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1.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719415

RESUMO

In organic photovoltaic (OPV) blends, photogenerated excitons dissociate into charge-separated electrons and holes at donor/acceptor interfaces. The bimolecular recombination of spin-uncorrelated electrons and holes may cause nonradiative loss by forming the low-lying triplet excited states (T1) via the intermediate charge-transfer triplet states. Here, we show that such a spin-related loss channel can be suppressed in the OPV blends with fluorinated nonfullerene acceptors (NFAs). By combining ultrafast optical spectroscopy and triplet sensitization measurements, the T1 states at the acceptors have been observed to generate from the charge-separated electrons and holes in the OPV blends with a same polymer donor and two sets of NFAs with and without fluorination. The triplet formation is largely suppressed and the lifetime of charge carrier is markedly prolonged in the blends with fluorinated NFAs. The fluorination effect on the charge dynamics can be ascribed to the modified energy alignment between the triplet excited states of charge-transfer and locally excited characters as supported by quantum chemical computation. Our findings explain the mechanism responsible for the improved photocurrent generation in the OPV blends with fluorinated NFAs, suggesting that manipulating the energy landscape of triplet excited states is a promising strategy for further optimizing OPV devices.

2.
Adv Mater ; : e2007177, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742493

RESUMO

The intrinsic electronic properties of donor (D) and acceptor (A) materials in coupling with morphological features dictate the output in organic solar cells (OSCs). New physical properties of intimate eutectic mixing are used in nonfullerene-acceptor-based D-A1 -A2 ternary blends to fine-tune the bulk heterojunction thin film morphology as well as their electronic properties. With enhanced thin film crystallinity and improved carrier transport, a significant JSC amplification is achieved due to the formation of eutectic fibrillar lamellae and reduced defects state density. Material wise, aligned cascading energy levels with much larger driving force, and suppressed recombination channels confirm efficient charge transfer and transport, enabling an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.84%. These results reveal the importance of utilizing specific material interactions to control the crystalline habit in blended films to form a well-suited morphology in guiding superior performances, which is of high demand in the next episode of OSC fabrication toward 20% PCE.

3.
Med Phys ; 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657645

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The introduction of microbubble contrast agent into tissues can create significant phase shifts. Phase retrieval (PR)-based phase-contrast CT (PCCT) is an imaging method for retrieving and reconstructing the phase shifts within an object. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of PR-based PCCT with microbubble contrast agent for vascular imaging. METHODS: Projection phase-contrast images of individual microbubbles and a cluster of microbubbles were captured and compared. Contrast enhancement from microbubbles was evaluated by comparing to the gold standard iodine-based contrast agent in vitro. The arterial systems of 14 Sprague-Dawley rats were perfused with microbubbles or saline. The rat hearts and the arterial systems were excised and imaged ex vivo. CT imaging was performed at the energy of 22 keV. PR was performed using the phase-attenuation duality (PAD) method with different δ/ß values (PAD property). The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was used for quantitatively assessing the contrast enhancement. RESULTS: Individual microbubbles functioned as a lens to focus the X-rays, whereas, a cluster of microbubbles scattered the X-rays. In the in vitro experiment, the contrast enhancement from iodine was significantly greater than that from microbubbles (P < 0.05). In the heart samples, the CNRs for microbubbles on PR-based PCCT were significantly greater than those on absorption-contrast CT (ACCT) and PR-free PCCT (both P < 0.001). The CNRs for microbubbles were also significantly greater than those for saline on PR-based PCCT in the samples (P < 0.001). Although they provided weaker contrast enhancement than that from iodine, microbubbles could still provide sufficient contrast enhancement to clearly show the 3D architecture of rat aortas and their main branches. CONCLUSION: The imaging modality can currently be used as a complement or alternative to absorption-based microCT for imaging vessels in biological samples.

