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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35341150

RESUMO

Introduction: The objective of our study is to explore the potential active ingredients and activity of Ginseng and Astragalus decoction (GAD) in the treatment of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) by using network pharmacology and molecular docking technologies. Methods: The active ingredients and corresponding targets of Ginseng and Astragalus were extracted from the Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform. The relevant targets of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) were searched in the disease databases. Overlapping targets of Ginseng and Astragalus and the corresponding targets of MPE were obtained to define the effective target of GAD for the treatment of MPE. The STRING database was applied to construct a predicted protein-protein interaction network for intersected targets. The Cytoscape software was used to screen key targets with a therapeutic potential. Using the Metascape database, we performed Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional enrichment analysis on the targets identified in the study. PyMOL and AutoDock Vina were used to molecularly dock the selected key components to their respective key targets for MPE treatment. Results: The core target network revealed 22 main active ingredients, 26 main targets, and 16 signaling pathways in GAD. Molecular docking revealed 6 targets (AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, intercellular adhesion molecule, Jun proto-oncogene, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, and tumor necrosis factor) that could partially dock with kaempferol, frutinone A, ginsenoside RH2, formononetin, and quercetin. Conclusions: Several components, targets, and signaling pathways of GAD contribute to the treatment of MPE, which suggests a rationale for further investigation on GAD's active molecule and mechanism of action in the clinical application of MPE.

2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(6)2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336592

RESUMO

Ballistocardiography (BCG) is considered a good alternative to HRV analysis with its non-contact and unobtrusive acquisition characteristics. However, consensus about its validity has not yet been established. In this study, 50 healthy subjects (26.2 ± 5.5 years old, 22 females, 28 males) were invited. Comprehensive statistical analysis, including Coefficients of Variation (CV), Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient (LCCC), and Bland-Altman analysis (BA ratio), were utilized to analyze the consistency of BCG and ECG signals in HRV analysis. If the methods gave different answers, the worst case was taken as the result. Measures of consistency such as Mean, SDNN, LF gave good agreement (the absolute value of CV difference < 2%, LCCC > 0.99, BA ratio < 0.1) between J-J (BCG) and R-R intervals (ECG). pNN50 showed moderate agreement (the absolute value of CV difference < 5%, LCCC > 0.95, BA ratio < 0.2), while RMSSD, HF, LF/HF indicated poor agreement (the absolute value of CV difference ≥ 5% or LCCC ≤ 0.95 or BA ratio ≥ 0.2). Additionally, the R-R intervals were compared with P-P intervals extracted from the pulse wave (PW). Except for pNN50, which exhibited poor agreement in this comparison, the performances of the HRV indices estimated from the PW and the BCG signals were similar.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG , Balistocardiografia , Adulto , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(4): 5740-5749, 2022 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35040622

RESUMO

The design and development of wide band gap (WBG) polymer donors are critical for achieving high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in polymer solar cells. In this work, four WBG polymer donors, Q4, Q5, Q6, and Q7, with different numbers and positions of fluorine substitution (n = 0, 2, 2, and 4, respectively) were prepared, and the effect of fluorination on their photovoltaic performance was systematically investigated. When blended with a small-molecule electron acceptor MeIC, the devices based on Q4, Q5, Q6, and Q7 showed PCEs of 10.34, 11.06, 5.26, and 0.48%, respectively. When coupled with a low band gap polymer acceptor PYIT to fabricate all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs), while the other three polymers (Q5-Q7) exhibited much lower PCEs in the range of 0.12-6.71%, the Q4 polymer-based all-PSCs showed the highest PCE of 15.06%, comparable to that of the devices fabricated with the star polymer donor PM6 (PCE = 15.00%). Detailed physicochemical and morphological studies revealed that an over-substitution of F in Q7 results in undesired low-lying HOMO levels and phase separation with the acceptors, thus resulting in its inferior PCEs. Moreover, the less F-substitution and controlling of the positions of F-substitution position in Q4 and Q5 can improve the HOMO energy level matching as well as morphologies between these two polymers with the acceptors, which in turn gives rise to higher performances. Clearly, our results indicate that Q4 is a promising donor candidate for high-performance all-PSCs, and the fine-tuning of both the number and positions of F-substitution in the polymer backbone is essential in developing high-performance WBG polymer donors.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(15): 22602-22612, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34792767

