Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 213
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34644255

RESUMO

In this article, the distributed adaptive neural network (NN) consensus fault-tolerant control (FTC) problem is studied for nonstrict-feedback nonlinear multiagent systems (NMASs) subjected to intermittent actuator faults. The NNs are applied to approximate nonlinear functions, and a NN state-observer is developed to estimate the unmeasured states. Then, to compensate for the influence of intermittent actuator faults, a novel distributed output-feedback adaptive FTC is then designed by co-designing the last virtual controller, and the problem of ``algebraic-loop'' can be solved. The stability of the closed-loop system is proven by using the Lyapunov theory. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed FTC approach is validated by numerical and practical examples.

2.
Front Physiol ; 12: 743800, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630164

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the validity and reliability of a phone app [named: change of direction (COD) timer] and stopwatches for the measurement of COD performance. Methods: Sixty-two youth basketball players (age: 15.9±1.4yrs., height: 178.8±11.0cm, and body mass: 70.0±14.1kg) performed six trials of 505 COD test (with the left side being the plant leg first, then the right side). The completion time was measured simultaneously via timing gates (with error correction processing algorithms), the phone app, and stopwatches. Results: There was an almost perfect correlation and agreement between timing gates and COD timer (r=0.978; SEE=0.035s; and LoA=-0.08~0.06s), but a lower correlation and agreement between timing gates and stopwatch (r=0.954; SEE=0.050s; and LoA=-0.17~0.04s) with statistical significance in completion time (ES=1.29, 95%CI: 1.15-1.43, p<0.01). The coefficient of variation revealed similar level of dispersion between the three timing devices (timing gates: 6.58%; COD timer: 6.32%; and stopwatch: 6.71%). Inter-observer reliability (ICC=0.991) and test-retest reliability (ICC=0.998) were excellent in COD timer, while the inter-observer reliability was lower (ICC=0.890) in the stopwatches. Conclusion: In the 505 COD test, the COD timer was able to provide a valid and reliable measurement. On the contrary, stopwatch was not recommended because of large error. Thus, if timing gates are unavailable, practitioners can adopt the COD timer app to assess 505 COD speed times.

3.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(10): 1153-8, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628750

RESUMO

The discovery of modern evolutionary anatomy shows that the persistent median artery in the upper arm is a common variant with an increasing trend. This phenomenon can explain well the transition from the eleven meridians described in the Han silk and bamboo slips to the twelve meridians finalized in Neijing and the addition of the hand- jueyin meridian in Han dynasty. After systematic analysis and comparison, the author proposes the hypothesis that "yin meridians are arteries, and yang meridians are nerve-like structures" to explain the meridian theory prior to acupuncture and acupoints in the Qin and Han dynasties. It is clear that over two thousand years ago, Chinese physicians already described the distribution, physiology, and pathology of the six main arteries and six important nerves in the human extremities. The finding suggests that it was the addition of acupuncture and acupoints that had changed the direction of TCM development in Neijing or later and promoted the maturation of qi and blood, meridians, and zangfu theories.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Meridianos , Pontos de Acupuntura , Mãos , Humanos
4.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(9): 965-70, 2021 Sep 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491644

RESUMO

Both clinical practice and basic research of acupuncture have pointed out that acupuncture treatment has specific tissue and cellular targets. In addition to the known fixed tissue targets such as nerves and blood vessels, the author analyzes the biological characteristics of other skin resident cells in the skin and concludes that cutaneous mast cells are the most suitable candidate for the cellular target of acupuncture. A hypothesis of the bionic acupuncture is proposed to explain the biological principles by which the innate immunity and healing system respond to acupuncture. The distribution of mast cells in the human skin is characterized by "approaching to the terminals and gathering at the orifices", and the cell density is highly correlated with the density of acupoints and the micro-acupuncture systems. These evidences all support that mast cells are the mobile target cells for acupuncture, which can explain some clinical phenomena and principles of acupuncture, and suggest mast cells as one of the tissue markers for acupoints.