4.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthy plasma therapy reverses cognitive deficits and promotes neuroplasticity in ageing brain disease. However, whether healthy plasma therapy improve blood-brain barrier integrity after stroke remains unknown. METHODS: Here, we intravenously injected healthy female mouse plasma into adult female ischaemic stroke C57BL/6 mouse induced by 90 min transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for eight consecutive days. Infarct volume, brain atrophy and neurobehavioural tests were examined to assess the outcomes of plasma treatment. Cell apoptosis, blood-brain barrier integrity and fibroblast growth factor 21 knockout mice were used to explore the underlying mechanism. RESULTS: Plasma injection improved neurobehavioural recovery and decreased infarct volume, brain oedema and atrophy after stroke. Immunostaining showed that the number of transferase dUTP nick end labelling+/NeuN+ cells decreased in the plasma-injected group. Meanwhile, plasma injection reduced ZO-1, occluding and claudin-5 tight junction gap formation and IgG extravasation at 3 days after ischaemic stroke. Western blot results showed that the FGF21 expression increased in the plasma-injected mice. However, using FGF21 knockout mouse plasma injecting to the ischaemic wild-type mice diminished the neuroprotective effects. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that healthy adult plasma treatment protected the structural and functional integrity of blood-brain barrier, reduced neuronal apoptosis and improved functional recovery via FGF21, opening a new avenue for ischaemic stroke therapy.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(10): 5852-5863, 2021 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33688867

RESUMO

COVID-19 has recently caused a global health crisis and an effective interventional therapy is urgently needed. Remdesivir is one effective inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA replication. It supersedes other NTP analogues because it not only terminates the polymerization activity of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), but also inhibits the proofreading activity of intrinsic exoribonuclease (ExoN). Even though the static structure of Remdesivir binding to RdRp has been solved and biochemical experiments have suggested it to be a "delayed chain terminator", the underlying molecular mechanisms is not fully understood. Here, we performed all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with an accumulated simulation time of 24 microseconds to elucidate the inhibitory mechanism of Remdesivir on nucleotide addition and proofreading. We found that when Remdesivir locates at an upstream site in RdRp, the 1'-cyano group experiences electrostatic interactions with a salt bridge (Asp865-Lys593), which subsequently halts translocation. Our findings can supplement the current understanding of the delayed chain termination exerted by Remdesivir and provide an alternative molecular explanation about Remdesivir's inhibitory mechanism. Such inhibition also reduces the likelihood of Remdesivir to be cleaved by ExoN acting on 3'-terminal nucleotides. Furthermore, our study also suggests that Remdesivir's 1'-cyano group can disrupt the cleavage site of ExoN via steric interactions, leading to a further reduction in the cleavage efficiency. Our work provides plausible and novel mechanisms at the molecular level of how Remdesivir inhibits viral RNA replication, and our findings may guide rational design for new treatments of COVID-19 targeting viral replication.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Cianetos/química , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , /fisiologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/química , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/química , Alanina/metabolismo , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , /patologia , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Ribose/química , /metabolismo , Eletricidade Estática , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529006

RESUMO

For the stability and commercial development of the perovskite solar cells (PVK-SCs), synthesizing high-efficiency dopant-free hole-transport materials (DF-HTMs) and exploring how the DF-HTM structure affects the photovoltaic performance is inevitable. Two small-molecule DF-HTMs based on 2,2'-bithiophene as a central part (denoted by BT-MTP and DFBT-MTP) were designed and synthesized. DFBT-MTP, with two more fluorine atoms substituted on the 2,2'-bithiophene group, exhibited enhanced photovoltaic property as DF-HTMs, including larger backbone planarity, declining highest occupied molecular orbit (HOMO) energy level, increasing hole transportation, more effective passivation, and efficient charge extraction. With fluorinated DFBT-MTP being applied as DF-HTMs in p-i-n PVK-SCs, an efficiency of 20.2% was achieved, showing ∼35% efficiency increase compared with the nonfluorinated BT-MTP-based devices. The leading power conversion efficiency (PCE) indicates that the fluorinated compounds should be a promising direction for exploring high-performance DF-HTMs in the p-i-n PVK-SCs.