RESUMO

The extensive use of copper fungicides has resulted in significant non-target effects on soil microbial communities. However, the documented effects are often variable and contradictory, depending on the methods used to assess them. In this study, we examined the effects of copper accumulation in surface soils on microbial catabolic activity, active biomass and composition, and sensitive bacterial species. The community-level catabolic profiles (CLCPs) showed that both normal (50 mg CuSO4 kg-1 soil) and high dosages (tenfold rate) of CuSO4 significantly increased the catabolic diversity of gram-positive bacteria, while the high dosage increased the overall catabolic activity of gram-negative bacteria. The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis showed that the high dosage reduced the biomass of gram-positive bacteria by 27% but did not affect that of gram-negative bacteria. In comparison, the normal and high dosages decreased the fungal biomass by 34% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 16S rRNA-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprint revealed that more than two-thirds of identified bands belonged to gram-negative bacteria. Some Cu-resistant gram-negative bacterial genera, such as Actinobacterium, Pseudomonas, and Proteobacterium, were detected in the soil to which the high dosage of CuSO4 had been applied. In conclusion, an excess application of CuSO4 increased the catabolic diversity of gram-positive bacteria and induced resistance in gram-negative bacteria, whereas the active fungal community displayed a dosage-dependent response to CuSO4 and can thus be used as a sensitive indicator of copper contamination.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Poluentes do Solo , Cobre/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
5.
Ann Palliat Med ; 10(11): 11901-11909, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the incidence of heart disease has increased and patients are younger. Cardiac rehabilitation training has been proposed to improve the prognosis of patients with heart disease. Cardiac rehabilitation includes moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). These two training methods have different effects in improving the prognosis of patients. The aim of the present study was to improve reference for patients with cardiac rehabilitation. METHODS: English databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase, were searched from the establishment of the database to April 2021 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of rehabilitation training at different intensities. RevMan 5.3 was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: A total of 8 articles (with a total of 465 patients) were included, including 236 patients in the experimental group and 229 patients in the control group. Different intensities of training had statistically significant differences in peak oxygen uptake [mean difference (MD): 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.66 to 3.07, P=0.20] and the left ventricular ejection fraction difference (MD: 2.53, 95% CI: -2.10 to 7.17, P=0.28). DISCUSSION: Cardiac rehabilitation training can effectively improve the patient's cardiac function indicators and self-care ability, and reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, large-sample, multicenter, and long-term RCTs are needed to strengthen the findings of the study.


Assuntos
Reabilitação Cardíaca , Doença das Coronárias , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Volume Sistólico
6.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 389, 2021 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759261

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV are genetically related coronavirus and share the same cellular receptor ACE2. By replacing the VSV glycoprotein with the spikes (S) of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, we generated two replication-competent recombinant viruses, rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 and rVSV-SARS-CoV. Using wild-type and human ACE2 (hACE2) knock-in mouse models, we found a single dose of rVSV-SARS-CoV could elicit strong humoral immune response via both intranasal (i.n.) and intramuscular (i.m.) routes. Despite the high genetic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, no obvious cross-neutralizing activity was observed in the immunized mice sera. In macaques, neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers induced by one i.n. dose of rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 were eight-fold higher than those by a single i.m. dose. Thus, our data indicates that rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 might be suitable for i.n. administration instead of the traditional i.m. immunization in human. Because rVSV-SARS-CoV elicited significantly stronger NAb responses than rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 in a route-independent manner, we generated a chimeric antigen by replacing the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV S with that from the SARS-CoV-2. rVSV expressing the chimera (rVSV-SARS-CoV/2-RBD) induced significantly increased NAbs against SARS-CoV-2 in mice and macaques than rVSV-SARS-CoV-2, with a safe Th1-biased response. Serum immunized with rVSV-SARS-CoV/2-RBD showed no cross-reactivity with SARS-CoV. hACE2 mice receiving a single i.m. dose of either rVSV-SARS-CoV-2 or rVSV-SARS-CoV/2-RBD were fully protected against SARS-CoV-2 challenge without obvious lesions in the lungs. Our results suggest that transplantation of SARS-CoV-2 RBD into the S protein of SARS-CoV might be a promising antigen design for COVID-19 vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Técnicas de Introdução de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Testes de Neutralização , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética
7.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(9): 3079-3088, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658192