Assuntos
Terapia por Acupuntura , Acupuntura , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Mastócitos , Pele
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257013, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492064

RESUMO

The cardinal symptoms of some ophthalmic diseases observed through exceptional retinal blood vessels, such as retinal vein occlusion, diabetic retinopathy, etc. The advanced deep learning models used to obtain morphological and structural information of blood vessels automatically are conducive to the early treatment and initiative prevention of ophthalmic diseases. In our work, we propose a hierarchical dilation convolutional network (HDC-Net) to extract retinal vessels in a pixel-to-pixel manner. It utilizes the hierarchical dilation convolution (HDC) module to capture the fragile retinal blood vessels usually neglected by other methods. An improved residual dual efficient channel attention (RDECA) module can infer more delicate channel information to reinforce the discriminative capability of the model. The structured Dropblock can help our HDC-Net model to solve the network overfitting effectively. From a holistic perspective, the segmentation results obtained by HDC-Net are superior to other deep learning methods on three acknowledged datasets (DRIVE, CHASE-DB1, STARE), the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, f1-score and AUC score are {0.8252, 0.9829, 0.9692, 0.8239, 0.9871}, {0.8227, 0.9853, 0.9745, 0.8113, 0.9884}, and {0.8369, 0.9866, 0.9751, 0.8385, 0.9913}, respectively. It surpasses most other advanced retinal vessel segmentation models. Qualitative and quantitative analysis demonstrates that HDC-Net can fulfill the task of retinal vessel segmentation efficiently and accurately.

6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502731

RESUMO

As a sub-direction of image retrieval, person re-identification (Re-ID) is usually used to solve the security problem of cross camera tracking and monitoring. A growing number of shopping centers have recently attempted to apply Re-ID technology. One of the development trends of related algorithms is using an attention mechanism to capture global and local features. We notice that these algorithms have apparent limitations. They only focus on the most salient features without considering certain detailed features. People's clothes, bags and even shoes are of great help to distinguish pedestrians. We notice that global features usually cover these important local features. Therefore, we propose a dual branch network based on a multi-scale attention mechanism. This network can capture apparent global features and inconspicuous local features of pedestrian images. Specifically, we design a dual branch attention network (DBA-Net) for better performance. These two branches can optimize the extracted features of different depths at the same time. We also design an effective block (called channel, position and spatial-wise attention (CPSA)), which can capture key fine-grained information, such as bags and shoes. Furthermore, based on ID loss, we use complementary triplet loss and adaptive weighted rank list loss (WRLL) on each branch during the training process. DBA-Net can not only learn semantic context information of the channel, position, and spatial dimensions but can integrate detailed semantic information by learning the dependency relationships between features. Extensive experiments on three widely used open-source datasets proved that DBA-Net clearly yielded overall state-of-the-art performance. Particularly on the CUHK03 dataset, the mean average precision (mAP) of DBA-Net achieved 83.2%.


Assuntos
Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Pedestres , Algoritmos , Humanos , Pesquisa , Semântica
7.
Biol Sport ; 38(3): 437-443, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475624

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare: i) the physiological and perceptual responses of low-load exercise [(moderate intensity exercise (MI)] with different levels of blood flow restriction (BFR), and ii) MI with BFR on the bike with high intensity (HI) exercise without BFR. The protocol involved large muscle mass exercise at different levels of BFR, and this differentiates our study from others. Twenty-one moderately trained males (age: 24.6 ± 2.4 years; VO2peak: 47.2 ± 7.0 ml.kg-1.min-1, mean ± sd) performed one maximal graded exercise test and seven 5-min constant-load cycling bouts. Six bouts were at MI [40% peak power (Ppeak), 60%VO2peak], one without BFR and five with different levels of BFR (40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% of estimated arterial occlusion pressure). The HI bout (70%Ppeak, 90%VO2peak) was without BFR. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and tissue oxygen saturation (TSI) were recorded. Regardless of pressure, HR, BLa and RPE during MI-BFR were higher compared to MI (p < 0.05, ES: moderate to very large), and TSI reduction was greater in MI-BFR than MI (p < 0.05, ES: moderate to large). The responses of VO2, HR, BLa, RPE and TSI induced by the different levels of BFR in MI-BFR were similar. Regardless of pressure, the responses of VO2, HR, BLa and RPE induced by MI-BFR were lower than HI (p < 0.05), except for TSI. TSI change was similar between MI-BFR and HI. It appears that BFR equal to 40% of arterial occlusion pressure is sufficient to reduce TSI when exercising with a large muscle mass.

