found H5N8 virus infection in migratory birds could cause severe pathological damage and high viral load in multiple organs.

15.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204516

RESUMO

Peptic ulcer has a serious impact on people's health around the world, and traditional medicines can cause adverse reactions. This study investigated the protective effects of tilapia collagen oligopeptides (TCOPs) on gastroduodenal injury. Seventy-two specific pathogen-free (SPF) male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups according to body weight: normal control group, ethanol group, whey protein group (500 mg/kg BW), and three TCOPs dose groups (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg BW). After intragastric administration for 30 days, the acute gastroduodenal injury was induced by anhydrous ethanol (5 mL/kg, intragastrically) in all groups except the normal control group. Biomarkers in gastric and duodenal tissue and serum were measured. Furthermore, western blot was used to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins. The results showed that the administration with TCOPs significantly reduced gastric and duodenal ulcer index, increased gastric juice pH, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, along with the reduction of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. TCOPs decreased tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels, while interleukin- 10 (IL-10) levels were increased. Furthermore, pepsinogens 1 (PG1), pepsinogens 2 (PG2), gastrin (GAS), and the pepsinogen ratio (PGR) were decreased, the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and NO contents were increased after TCOPs intervention. Moreover, TCOPs up-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and inhibited the expression of Bax and Caspase-3. In conclusion, TCOPs have protective effects on ethanol-induced gastroduodenal injury through gastrointestinal mucosal microcirculation promotion, antioxidation, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis mechanisms.

16.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(12): 2003141, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34194926

RESUMO

High gas-uptake capacity is desirable for many reasons such as gas storage and sequestration. Moreover, ultrahigh capacity can enable a practical separation process by mitigating the selectivity factor that sometimes compromises separation efficiency. Herein, a single-walled nickel-organic framework with an exceptionally high gas capture capability is reported. For example, C2H4 and C2H6 uptake capacities are at record-setting levels of 224 and 289 cm3 g-1 at 273 K and 1 bar (169 and 110 cm3 g-1 at 298 K and 1 bar), respectively. Such ultrahigh capacities for both gases give rise to an excellent separation performance, as shown for C2H6/C2H4 with breakthrough times of 100, 60 and 30 min at 273, 283 and 298 K and under 1 atm. This new material is also shown to readily remove ethylene released from fruits, and once again, its ultrahigh capacity plays a key role in the extraordinary length of time achieved in the preservation of the fruit freshness.

17.
Autophagy ; : 1-19, 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282994

RESUMO

MLKL (mixed lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase) is a well-known core component of necrosome that executes necroptotic cell death upon phosphorylation by RIPK3 (receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase 3). Recent studies also implicate a role of MLKL in endosomal trafficking, which is not always dependent on RIPK3. Using mouse Neuro-2a and L929 as well as human HEK293 and HT29 cells, we show here that MLKL is phosphorylated in response to serum and amino acid deprivation from the culture medium, in a manner that depends on CAMK2/CaMKII (calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II) but not RIPK3. The starvation-induced increase in MLKL phosphorylation was accompanied by decreases in levels of lipidated MAP1LC3B/LC3B (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; LC3-II) and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1), markers of autophagosomes. These changes were prevented by disrupting either MLKL or CAMK2 by pharmacology and genetic manipulations. Moreover, disrupting MLKL or CAMK2 also inhibited the incorporation of LC3-II into autolysosomes, demonstrating a role of the CAMK2-MLKL pathway in facilitating autophagic flux during short-term starvation, in contrast to necroptosis which suppressed autophagic flux. Furthermore, unlike the necroptotic pathway, the starvation-evoked CAMK2-mediated MLKL phosphorylation protected cells from starvation-induced death. We propose that upon nutrient deprivation, MLKL is activated by CAMK2, which in turn facilitates membrane scission needed for autophagosome maturation, allowing the proper fusion of the autophagosome with lysosome and the subsequent substance degradation. This novel function is independent of RIPK3 and is not involved in necroptosis, implicating new roles for this pseudokinase in cell survival, signaling and metabolism.