7.
Adv Mater ; 33(13): e2006753, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634532

RESUMO

Solution-processed organic semiconductor charge-transport layers (OS-CTLs) with high mobility, low trap density, and energy level alignment have dominated the important progress in p-i-n planar perovskite solar cells (pero-SCs). Unfortunately, their inevitable long chains result in weak molecular stacking, which is likely to generate high energy disorder and deteriorate the charge-transport ability of OS-CTLs. Here, a charge-transfer complex (CTC) strategy to reduce the energy disorder in the OS-CTLs by doping an organic semiconductor, 4,4'-(4,8-bis(5-(trimethylsilyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-2,6-diyl)bis(N,N-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)aniline) (BDT-Si), in a commercial hole-transport layer (HTL), poly[bis(4-phenyl) (2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)amine (PTAA), is proposed. The formation of the CTC makes the PTAA conjugated backbone electron-deficient, resulting in a quinoidal and stiffer character, which is likely to planarize the PTAA backbone and enhance the ordering of the film in nanoscale. The resultant HTL exhibits a reduced energy disorder, which simultaneously promotes hole transport in the HTL, hole extraction at the interface, energy level alignment, and quasi-Fermi level splitting in the device. As a result, the p-i-n planar pero-SCs with optimized HTL exhibit the best power conversion efficiency of 21.87% with good operating stability. This finding demonstrates that the CTC strategy is an effective way to reduce the energy disorder in HTLs and to improve the performance of planar pero-SCs.

8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 178, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420010

RESUMO

Tandem organic solar cells are based on the device structure monolithically connecting two solar cells to broaden overall absorption spectrum and utilize the photon energy more efficiently. Herein, we demonstrate a simple strategy of inserting a double bond between the central core and end groups of the small molecule acceptor Y6 to extend its conjugation length and absorption range. As a result, a new narrow bandgap acceptor BTPV-4F was synthesized with an optical bandgap of 1.21 eV. The single-junction devices based on BTPV-4F as acceptor achieved a power conversion efficiency of over 13.4% with a high short-circuit current density of 28.9 mA cm-2. With adopting BTPV-4F as the rear cell acceptor material, the resulting tandem devices reached a high power conversion efficiency of over 16.4% with good photostability. The results indicate that BTPV-4F is an efficient infrared-absorbing narrow bandgap acceptor and has great potential to be applied into tandem organic solar cells.

9.
Theranostics ; 11(3): 1232-1248, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33391532

RESUMO

Rationale: Glial scars present a major obstacle for neuronal regeneration after stroke. Thus, approaches to promote their degradation and inhibit their formation are beneficial for stroke recovery. The interaction of microglia and astrocytes is known to be involved in glial scar formation after stroke; however, how microglia affect glial scar formation remains unclear. Methods: Mice were treated daily with M2 microglial small extracellular vesicles through tail intravenous injections from day 1 to day 7 after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Glial scar, infarct volume, neurological score were detected after ischemia. microRNA and related protein were examined in peri-infarct areas of the brain following ischemia. Results: M2 microglial small extracellular vesicles reduced glial scar formation and promoted recovery after stroke and were enriched in miR-124. Furthermore, M2 microglial small extracellular vesicle treatment decreased the expression of the astrocyte proliferation gene signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, one of the targets of miR-124, and glial fibrillary acidic protein and inhibited astrocyte proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. It also decreased Notch 1 expression and increased Sox2 expression in astrocytes, which suggested that astrocytes had transformed into neuronal progenitor cells. Finally, miR-124 knockdown in M2 microglial small extracellular vesicles blocked their effects on glial scars and stroke recovery. Conclusions: Our results showed, for the first time, that microglia regulate glial scar formation via small extracellular vesicles, indicating that M2 microglial small extracellular vesicles could represent a new therapeutic approach for stroke.

10.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431513

RESUMO

Ischaemic stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability in the world, with limited effective treatments. Increasing evidence demonstrates that exosomes are involved in ischaemic pathology and exhibit restorative therapeutic effects by mediating cell-cell communication. The potential of exosome therapy for ischaemic stroke has been actively investigated in the past decade. In this review, we mainly discuss the current knowledge of therapeutic applications of exosomes from different cell types, different exosomal administration routes, and current advances of exosome tracking and targeting in ischaemic stroke. We also briefly summarised the pathology of ischaemic stroke, exosome biogenesis, exosome profile changes after stroke as well as registered clinical trials of exosome-based therapy.