8.
Comput Med Imaging Graph ; 92: 101969, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411966

RESUMO

High-resolution magnetic resonance images can provide fine-grained anatomical information, but acquiring such data requires a long scanning time. In this paper, a framework called the Fused Attentive Generative Adversarial Networks(FA-GAN) is proposed to generate the super- resolution MR image from low-resolution magnetic resonance images, which can reduce the scanning time effectively but with high resolution MR images. In the framework of the FA-GAN, the local fusion feature block, consisting of different three-pass networks by using different convolution kernels, is proposed to extract image features at different scales. And the global feature fusion module, including the channel attention module, the self-attention module, and the fusion operation, is designed to enhance the important features of the MR image. Moreover, the spectral normalization process is introduced to make the discriminator network stable. 40 sets of 3D magnetic resonance images (each set of images contains 256 slices) are used to train the network, and 10 sets of images are used to test the proposed method. The experimental results show that the PSNR and SSIM values of the super-resolution magnetic resonance image generated by the proposed FA-GAN method are higher than the state-of-the-art reconstruction methods.

9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372409

RESUMO

Considerable research and surveys indicate that skin lesions are an early symptom of skin cancer. Segmentation of skin lesions is still a hot research topic. Dermatological datasets in skin lesion segmentation tasks generated a large number of parameters when data augmented, limiting the application of smart assisted medicine in real life. Hence, this paper proposes an effective feedback attention network (FAC-Net). The network is equipped with the feedback fusion block (FFB) and the attention mechanism block (AMB), through the combination of these two modules, we can obtain richer and more specific feature mapping without data enhancement. Numerous experimental tests were given by us on public datasets (ISIC2018, ISBI2017, ISBI2016), and a good deal of metrics like the Jaccard index (JA) and Dice coefficient (DC) were used to evaluate the results of segmentation. On the ISIC2018 dataset, we obtained results for DC equal to 91.19% and JA equal to 83.99%, compared with the based network. The results of these two main metrics were improved by more than 1%. In addition, the metrics were also improved in the other two datasets. It can be demonstrated through experiments that without any enhancements of the datasets, our lightweight model can achieve better segmentation performance than most deep learning architectures.


Assuntos
Dermatopatias , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Retroalimentação , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Redes Neurais de Computação , Manejo de Espécimes
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432637

RESUMO

This article investigates the problem of adaptive neural network (NN) optimal consensus tracking control for nonlinear multiagent systems (MASs) with stochastic disturbances and actuator bias faults. In control design, NN is adopted to approximate the unknown nonlinear dynamic, and a state identifier is constructed. The fault estimator is designed to solve the problem raised by time-varying actuator bias fault. By utilizing adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) in identifier-critic-actor construction, an adaptive NN optimal consensus fault-tolerant control algorithm is presented. It is proven that all signals of the controlled system are uniformly ultimately bounded (UUB) in probability, and all states of the follower agents can remain consensus with the leader's state. Finally, simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed optimal consensus control scheme and theorem.