RESUMO

In July 2019-July 2020, we conducted a field trial to examine the effects of nitrogen addition (60 kg N·hm-2·a-1), biochar application (10 t·hm-2), and their combination on soil N2O emission and the relationship between soil N2O emission and environmental factors in a typical Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) plantation in Hangzhou City of Zhejiang Province. Soil N2O flux of Moso bamboo plantation was measured by the static chamber-gas chromatography technique. The results showed that nitrogen addition treatment increased the annual cumulative N2O emission by 14.6%, while biochar application and the combination treatment reduced it by 20.8% and 10.6%, respectively. Soil N2O flux rate was significantly correlated with soil temperature, NO3--N concentration, urease and protease activities, and soil NH4+-N concentration across all treatments. In conclusion, under the background of nitrogen deposition, the application of biochar would have a significant reduction effect on soil N2O fluxes in Moso bamboo plantations.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Solo , Carvão Vegetal , Poaceae
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e931467, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Effective identification of patients with suspected COVID-19 is vital for the management. This study aimed to establish a simple clinical prediction model for COVID-19 in primary care. MATERIAL AND METHODS We consecutively enrolled 60 confirmed cases and 152 suspected cases with COVID-19 into the study. The training cohort consisted of 30 confirmed and 78 suspected cases, whereas the validation cohort consisted of 30 confirmed and 74 suspected cases. Four clinical variables - epidemiological history (E), body temperature (T), leukocytes count (L), and chest computed tomography (C) - were collected to construct a preliminary prediction model (model A). By integerizing coefficients of model A, a clinical prediction model (model B) was constructed. Finally, the scores of each variable in model B were summed up to build the ETLC score. RESULTS The preliminary prediction model A was Logit (YA)=2.657X1+1.153X2+2.125X3+2.828X4-10.771, while the model B was Logit (YB)=2.5X1+1X2+2X3+3X4-10. No significant difference was found between the area under the curve (AUC) of model A (0.920, 95% CI: 0.875-0.953) and model B (0.919, 95% CI: 0.874-0.952) (Z=0.035, P=0.972). When ETLC score was more than or equal to 9.5, the sensitivity and specificity for COVID-19 was 76.7% (46/60) and 90.1% (137/152), respectively, and the positive and negative predictive values were 75.4% (46/61) and 90.7% (137/151), respectively. CONCLUSIONS The ETLC score is helpful for efficiently identifying patients with suspected COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico por Computador/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Temperatura Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Modelos Logísticos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 801: 149717, 2021 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425443

RESUMO

Despite fresh and pyrogenic organic matter have been widely used as amendments to improve soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, mineralization that links to C quality and soil temperature, microbial community composition and enzyme activity remain poorly understood. This study aims to explore the effects of amendments (bamboo leaves and its biochar) and incubation temperature on mineralization, and disentangle the relationships of SOC mineralization with chemical composition of SOC, labile organic C, microbial community composition, and activities of enzymes in a subtropical bamboo forest soil. Results showed that cumulative soil CO2 emissions ranked as bamboo leaf (Leaf) > bamboo leaf biochar (Biochar) > Control, regardless of the incubation temperature. Compared to the control, the Leaf treatment markedly increased, whereas the Biochar treatment decreased, the temperature sensitivity of SOC mineralization (P < 0.05). The cumulative soil CO2 emission was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with water-soluble organic C (WSOC), microbial biomass C (MBC), O-alkyl C and alkyl C contents, and activities of ß-glucosidase and dehydrogenase, but negatively correlated (P < 0.01) with aromatic C content, regardless of the incubation temperature. This indicated that the lower SOC mineralization rate and lower temperature sensitivity in the Biochar (cf. Leaf) treatment were intimately associated with the lower WSOC, MBC, O-alkyl C content, and ß-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities, and higher aromatic C content in the Biochar. The high relative abundance of bacteria relating SOC mineralization included Rhizobiales, Sphingobacteriales and JG30-KF-AS9, whereas that of fungi included Eurotiales, Sordariales, Agaricales and Helotiales. Our results revealed that the application of pyrogenic organic matter, as compared to the application of fresh organic matter, can reduce SOC mineralization and its temperature sensitivity in a subtropical forest soil by limiting the availability of C and microbial activity, and thus has a great potential for maintaining soil carbon stock in subtropical forest ecosystems.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Carbono , Carvão Vegetal , Florestas , Microbiologia do Solo
10.
Adv Mater ; 33(37): e2102635, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338383