11.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289410

RESUMO

Zinnia elegans, common zinnia, is an annual plant with highly ornamental values. It is widely planted in many nurseries, city parks, universities and home gardens in China. From August to October 2020, powdery mildew-like signs and symptoms were observed on leaves of Z. elegans growing on the campus of Henan Normal University, Henan Province, China. White powdery colonies in circular- or irregularly shaped-lesions were abundant on both surfaces of leaves and covered up to 95 % of the leaf area. Any infected leaves were chlorotic, deformed or senescence. More than 70 % of the monitored Z. elegans plants showed these signs and symptoms. Conidiophores (n = 20) were 100 to 200 × 9 to 13 µm and composed of foot cells, followed by straight cells and conidia. Mycelial appressoria were single and nipple-shaped. The oval-shaped conidia (n = 30) were 22 to 36 × 12 to 18 µm, with a length/width ratio of 1.4 to 2.7, and produced germ tubes from the polar ends of the spore. No chasmothecia were found. Based on these morphological characteristics, the pathogen was initially identified morphologically as Golovinomyces cichoracearum (Braun and Cook 2012). Structures of the pathogen were scraped from infected leaves and total genomic DNA was isolated using the method previously described by Zhu et al. (2019). The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA was amplified by PCR using the primers ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990) and the amplicon was sequenced by Invitrogen (Shanghai, China). The sequence for the fungus was deposited into GenBank under Accession No. MW029904 and was 99.83 % identical (595/596 bp) to G. cichoracearum on Symphyotrichum novi-belgii (HM769725)(Mørk et al. 2011). To perform pathogenicity analysis, leaf surfaces of five healthy plants were fixed in a settling tower and then inoculated by blowing fungal conidia from mildew-infested leaves using pressurized air. Five non-inoculated plants served as a control. The inoculated and non-inoculated plants were separately maintained in two growth chambers (humidity, 60 %; light/dark, 16 h/8 h; temperature, 18 ℃). Eleven- to twelve-days post-inoculation, powdery mildew signs were conspicuous on inoculated plants, while control plants remained healthy. Similar results were obtained by conducting two repeated pathogenicity assays. Thus, based on the morphological characteristics and molecular analysis, the pathogen was identified and confirmed as G. cichoracearum. This pathogen has been reported on Z. elegans in India, Israel, Jordan, Korea, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, and Turkey (Farr and Rossman 2020). To our best knowledge, this is the first report of G. cichoracearum on Z. elegans in China. The sudden outbreak of powdery mildew caused by G. cichoracearum on Z. elegans may adversely impact the plant health and ornamental value in China. Therefore, the confirmation of G. cichoracearum infecting Z. elegans expands the understanding of this pathogen and provides the fundamental knowledge for future powdery mildew control.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2020 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326513

RESUMO

A typical multicyclic branched-topology polystyrene (c-BPS) with high molecular weight (30 K ≤ Mw MALLS ≤ 300 K g mol-1) and narrow dispersity (1.2 ≤ D ≤ 1.3) was efficiently synthesized by combining atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and atom transfer radical coupling (ATRC) techniques. The topological constraints imposed by the presence of cyclic units and branch points had a marked influence on the entanglement behaviors of the polymer chains in solution. Therefore, c-BPS possesses the lowest loss modulus (G'') and viscosity (η), the highest diffusion coefficient (D0), the largest mesh size (ξ) and the fastest terminal relaxation (TR), compared with branched and linear precursors.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5814, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199693

RESUMO

In organic electronics, an aromatic fused ring is a basic unit that provides π-electrons to construct semiconductors and governs the device performance. The main challenge in developing new π-skeletons for tuning the material properties is the limitation of the available chemical approach. Herein, we successfully synthesize two pentacyclic siloxy-bridged π-conjugated isomers to investigate the synergistic effects of Si and O atoms on the geometric and electronic influence of π-units in organic electronics. Notably, the synthesis routes for both isomers possess several advantages over the previous approaches for delivering conventional aromatic fused-rings, such as environmentally benign tin-free synthesis and few synthetic steps. To explore their potential application as photovoltaic materials, two isomeric acceptor-donor-acceptor type acceptors based on these two isomers were developed, showing a decent device efficiency of 10%, which indicates the great potential of this SiO-bridged ladder-type unit for the development of new high-performance semiconductor materials.