11.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 38(4): 655-662, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459164

RESUMO

Speech feature learning is the core and key of speech recognition method for mental illness. Deep feature learning can automatically extract speech features, but it is limited by the problem of small samples. Traditional feature extraction (original features) can avoid the impact of small samples, but it relies heavily on experience and is poorly adaptive. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a deep embedded hybrid feature sparse stack autoencoder manifold ensemble algorithm. Firstly, based on the prior knowledge, the psychotic speech features are extracted, and the original features are constructed. Secondly, the original features are embedded in the sparse stack autoencoder (deep network), and the output of the hidden layer is filtered to enhance the complementarity between the deep features and the original features. Third, the L1 regularization feature selection mechanism is designed to compress the dimensions of the mixed feature set composed of deep features and original features. Finally, a weighted local preserving projection algorithm and an ensemble learning mechanism are designed, and a manifold projection classifier ensemble model is constructed, which further improves the classification stability of feature fusion under small samples. In addition, this paper designs a medium-to-large-scale psychotic speech collection program for the first time, collects and constructs a large-scale Chinese psychotic speech database for the verification of psychotic speech recognition algorithms. The experimental results show that the main innovation of the algorithm is effective, and the classification accuracy is better than other representative algorithms, and the maximum improvement is 3.3%. In conclusion, this paper proposes a new method of psychotic speech recognition based on embedded mixed sparse stack autoencoder and manifold ensemble, which effectively improves the recognition rate of psychotic speech.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Percepção da Fala , Algoritmos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Fala
12.
Spine J ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common condition that can affects an individual' quality of life. In patients for whom conservative treatment is ineffective after 3 months, surgical treatment, such as percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD), is recommended. Because PELD is minimally invasive and produces thorough nerve root decompression, both surgeons and patients often prefer it to other techniques. PURPOSE: Surgeons find it challenging to prevent postoperative recurrent LDH (rLDH) when they use PELD. We created and verified a model for evaluating patients' recurrence risk factors before surgery so that surgeons can choose other surgical techniques when necessary. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PATIENT SAMPLE: One thousand eight hundred seven patients who underwent PELD at our hospital between 2012 and 2015 were enrolled. OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was rLDH at any follow-up time point. METHODS: Data were retrospectively analyzed for 1807 patients who underwent PELD at our hospital at some point between 2012 and 2015; all patients had been monitored for at least 5 years after surgery. They were divided into a recurrence group and a nonrecurrence group. Clinical and radiological risk factors were assessed over time to determine their correlations with recurrence and to exclude less important factors. A nonlinear multivariate logistic regression model was established to predict the recurrence rate before surgery. RESULTS: A total of 1706 patients were monitored after PELD; data were missing for 101 additional patients. The total recurrence rate was 10.38%, and the most common time from surgery to recurrence was 1 year. Ten risk factors were assessed and included in the analysis. Regarding clinical risk factors, patients with hypertension (p < .001; correlation coefficient R [R] = 0.235; odds ratio [OR] = 4.749), diabetes (p < .001; R = 0.381; OR = 16.797), a history of smoking (p < .001; R = 0.347; OR = 9.012), and a history of performing intense physical labor (p < .001; R = 0.409; OR = 19.592) had a higher recurrence rate. Regarding radiological risk factors, patients with disc degeneration (Pfirrmann grade III) (p < .001; R = 0.228; OR = 4.919), Modic changes (level 2) (p < .001; R = 0.309; OR = 7.934), herniation in the form of extrusion (p < .001; R = 0.365; OR = 12.228), a higher disc height index (DHI) (p < .001; R = 0.336), and a larger segmental range of motion (p < .001; R = 0.243) had a higher recurrence rate. When the lumbar motion angle was negative (p < .001; R = 0.318; OR = 13.680), the recurrence rate was high. The overall accuracy of the final model was 97.6% (1665 of 1706). The recognition rate for non-rLDH cases was 99.0% (1514 of 1529), and the rate for rLDH cases was 85.3% (151 of 177); the AUC was 0.9315. A simple model was used. For those patients with postoperative trauma (p < .001; R = 0.382; OR = 13.680), a comparison model was established, and the corresponding recurrence rate was 23.0% ± 25.0% (0-76%). CONCLUSIONS: A large cohort of patients underwent long-term monitoring, and 11 risk factors were verified for assessing each patient's risks before surgery to predict the postoperative recurrence of LDH following PELD. The risk of recurrence may be effectively reduced with the use of alternative surgical techniques in high risk cases.