RESUMO

Narrow-bandgap n-type polymers with high electron mobility are urgently demanded for the development of all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs). Here, two regioregular narrow-bandgap polymer acceptors, L15 and MBTI, with two electron-deficient segments are synthesized by copolymerizing two dibrominated fused-ring electron acceptors (FREA) with distannylated aromatic imide, respectively. Taking full advantage of the FREA and the imide, both polymer acceptors show narrow bandgap and high electron mobility. Benefiting from the more extended absorption, better backbone ordering, and higher electron mobility than those of its regiorandom analog, the L15-based all-PSC yields a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.2% when blended with the polymer donor PM6. More importantly, MBTI incorporating a benzothiophene-core FREA segment shows relatively higher frontier molecular orbital levels than L15, forming a cascade-like energy level alignment with L15 and PM6. Based on this, ternary all-PSCs are designed where MBTI is introduced as a guest into the PM6:L15 host system. Thanks to further optimal blend morphology and more balanced charge transport, the PCE is improved up to 16.2%, which is among the highest values for all-PSCs. The results demonstrate that combining an FREA and an aromatic imide to construct regioregular narrow-bandgap polymer acceptors provides an effective approach to fabricate highly efficient all-PSCs.

11.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 633075, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239504

RESUMO

The gut microbiome plays an important role in a host's development and adaption to its dietary niche. In this study, a group of bamboo-feeding insects are used to explore the potential role of the gut microbiota in the convergent adaptation to extreme diet specialization. Specifically, using a 16S rRNA marker and an Illumina sequencing platform, we profiled the microbial communities of 76 gut samples collected from nine bamboo-feeding insects, including both hemimetabolous (Orthoptera and Hemiptera) and holometabolous (Coleoptera and Lepidoptera) species, which are specialized in three distinct dietary niches: bamboo leaf, shoot, and sap. The gut microbiota of these insects were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes and were clustered into solid (leaf and shoot) and liquid (sap) dietary niches. The gut bacterial communities of insects feeding on solid diet overlapped significantly, even though these insects belong to phylogenetically distant lineages representing different orders. In addition, the presence of cellulolytic bacterial communities within the gut microbiota allows bamboo-feeding insects to adapt to a highly specialized, fiber-rich diet. Although both phylogeny and diet can impact the structure and composition of gut microbiomes, phylogeny is the primary driving force underlying the convergent adaptation to a highly specialized diet, especially when the related insect species harbor similar gut microbiomes and share the same dietary niche over evolutionary timescales. These combined findings lay the foundation for future research on how convergent feeding strategies impact the interplays between hosts and their gut microbiomes and how the gut microbiota may facilitate convergent evolution in phylogenetically distant species in adaptation to the shared diet.

12.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 700498, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220524

RESUMO

Combination therapy using Western and traditional Chinese medicines has shown notable effects on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The He-Jie-Shen-Shi decoction (HJSS), composed of Bupleurum chinense DC., Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Pinellia ternata (Thunb.) Makino, Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. ex DC., and nine other herbs, has been used to treat severe COVID-19 in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacies of HJSS combination therapy and Western monotherapy against severe COVID-19 and to study the potential action mechanism of HJSS. From February 2020 to March 2020, 81 patients with severe COVID-19 in Wuhan Tongji Hospital were selected for retrospective cohort study. Network pharmacology was conducted to predict the possible mechanism of HJSS on COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Targets of active components in HJSS were screened using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) and PharmMapper databases. The targets of COVID-19 and ARDS were obtained from GeneCards and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man databases. The key targets of HJSS in COVID-19 and ARDS were obtained based on the protein-protein interaction network (PPI). Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis (KEGG) was conducted to predict the pathways related to the targets of HJSS in COVID-19 and ARDS. A "herb-ingredient-target-pathway" network was established using Cytoscape 3.2.7. Results showed that the duration of the negative conversion time of nucleic acid was shorter in patients who received HJSS combination therapy. HJSS combination therapy also relieved fever in patients with severe COVID-19. Network pharmacology analysis identified interleukin (IL) 6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), catalase (CAT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) 1, tumor protein p53 (TP53), CC-chemokine ligand (CCL2), MAPK3, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), and IL1B as the key targets of HJSS in COVID-19-related ARDS. KEGG analysis suggested that HJSS improved COVID-19-related ARDS by regulating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, NOD-like receptor, TNF, T cell receptor, sphingolipid, PI3K-Akt, toll-like receptor, VEGF, FoxO, and MAPK signaling pathways. In conclusion, HJSS can be used as an adjuvant therapy on severe COVID-19. The therapeutic mechanisms may be involved in inhibiting viral replication, inflammatory response, and oxidative stress and alleviating lung injury. Further studies are required to confirm its clinical efficacies and action mechanisms.