14.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164669

RESUMO

Bromus catharticus, rescuegrass, is a brome grass that has been cultivated for herbage production, and been widely naturalized in many provinces of China, including Henan province. During April and May 2020, powdery mildew was found on leaves of Br. catharticus on the campus of Henan Normal University, Xinxiang city (35.3°N; 113.9°E), Henan Province, China. Abundant white or grayish irregular or coalesced circular powdery colonies were scattered on the adaxial surface of leaves and 70% of the leaf areas were affected. Some of the infected leaves either were chlorotic or senescent. About 60% of the observed plants showed powdery mildew symptoms. Conidiophores (n = 25) were 32 to 45 µm × 7 to 15 µm and composed of foot cells and conidia (mostly 6 conidia) in chains. Conidia (n = 50) were 25 to 35 µm × 10 to 15 µm, on average 30 × 13 µm, with a length/width ratio of 2.3. Chasmothecia were not found. Based on these morphologic characteristics, the pathogen was initially identified as Blumeria graminis f. sp. bromi (Braun and Cook 2012; Troch et al. 2014). B. graminis mycelia and conidia were collected, and total genomic DNA was extracted (Zhu et al. 2019). The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified with primer pairs ITS1/ITS4. The amplicon was cloned and sequenced. The sequence (574 bp) was deposited into GenBank under Accession No. MT892940. BLASTn analysis revealed that MT892940 was 100% identical to B. graminis f. sp. bromi on Br. catharticus (AB000935, 550 of 550 nucleotides) (Takamatsu et al. 1998). Phylogenetic analysis of MT892940 and ITS of other B. graminis ff. spp. clearly indicated least two phylogenetically distinct clades of B. graminis f. sp. bromi and that MT892940 clustered with the Takamatsu vouchers. Leaf surfaces of five healthy plants were fixed at the base of a settling tower and then inoculated by blowing conidia from diseased leaves using pressurized air. Five non-inoculated plants served as controls. The inoculated and non-inoculated plants were maintained separately in two growth chambers (humidity, 60%; light/dark, 16 h/8 h; temperature, 18℃). Thirteen- to fifteen-days after inoculation, B. graminis signs and symptoms were visible on inoculated leaves, whereas control plants remained asymptomatic. The pathogenicity assays were repeated twice with the same results. The observed signs and symptoms were morphologically identical to those of the originally infected leaves. Accordingly, the causal organism of the powdery mildew was confirmed as B. graminis f. sp. bromi by morphological characteristics and ITS sequence data. B. graminis has been reported on Br. catharticus in the United States (Klingeman et al. 2018), Japan (Inuma et al. 2007) and Argentina (Delhey et al. 2003). To our best knowledge, this is the first report of B. graminis on Br. catharticus in China. Since hybridization of B. graminis ff. spp. is a mechanism of adaptation to new hosts, Br. catharticus may serve as a primary inoculum reservoir of B. graminis to infect other species (Menardo et al. 2016). This report provides fundamental information for the powdery mildew that can be used to develop control management of the disease in Br. catharticus herbage production.