13.
Front Physiol ; 12: 640199, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34248654

RESUMO

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the energy contributions and workloads in men and women during badminton matches versus frequently used multi-ball smash practices. Methods: Fourteen badminton players performed one badminton singles game and one session of smashing practice on separate days. The energy contributions were examined in terms of each individual's three energy systems and substrate oxidation, while workloads included heart rate (HR), Player Load (PL), accelerations, decelerations, changes of direction, and jumps. Results: (1) During games, male players exhibited higher adenosine triphosphate-phosphocreatine system contribution (EPCr, kJ) (p = 0.008) and average rate of carbohydrate oxidation (RCHO, g/min) (p = 0.044) than female players, while female players showed greater absolute PL (p = 0.029) and more accelerations (p = 0.005) than male players. Furthermore, players who lost performed higher relative PL (p = 0.017) than those who won. (2) Higher energy system contributions, including EPCr (kJ) (p = 0.028), EHLa (kJ) (p = 0.024), EAer (kJ) (p = 0.012), ETot (kJ) (p = 0.007), and RCHO (g/min) (p = 0.0002), were seen in male players during repetitive spike practices. Male players also made greater number of jumps (p = 0.0002). (3) Players exhibited higher aerobic energy contribution (p < 0.001), mean HR (p = 0.002), and HRmax (p = 0.029) during games, while exhibiting greater anaerobic energy contribution (p < 0.001) and relative PL (p = 0.001) during repetitive practices. Conclusion: The similarities between male and female badminton players in proportional use of the three energy systems during games and repetitive spike training indicate similar relative energy demands for both genders. However, considering the need for higher aerobic capacity in competition, it might be advisable to design appropriate work:rest ratios for repetitive practices in daily training.

14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 701913, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262882

RESUMO

Increasing attention has been directed to Talaromyces marneffei (T. marneffei) infection in HIV-negative patients due to its high mortality rate. However, nonspecific symptoms and biological characteristics similar to those of other common pathogenic fungi complicate the rapid and accurate diagnosis of T. marneffei infection. Sphingolipids (SPLs) are bioactive lipids involved in the regulation of various physiological and pathological processes and have been identified as serum biomarkers for several diseases. This study employed a sphingolipidomic approach established in our previous work to explore the use of serum SPLs in the diagnosis of HIV-negative patients with T. marneffei infection. Additional clinical cohorts of patients infected with other microorganisms were also recruited. We found that sphinganine (Sa) (d16:0) exhibited obvious depletion after infection; moreover, its level in patients with T. marneffei infection was significantly lower than that in patients infected with other microorganisms. Therefore, Sa (d16:0) was considered a specific diagnostic biomarker for T. marneffei infection, and 302.71 nM was selected as the optimal cutoff value with a diagnostic sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 100%. These results suggested that determination of serum Sa (d16:0) levels can be used as a new alternative tool for the rapid diagnosis of T. marneffei infection in HIV-negative patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Talaromyces , Adulto , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Micoses , Esfingolipídeos
15.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 125: 104213, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324900

RESUMO

Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are a group of evolutionarily conserved selenium-independent thiol-specific antioxidant proteins. In this study, the peroxiredoxin-4 (CiPrx4) gene from grass carp was identified and characterized. The full-length of CiPrx4 is 1339 bp, encoding 260 amino acids that contain two peroxiredoxin signature motifs and two GVL motifs. CiPrx4 belongs to the typical 2-Cys subfamily and shows the highest homology with Prx4 from Cyprinus carpio (95.4%). CiPrx4 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tested tissues and was upregulated by grass carp reovirus and pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) stimulation. CiPrx4 was localized in the cytoplasm and co-localized with the endoplasmic reticulum. The purified CiPrx4 protein protected DNA from degradation in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the overexpression of CiPrx4 in Escherichia coli and fish cells showed apparent antioxidant and antiviral activities. Collectively, the results of the present study provide new insights for further understanding the functions of Prx4 in teleost fish.