18.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205338

RESUMO

This study investigated the antioxidant effects of whey protein peptide on learning and memory in aging C57BL/6N mice. A total of 72 SPF male C57BL/6N mice were used. Twelve mice were randomly selected as the control group, and the other mice were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose (100 mg/kg body weight for 6 weeks), during which, the mice in the control group were intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of normal saline. After 6 weeks, the blood was taken from the epicanthus and the serum MDA level was measured, according to which, the mice were randomly divided into the model control group, the whey protein group (1.5 g/kg body weight), and three Whey protein peptide (WHP) intervention groups (0.3 g/kg body weight, 1.5 g/kg body weight, 3.0 g/kg body weight). The water solution of the test sample was administered by oral gavage every day. The intervention period was 30 days, during which, the model control group, the whey protein group, and the whey protein peptide group continued receiving intraperitoneal injections of D-galactose, while the control group continued receiving intraperitoneal injections of normal saline. After the intervention, behavioral experiments were conducted in the following order: open field test, water maze test, and new object recognition test. After the behavioral experiment, the morphology of hippocampal formation was observed by HE staining and TUNEL labeling. Oxidative stress-related indexes in the serum, liver, and brain were detected. Expression levels of the cholinergic system-related enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines in brain tissue were detected. Western blot was used to detect the expression of synaptic plasticity-related proteins in the mouse brain. The results showed that WHP could significantly improve the accumulation of MDA and PC, increase the activities of SOD and GSH-Px, resist oxidative stress injury, and enhance the potential of endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. WHP can significantly improve the decline of aging-related spatial exploration, body movement, and spatial and non-spatial learning/memory ability. Its specific mechanism may be related to reducing the degeneration of hippocampal nerve cells, reducing the apoptosis of nerve cells, improving the activity of AChE, reducing the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α and IL-1ß) in brain tissue, reducing oxidative stress injury, and improving the expression of p-CaMKⅡ and BDNF synaptic plasticity protein. These results indicate that WHP can improve aging-related oxidative stress, as well as learning and memory impairment.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Galactose/administração & dosagem , Hipocampo/citologia , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Masculino , Malondialdeído/sangue , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283603

RESUMO

In the present study, we have designed and synthesized a series of 42 novel sulfonylurea compounds with ortho-alkoxy substitutions at the phenyl ring and evaluated their herbicidal activities. Some target compounds showed excellent herbicidal activity against monocotyledon weed species. When applied at 7.5 g ha-1, 6-11 exhibited more potent herbicidal activity against barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) and crab grass (Digitaria sanguinalis) than commercial acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS; EC 2.2.1.6) inhibitors triasulfuron, penoxsulam, and nicosulfuron at both pre-emergence and postemergence conditions. 6-11 was safe for peanut for postemergence application at this ultralow dosage, suggesting that it could be considered a potential herbicide candidate for peanut fields. Although 6-11 and triasulfuron share similar chemical structures and have close Ki values for plant AHAS, a significant difference has been observed between their LUMO maps from DFT calculations, which might be a possible factor that leads to their different behaviors toward monocotyledon weed species.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286711

RESUMO

High-valence cobalt sites are considered as highly active centers for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and their corresponding construction is thus of primary importance in the pursuit of outstanding performance. Herein, we report the design and facile synthesis of abundant high-valence cobalt sites by introducing Zn2+ into CoFe Prussian blue analogues (PBAs). The modification results in the drastic morphological transformation from a pure phase (CoFe-PBA) to a three-phase composite (CoFeZn-PBA), with a significant increase not only the amount of highly oxidized Co sites but the specific surface area (by up to 4 times). Moreover, the obtained sample also exhibits outstanding electric conductivity. Consequently, an excellent OER performance with an overpotential of 343 mV@10 mA cm-2 and a Tafel slope of 75 mV dec-1 was achieved in CoFeZn-PBA, which outperforms the commercial IrO2 catalyst. Further analysis reveals that CoFeZn-PBA becomes (oxyhydr)oxides after the OER.

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