15.
Plant Dis ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141643

RESUMO

Poa pratensis, known as bluegrass, is a perennial grass and one of the best varieties with highly valued pasture and turf grass uses. It is widely grown on golf courses and used for lawns in squares and parks (Luo et al. 2020). During April and May 2020, powdery mildew-like signs and symptoms were observed on leaves of P. pratensis in Muye Park, Xinxiang city (35.3°N; 113.9°E), Henan Province, China. White or grayish powdery masses in spots- or coalesced lesions were abundant on the adaxial surfaces of leaves and covered up to 90 % of the leaf area. Some of the mildew-infested leaves appeared chlorotic or began senescence. Mildew-infested leaves were collected to microscopically observe the morphological characteristics of this pathogen. Conidiophores were composed of foot cells, followed by one or two cells, and conidia. The ellipsoid- shaped conidia (n = 50) were 25 - 36 × 10 - 15 µm (length × width), on average 30 × 13 µm, with a length/width ratio of 2.3. Foot-cells (n = 15) were 30 - 44 µm long and 7 - 15 µm wide. On leaf surfaces, germinated conidia produced a short primary germ tube and then a long secondary germ tube that finally differentiated into a hooked appressorium. Chasmothecia were not found. Based on these morphological characteristics, the pathogen was initially identified as B. graminis f. sp. poae, the known forma specialis (f. sp.) of B. graminis on P. pratensis (Braun and Cook 2012; Troch et al. 2014). Mycelia of the pathogen were scraped from infected leaves and total genomic DNA was isolated using the method described previously (Zhu et al. 2019). The rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was amplified applying primer pairs ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990). The amplicon was cloned and sequenced by Invitrogen (Shanghai, China). The obtained sequence for the pathogen was deposited into GenBank under Accession No. MT892956 and was 100 % identical (549/549 bp) to B. graminis on P. pratensis (AB273530) (Inuma et al. 2007). In addition, the phylogenetic analysis clearly showed that the identified fungus and B. graminis f. sp. poae were clustered in the same branch. To perform pathogenicity analysis, leaf surfaces of eight healthy plants were inoculated by dusting fungal conidia from diseased leaves. Eight non-inoculated plants served as a control. The non-inoculated and inoculated plants were separately maintained in two growth chambers (humidity, 60 %; light/dark, 16 h/8 h; temperature, 18 ℃). Twelve to fourteen days after inoculation, B. graminis signs were visible on inoculated leaves, while control plants remained healthy. The pathogenicity assays were repeated twice and showed same results. Therefore, based on the morphological characteristics and molecular analysis, the pathogen was identified and confirmed as B. graminis f. sp. poae. This pathogen has been reported on P. pratensis in Switzerland and Japan (Inuma et al. 2007). This is, to our best knowledge, the first disease note reporting B. graminis on P. pratensis in China. Because the hybridization of B. graminis formae speciales (ff. spp.). allow the pathogens to adapt to new hosts, P. pratensis may serve as a primary inoculum reservoir of B. graminis to threaten other species, including cereal crops (Klingeman et al. 2018; Menardo et al. 2016). In addition, powdery mildew may negatively affect the yield and quality of grasses. Our report expands the knowledge of B. graminis f. sp. poae and provides the fundamental information for future powdery mildew control.

16.
Small ; 16(47): e2004756, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136317

RESUMO

Supramolecular assemblies with diverse morphologies are crucial in determining their biochemical or physical properties. However, the topological evolution and self-assembly intermediates as well as the mechanism remain elusive. Herein, a dynamic morphological evolution from solid nanospheres to superhelical nanofibers is revealed via self-assembly of a minimal l-tryptophan-based derivative (LPWM) with various mixed solvent combinations, including the formation of solid nanospheres, the fusion of nanospheres into pearling necklace, the disintegration of necklace into short nanofibers, the distortion of nanofibers into nanotwists, and the entanglement of nanotwists into superhelices. It is found that the breakage of intramolecular H-bonds and reconstruction of intermolecular H-bonds, as well as the variation of aromatic interactions and hydrophobic effects, are the key driving forces for topological transformation, especially the dimensional evolution. The nanospheres and nanofibers demonstrate discrepant behaviors towards mouse neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation that compared with negligible impact of nanospheres scaffold, the nanofibers scaffold is favorable for NSC differentiation into neurons. The remarkable dynamic regulation of assembly process, together with the NSC differentiation on twisted nanofibers are making this system an ideal model to interpret complex proteins fibrillation processes and investigate the structure-function relationship.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33058442

RESUMO

Regulating molecular structure to optimize the active layer morphology is of considerable significance for improving the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) in organic solar cells (OSCs). Herein, we demonstrated a simple ternary copolymerization approach to develop a terpolymer donor PM6-Tz20 by incorporating the 5,5'-dithienyl-2,2'-bithiazole (DTBTz, 20 mol%) unit into the backbone of PM6 (PM6-Tz00). This method can effectively tailor the molecular orientation and aggregation of the polymer, and then optimize the active layer morphology and the corresponding physical processes of devices, ultimately boosting FF and then PCE. Hence, the PM6-Tz20: Y6-based OSCs achieved a PCE of up to 17.1% with a significantly enhanced FF of 0.77. Using Ag (220 nm) instead of Al (100 nm) as cathode, the champion PCE was further improved to 17.6%. This work provides a simple and effective molecular design strategy to optimize the active layer morphology of OSCs for improving photovoltaic performance.

