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1.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 740-749, 2019 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887381

RESUMO

Russula alutacea Fr. (RaF) is a tasty mushroom with high nutritional value and have been regarded as food by local people for a long time. However, few researches have focused on the polysaccharide in RaF. In this study, a purified polysaccharide (Rap-1) was isolated with an average molecular weight of 1029.7 kDa. In vitro, Rap-1 significantly suppressed cell morphological changes and inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells extracellularly and intracellularly. Besides, Rap-1 also down-regulated the expression of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contents. Rap-1 ameliorated the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction caused by LPS via MAPKs signaling pathways in macrophages. In vivo, Rap-1 decreased the ROS and O2- levels and recovered the heart in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae induced by LPS, These results together suggested that Rap-1 could be a potential functional resource to protect against inflammatory and oxidative damage.

2.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739013

RESUMO

Ethyl Carbamate (EC), as a carcinogen widely found in fermented foods, was verified that its cytotoxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Polysaccharides from natural sources due to their antioxidative capacity have attracted great attention in the past time. In this study, purified polysaccharide from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum vines (TVP) with 64.89 kDA was extracted and conducted multiple analysis to identify its structural information. It could be discovered that TVP was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. In vitro, TVP could inhibit cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, attenuate oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by EC in Caco-2 cells. Meanwhile, TVP could suppress apoptosis by mTOR and Bcl-2 signaling pathways, ameliorate oxidative via Sirt1-FoxO1 and Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathways. In vivo, EC as well triggered the decline of survival and athletic ability in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) and TVP could reverse the decline. In the meantime, TVP could ameliorate oxidative damage in N2 and daf-2 (-) mutant but fail in daf-16 (-) mutant, which suggested that DAF-16 (FOXO) might affect the antioxidative protection of TVP in C. elegans. In brief, our results manifested that TVP could attenuate EC-induced cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo.

3.
Food Sci Nutr ; 7(11): 3644-3653, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763013

RESUMO

Tetrastigma hemsleyanum is traditionally used as a folk medicine and functional food in China. Its extracts have been confirmed to have many bioactivities. However, the effect of extracting temperature on its bioactivity has not been reported. In this research, the total flavonoids content (TFC), total polyphenol content (TPC), antiproliferative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts and water extracts (extracted at 55, 70, 85, and 100°C) were observed. The results indicated that ethanol extracts showed better antioxidant activity with DPPH EC50 of 504.1 ± 3.8 µg/ml and ABTS EC50 of 851.4 ± 3.9 µg/ml. A better antiproliferative activity on HepG2, PC12, Caco-2, and Hela cells was observed on ethanol extracts. The results of anti-inflammatory activities also indicated that all of the extracts can reduce the NO production of LPS-stimulated macrophage with dose-independent manner. In summary, the results showed that the antiproliferative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of water extracts decreased with the increasing temperature to some extent.

4.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734373

RESUMO

Immunosuppression refers to the suppression of the immune response. The immune function of immunocompromised people is not enough to resist bacterial, viral, fungal and other infections, leading to a series of diseases. A large number of experimental data show that polysaccharide compounds are immune modulators, which can enhance the body immunity with little toxic. Meanwhile, it can reduce the side effects of commonly used immunosuppressants, such as cytotoxicity, decreased ability of the body to fight infection, and inhibition of the reproduction of bone marrow hematopoietic cells. It can be used as oral or injectable drugs. In this study, a purified polysaccharide was primarily extracted from the flowers of Apios americana Medik (AAM), which can improve the immunosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX). The immunoenhancement effect of AFP was evaluated by measuring the body weight, immune organ index, cytokine secretion and antibody generated levels of CTX-induced mice. Our results showed that AFP could significantly improve the above immune indexes, which indicated AFP could alleviate immunosuppression induced by CTX. The study provided a theoretical basis for the promotion, development and application of AAM as a newly introduced food material.

5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 141: 611-621, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31499109

RESUMO

Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg, a rare herbal plant native to China, possesses high medicinal value. More researches have focused on the flavones in the tubers of Tetrastigma hemsleyanum whereas polysaccharides attract few attentions. In this study, a purified polysaccharide (TTP-1) with the average molecular weights of 478.33 kDa was extracted from Tetrastigma hemsleyanum and conducted multiple analysis to identify its structural information. In vitro, TTP-1 could suppress the inflammation, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. Meanwhile, TTP-1 could attenuate inflammation via COX-2, iNOS, MAPKs pathways and ameliorate oxidative damage through Nrf2-Keap1, Sirt1-FoxO1 pathways in RAW264.7 cells. In vivo, the inflammation induced by LPS triggered the suppression of survival ratio and growing development, as well as the restrain of athletic ability in Caenorhabditis elegans. The treatment of TTP-1 reversed the situation induced by LPS. In a word, TTP-1 could ameliorate LPS-induced inflammation both in vitro and in vivo.