13.
Sci Total Environ ; 789: 147982, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052488

RESUMO

Plant invasions often act as ecosystem 'simplifiers' to simplify diversity and community structure of soil biota. However, inconsistent relationships between plant invasion and soil fauna have been found and few studies have addressed how soil fauna communities change upon plant invasions across taxa and feeding guilds. Here, we investigated the effects of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) invasion in subtropical China on soil mesofauna communities using novel high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Specifically, we analyzed the spatio-temporal dynamics of fauna diversity and feeding guilds in the litter and soil layers for three stages of moso bamboo invasion, i.e., uninvaded (secondary broadleaved forest), moderately invaded (mixed bamboo forest) and completely invaded (P. edulis forest). Overall, we found that the completely invaded bamboo forest decreased species richness and diversity of total fauna, herbivores, and microbivores consistently across different soil layers, but less so detritivores and predators. Although we did not find any interaction effects of bamboo invasion and soil layers on soil fauna diversity indices, significant interaction effects were found on the community composition, for total fauna and their feeding guilds. Specifically, the detrimental effects of bamboo invasion on the trophic structure of soil fauna communities were more profound in the litter layer than in the soil layer, suggesting that a litter layer with more diverse taxa does not mean higher resistance to plant invasion in maintaining the soil food web structure. Taken together, our findings suggest that different responses within fauna feeding guilds to plant invasion were pervasive, and a deeper soil layer may better alleviate the negative effects of pant invasion on fauna community structure. These shifts in soil biodiversity may further degrade ecosystem functioning.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Solo , China , Florestas , Microbiologia do Solo
14.
Toxicol Res (Camb) ; 10(2): 183-191, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884169

RESUMO

Qing Hao Gan Cao (QHGC), a Chinese medicinal formula containing Artemisia annua and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, has been used to treat sunstroke and as an antiviral agent for more than 800 years. It has not previously been subject to a toxicological safety evaluation in acute and subacute (28 days) studies. Therefore, the acute and subacute toxicity of an aqueous extract of QHGC were evaluated in vivo. For the QHGC preparation, the botanical raw materials were crushed into pieces and mixed in the ratio of 10:1 in distilled water for 12 h, then boiling three times for 2 h each time. The three decoctions were mixed and filtered, then spray-dried with hot air at 160°C for 30 min, and stored at room temperature. For the acute toxicity test, 72.0 g/kg of QHGC extract was administered by gavage to male and female mice. Body weight, general observations, and autopsy results were recorded. No mortality or toxicity signs were observed during the studies. For the subacute toxicity test, 4.0, 8.0, or 16.0 g/kg/day of QHGC extract was administered to rats for 28 days. General observations and mortality, body weight, biochemical and hematological parameters, organ weight, and pathological morphology were analyzed. The acute and subacute toxicity studies did not show significant changes in body weight, general observations, hematology and biochemical parameters, organ weight, and liver, spleen, stomach, duodenum, testis, ovary, lung, heart, and kidney histopathological analyses. The consumption of QHGC aqueous extract can be considered safe within the conditions of this study.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250712, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891670

RESUMO

Canthin-6-one, one of the main alkaloid compounds extracted from Ailanthus altissima, has recently attracted increasing interest for its antifungal activity. To evaluate the potential of canthin-6-one in controlling plant fungal diseases, we investigated the antifungal activity of canthin-6-one isolated from A. altissima against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in vitro. The mycelial growth rate and micro-broth dilution were used to test antifungal activity. Furthermore, label-free quantitative proteomics and parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) techniques were applied to analyze the antifungal mechanism. It was found that canthin-6-one significantly inhibited the growth of Foc, and had higher inhibitory action than chlorothalonil at the same concentration. Proteomic analysis showed that the expression of 203 proteins altered significantly after canthin-6-one treatment. These differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in amino acid biosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism pathways. These results suggest that canthin-6-one significantly interferes with the metabolism of amino acids. Therefore, it affects nitrogen nutrients and disturbs the normal physiological processes of fungi, and ultimately leads to the death of pathogens. This study provides a natural plant antifungal agent and a new perspective for the study of antifungal mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ailanthus/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Carbolinas/química , Dendrobium/microbiologia , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Alcaloides Indólicos/química , Ailanthus/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/biossíntese , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Carbolinas/isolamento & purificação , Carbolinas/farmacologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Alcaloides Indólicos/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides Indólicos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Esporos Fúngicos/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 144779, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736125