18.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; 407: 115251, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980394

RESUMO

Acute exposure to arsenic is known to cause bone marrow depression and result in anemia, in which the dusfunction of cells in the bone marrow niche such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is vital. However, the mechanism underlying response of MSCs to arsenic challange is not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (NRF) 1 (NRF1), a sister member of the well-known master regulator in antioxidative response NRF2, in arsenite-induced cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow-derived MSCs (mBM-MSCs). We found that arsenite exposure induced significant increase in the protein level of long-isoform NRF1 (L-NRF1). Though short-isoform NRF1 (S-NRF1) was induced by arsenite at mRNA level, its protein level was not obviously altered. Silencing L-Nrf1 sensitized the cells to arsenite-induced cytotoxicity. L-Nrf1-silenced mBM-MSCs showed decreased arsenic efflux with reduced expression of arsenic transporter ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 (ABCC4), as well as compromised NRF2-mediated antioxidative defense with elevated level of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) under arsenite-exposed conditions. A specific mtROS scavenger (Mito-quinone) alleviated cell apoptosis induced by arsenite in L-Nrf1-silenced mBM-MSCs. Taken together, these findings suggest that L-NRF1 protects mBM-MSCs from arsenite-induced cytotoxicity via suppressing mtROS in addition to facilitating cellular arsenic efflux.

19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4612, 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929082

RESUMO

Developing a high-performance donor polymer is critical for achieving efficient non-fullerene organic solar cells (OSCs). Currently, most high-efficiency OSCs are based on a donor polymer named PM6, unfortunately, whose performance is highly sensitive to its molecular weight and thus has significant batch-to-batch variations. Here we report a donor polymer (named PM1) based on a random ternary polymerization strategy that enables highly efficient non-fullerene OSCs with efficiencies reaching 17.6%. Importantly, the PM1 polymer exhibits excellent batch-to-batch reproducibility. By including 20% of a weak electron-withdrawing thiophene-thiazolothiazole (TTz) into the PM6 polymer backbone, the resulting polymer (PM1) can maintain the positive effects (such as downshifted energy level and reduced miscibility) while minimize the negative ones (including reduced temperature-dependent aggregation property). With higher performance and greater synthesis reproducibility, the PM1 polymer has the promise to become the work-horse material for the non-fullerene OSC community.

20.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 41(21): e2000170, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776395

RESUMO

Two wide-bandgap (WBG) conjugated polymers (PBPD-p and PBPD-m) based on phenyl-substituted benzodithiophene (BDT) with the different substitution position of the alkyl side chain and benzodithiophene-4,8-dione (BDD) units are designed and synthesized to investigate the influence of alkyl substitution position on the photovoltaic performance of polymers in polymer solar cells (PSCs). The thermogravimetric analysis, absorption spectroscopy, molecular energy level, X-ray diffraction, charge transport and photovoltaic performance of the polymers are systematically studied. Compared with PBPD-p, PBPD-m exhibits a slight blue-shift but a deeper highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level, a tighter alkyl chain packing and a higher hole mobility. The PBPD-m-based PSCs blended with acceptor IT-4F shows a higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.95% with a high open-circuit voltage (Voc ) of 0.88 V, a short-circuit current density (Jsc ) of 19.76 mA cm-2 and a fill factor (FF) of 68.7% when compared with the PCE of 6.97% with a Voc of 0.81 V, a Jsc of 15.97 mA cm-2 and an FF of 53.9% for PBPD-p. These results suggest that it is a feasible and effective strategy to optimize photovoltaic properties of WBG polymers by changing the substitution position of alkyl side chain in PSCs.

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