6.
Free Radic Res ; 53(5): 562-573, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039619

RESUMO

The main flavonoid components of Radix Tetrastigma (RTF) were extracted and identified by UPLC-TOF/MS. In vitro, RTF prevented inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing morphological (both cell and nucleus) changes, and decreasing nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) contents. Exposure to LPS also leads to oxidant damage, and RTF alleviated damage to mitochondria, decreased O2- accumulation, and restored the glutathione level. RTF intervention decreased the expression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 phosphorylation, accompanied by downregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1). In vivo, aging of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) by paraquat (PQ) was observed through lifespan, lipofuscin, and enzyme analysis. RTF protected against damage in N2 worms but not in daf-16 mutants. Gene expression was further assessed, and p38/PMK-1 and Nrf2/SKN-1 expression in worms was suppressed by PQ, which was reversed by RTF treatment. Together, these results suggested that RTF could help ameliorate inflammation-induced damage through JNK, p38 and Nrf2 pathways.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Vitaceae/química , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Caenorhabditis elegans/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box O1/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa/metabolismo , Inflamação , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases JNK Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/antagonistas & inibidores , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Longevidade/genética , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Paraquat/antagonistas & inibidores , Paraquat/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/antagonistas & inibidores , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 130: 892-902, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30840871

RESUMO

The tubers of Apios americana Medikus possess high nutritional value and have been used as food in many countries for a long time. However, few researches have focused on the tuber polysaccharides. In the present study, a purified polysaccharide (ATP-1) was isolated with the average molecular weights of 12.16 kDa. ATP-1 significantly suppressed the release of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines from LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells, as well as oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Meanwhile, ATP-1 reduced oxidative damage via the NF-κB, MAPKs and Nrf2-Keap1 signaling pathways in RAW264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, autophagy was activated by HMGB1-Beclin1, Sirt1-FoxO1 and Akt-mTOR signaling pathways, leading to a relief of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and an expression enhancement of autophagy-related proteins, such as LC3, Beclin1, Atg4, Atg5, and Atg7. In summary, our results suggested that ATP-1 might help to activate the anti-inflammation system,resulting in prevention of LPS-induced damage in RAW264.7 cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Biomarcadores , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/ultraestrutura , Camundongos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral
8.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 124: 231-238, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529124

RESUMO

Since flavonoids are antioxidant compounds, they could beneficially affect neurodegenerative diseases where reactive oxygen species are involved. In this study, we firstly isolated and identified fourteen compounds from the flowers of Apios americana Medik. Then, we tested whether Apios americana Medik flowers water extract (AFWE) exerts a protective effect on H2O2 induced PC12 cells injure. As expected, pretreatment with AFWE inhibited cytotoxicity and DNA condensation in H2O2induced PC12 cells. Exposure of PC12 cells to H2O2 resulted in reactive oxygen species accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction, while AFWE alleviated these damages. AFWE obviously reversed the alternations as H2O2 increased Caspase-3 and decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expressions. Furthermore, autophagy in PC12 cells was further activated by AFWE, which was beneficial to resisting adversity. These results manifest that AFWE prevents H2O2 induced damage via regulating autophagy.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fabaceae/química , Flores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/efeitos adversos , Doenças Mitocondriais/prevenção & controle , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células PC12 , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação para Cima
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 123: 1115-1124, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445092

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is a critical cause for the progression of neurodegenerative diseases, indicating that screening natural antioxidant and pharmacological targeting of mechanism need more attention. Natural plant polysaccharides are the primary group of natural antioxidants showing mighty antioxidant activity. Therefore, a polysaccharide (AFP-2) from flowers of Apios americana Medik was isolated, purified and characterized. Then, a H2O2-induced PC12 cells oxidative stress model was established to investigate the neuroprotective role of AFP-2 and to clarify the potential mechanism of action against H2O2-induced neurotoxicity. It was found that AFP-2 reduced ROS production and mitochondrial damage caused by hydrogen peroxide in PC12 cells. In addition, data from transmission electron microscope and western blot displayed that AFP-2 significantly activated autophagy in PC12 cells via Akt-mTOR pathway. These results together qualify AFP-2 as an interesting natural polysaccharide worth further investigation as a neuroprotective agent.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/química , Flores/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Monossacarídeos/análise , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células PC12 , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Temperatura Ambiente , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
10.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 1563024, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915502

RESUMO

Apios americana Medikus was once widely accepted as staple food in India for a long time, and the tuber of which possesses high nutrients. During the past decades, most of the research has focused on the biological activity in the tubers of Apios americana Medikus whereas the leaves were ignored. In this study, the Apios americana Medikus leaf extract (ALE) was obtained and seven compounds were identified. LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells were used to study the anti-inflammation activity of ALE. As expected, ALE reduced the secretion of nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokines via inhibition of NF-κB and MAPK signaling together with activation of Nrf2-Keap1 and FOXO pathways, as well as alleviating the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, ALE could activate HMGB1-Beclin1 and Sirt1-FoxO1 pathways and inhibit the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway to activate autophagy, protecting RAW264.7 cells from inflammation. In summary, our results suggested that ALE might help activate the anti-inflammation system, resulting in the prevention of LPS-induced damage in RAW264.7 cells.

11.
Se Pu ; 36(1): 12-16, 2018 Jan 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29582607

RESUMO

A simple method based on solid liquid extraction with low-temperature partition (SLE-LTP) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was developed for the determination of 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) in edible mushrooms. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile followed by low-temperature partition at -30℃ for 4 h. The separation was performed on a Hitachi LaChrom C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 µm) with 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate (containing 0.1% (v/v) glacial acetic acid)-methanol (6:4, v/v) as the mobile phases with isocratic elution. The compound was detected in positive electrospray ionization mode, and quantified by external standard method. The results showed that the limit of detection (LOD, S/N>3) for the analyte was 0.006 mg/kg, and the limit of quantification (LOQ, S/N>10) was 0.02 mg/kg. The calibration curve showed good linear in the range of 0.05-2.0 mg/L, and the correlation coefficient (r2) was 1.0000. The spiked recoveries were between 81.3% and 93.7% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=6) of 0.7%-2.4% at the spiked levels of 0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg. The developed method is simple, reliable and can be applied for the accurate determination of 6-BA residue in edible mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Compostos de Benzil/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos , Espectrometria de Massas , Purinas/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Ambiente
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