RESUMO

Plant invasion can markedly alter soil fungal communities and nitrogen (N) availability; however, the linkage between the fungal decomposition capacity and N mineralization during plant invasion remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the relationship between net mineralization rates and relevant functional genes, as well as fungal species composition and function following Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) invasion of evergreen broadleaf forests, by studying broadleaf forests (non-invaded), mixed bamboo-broadleaf forests (moderately invaded) and bamboo forests (heavily invaded). Fungal species composition and functional genes involved in organic matter decomposition (laccase and cellobiohydrolase), N mineralization (alkaline peptidases) and nitrification (ammonia monooxygenase) were determined via high-throughput sequencing and real-time PCR. Both net ammonification and nitrification rates were generally increased with bamboo invasion into the broadleaf forest, where the net ammonification rate, on average, was 10.8 times higher than the nitrification rate across the three forest types. The fungal species composition and ecological guilds were altered with bamboo invasion, as demonstrated by the increased proportion of saprotrophs but decreased proportion of symbiotrophs in the bamboo forest. The increased net ammonification rate in bamboo forest was positively correlated with both fungal species composition and functional groups, and the fungal lcc gene (for lignin breakdown) abundance explained 67% of the variation of the net ammonification rate. In addition, the gene abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) explained 62% of the variation of net nitrification rate across the three forest types. The increased soil ammonification and nitrification rates following bamboo invasion of broadleaf forests suggest that the bamboo-invasion associated increase in soil N supply provided a positive feedback that facilitated bamboo invasion into broadleaf forests.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio , Solo , Florestas , Fungos/genética , Nitrogênio/análise , Poaceae , Microbiologia do Solo
17.
Cancer Cell Int ; 21(1): 81, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516217

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Liver cancer (LC) is one of the most fatal cancers throughout the world. More efficient and sensitive gene signatures that could accurately predict survival in LC patients are vitally needed to promote a better individualized and effective treatment. MATERIAL/METHODS: 422 LC and adjacent normal tissues with both RNA-Seq and clinical data in TCGA were embedded in our study. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was applied to identify genes and hallmark gene sets that are more valuable for liver cancer therapy. Cox regression analysis was used to identify genes related to overall survival (OS) and build the prediction model. cBioPortal database was used to examine the alterations of the panel mRNA signature. ROC curves and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to validate the prediction model. Besides, the expression of the genes in the model were validated using quantitative real-time PCR in clinical tissue specimens. RESULTS: The panel of DNA repair-related mRNA signature consisted of seven mRNAs: RFC4 (replication factor C subunit 4), ZWINT (ZW10 interacting kinetochore protein), UPF3B (UPF3B regulator of nonsense mediated mRNA decay), NCBP2 (nuclear cap binding protein subunit 2), ADA (adenosine deaminase), SF3A3 (splicing factor 3a subunit 3) and GTF2H1 (general transcription factor IIH subunit 1). On-line analysis of cBioPortal database found that the expression of the panel mRNA has a wide variation ranging from 7 to 10%. All the mRNAs were significantly upregulated in LC tissues compared to normal tissues (P < 0.05). The risk model is closely related to the OS of LC patients. The hazard ratio (HR) is 2.184 [95% CI (confidence interval) 1.523-3.132] and log-rank P-value < 0.0001. For clinical specimen validation, we found that all of the genes in the model upregulated in liver cancer tissues versus normal liver tissues, which was consistent with the results predicted. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated a mRNA signature including seven mRNA for prognosis prediction of LC. This panel gene signature provides a new criterion for accurate diagnosis and therapeutic target of LC.

18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(1): 82-92, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477216

RESUMO

We conducted a pot experiment to investigate the effects of planting broadleaf tree species (i.e., Cinnamomum camphora, Schima superba, and Quercus glauca) and Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) on soil carbon mineralization and microbial community structure. The rates of soil carbon mineralization were measured via alkali trapping method. The structural and functional diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and real-time quantitative PCR techniques. The soil planted with Moso bamboo exhibited a significantly higher carbon mineralization rate and labile carbon content than those in the soils planted with broadleaf tree species. The underground biomass of Moso bamboo was higher than that of broadleaf tree species. The soil bacterial communities were more sensitive than fungal communities to the planting of different plant species . Moreover, soil fungal diversity of Moso bamboo was distinctly different from that of broadleaf tree species. Compared to the diversity of soil bacterial communities, the diversity of soil fungal communities was more closely related with soil pH, organic carbon content, and carbon mineralization. In comparison to the broadleaf tree species, the Moso bamboo planting could substantially increase soil organic carbon minera-lization, which was affected mainly by the soil fungal community structure.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Solo , Carbono , Florestas , Poaceae , Microbiologia do Solo , Árvores
19.
Biomark Res ; 8(1): 59, 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292701

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic consumption of high sugar and high fat diet associated with liver inflammation and cognitive decline. This paper tests a hypothesis that the development and resolution of diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has an impact on neuroplasticity and cognition. METHODS: C57BL/6 wild-type mice were fed with either a healthy control diet (CD) or a fructose, palmitate, and cholesterol (FPC)-enriched diet since weaning. When mice were 3-months old, FPC diet-fed mice were randomly assigned to receive either FPC-enriched diet with or without 6% inulin supplementation. At 8 months of age, all three groups of mice were euthanized followed by analysis of inflammatory signaling in the liver and brain, gut microbiota, and cecal metabolites. RESULTS: Our data showed that FPC diet intake induced hepatic steatosis and inflammation in the liver and brain along with elevated RORγ and IL-17A signaling. Accompanied by microglia activation and reduced hippocampal long-term potentiation, FPC diet intake also reduced postsynaptic density-95 and brain derived neurotrophic factor, whereas inulin supplementation prevented diet-reduced neuroplasticity and the development of NAFLD. In the gut, FPC diet increased Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae, which are implicated in cholesterol metabolism, and the genus Allobaculum, and inulin supplementation reduced them. Furthermore, FPC diet reduced FXR and TGR5 signaling, and inulin supplementation reversed these changes. Untargeted cecal metabolomics profiling uncovered 273 metabolites, and 104 had significant changes due to FPC diet intake or inulin supplementation. Among the top 10 most affected metabolites, FPC-fed mice had marked increase of zymosterol, a cholesterol biosynthesis metabolite, and reduced 2,8-dihydroxyquinoline, which has known benefits in reducing glucose intolerance; these changes were reversible by inulin supplementation. Additionally, the abundance of Barnesiella, Coprobacter, Clostridium XIVa, and Butyrivibrio were negatively correlated with FPC diet intake and the concentration of cecal zymosterol but positively associated with inulin supplementation, suggesting their benefits. CONCLUSION: Taken together, the presented data suggest that diet alters the gut microbiota and their metabolites, including bile acids. This will subsequently affect IL-17A signaling, resulting in systemic impacts on both hepatic metabolism and cognitive function.

20.
Adv Mater ; 32(43): e2004183, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954584

RESUMO

Narrow-bandgap polymer semiconductors are essential for advancing the development of organic solar cells. Here, a new narrow-bandgap polymer acceptor L14, featuring an acceptor-acceptor (A-A) type backbone, is synthesized by copolymerizing a dibrominated fused-ring electron acceptor (FREA) with distannylated bithiophene imide. Combining the advantages of both the FREA and the A-A polymer, L14 not only shows a narrow bandgap and high absorption coefficient, but also low-lying frontier molecular orbital (FMO) levels. Such FMO levels yield improved electron transfer character, but unexpectedly, without sacrificing open-circuit voltage (Voc ), which is attributed to a small nonradiative recombination loss (Eloss,nr ) of 0.22 eV. Benefiting from the improved photocurrent along with the high fill factor and Voc , an excellent efficiency of 14.3% is achieved, which is among the highest values for all-polymer solar cells (all-PSCs). The results demonstrate the superiority of narrow-bandgap A-A type polymers for improving all-PSC performance and pave a way toward developing high-performance polymer acceptors for all-PSCs.

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