16.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 124: 104202, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34246624

RESUMO

Scavenger receptor class B type 2 (SR-B2) is a pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immunity in mammals; however, the immunological function of SR-Bs in fish remains unclear. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequences of SR-B2a and SR-B2b from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) were cloned and designated as CiSR-B2a and CiSR-B2b. Multiple alignments and phylogenetic analyses deduced that CiSR-B2a and CiSR-B2b had the highest evolutionary conservation and were closely related to the zebrafish (Danio rerio) homologs, DrSR-B2a and DrSR-B2b, respectively. Both CiSR-B2a and CiSR-B2b were expressed in all the tested tissues, with the highest expression levels found in the hepatopancreas. In Ctenopharyngodon idellus kidney cells (CIK), CiSR-B2a and CiSR-B2b were mainly located in the cytoplasm, and a small amount located on the plasma membrane. After challenge with Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV), the expression of CiSR-B2a and CiSR-B2b were significantly upregulated in the spleen (about 10.27 and 27.19 times higher than that at 0 day, p < 0.01). With CiSR-B2a or CiSR-B2b overexpressed in CIK, the relative copy number of GCRV in the cells was both significantly increased compared to that in the control group, indicating that CiSR-B2a and CiSR-B2b may be important proteins during the infection processes of GCRV.

17.
Burns Trauma ; 9: tkab014, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34258302

RESUMO

The accurate and objective evaluation of burn depth is a significant challenge in burn wound care. Herein, we used near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technology to measure the different depth of thermal burns in ex vivo porcine models. Based on the intensity of the spectral signals and the diffuse reflection theory, we extracted the optical parameters involved in functional (total hemoglobin and water content) and structural (tissue scattered size and scattered particles) features that reflect the changes in burn depth. Next, we applied support vector regression to construct a model including the optical property parameters and the burn depth. Finally, we histologically verified the burn depth data collected via NIRS. The results showed that our inversion model could achieve an average relative error of about 7.63%, while the NIRS technology diagnostic accuracy was in the range of 50 µm. For the first time, this novel technique provides physicians with real-time burn depth information objectively and accurately.

18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 694965, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34220856

RESUMO

Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) is an important aquaculture species in China that is affected by serious diseases, especially hemorrhagic disease caused by grass carp reovirus (GCRV). Grass carp have previously shown age-dependent susceptibility to GCRV, however, the mechanism by which this occurs remains poorly understood. Therefore, we performed transcriptome and metabolome sequencing on five-month-old (FMO) and three-year-old (TYO) grass carp to identify the potential mechanism. Viral challenge experiments showed that FMO fish were susceptible, whereas TYO fish were resistant to GCRV. RNA-seq showed that the genes involved in immune response, antigen presentation, and phagocytosis were significantly upregulated in TYO fish before the GCRV infection and at the early stage of infection. Metabolome sequencing showed that most metabolites were upregulated in TYO fish and downregulated in FMO fish after virus infection. Intragroup analysis showed that arachidonic acid metabolism was the most significantly upregulated pathway in TYO fish, whereas choline metabolism in cancer and glycerophospholispid metabolism were significantly downregulated in FMO fish after virus infection. Intergroup comparison revealed that metabolites from carbohydrate, amino acid, glycerophospholipid, and nucleotide metabolism were upregulated in TYO fish when compared with FMO fish. Moreover, the significantly differentially expressed metabolites showed antiviral effects both in vivo and in vitro. Based on these results, we concluded that the immune system and host biosynthesis and metabolism, can explain the age-dependent viral susceptibility in grass carp.

19.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 669193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093280

RESUMO

Objectives: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with changes in the gut and oral microbiota. Based on the intimate relationship between the oral microbiota and oral mucosal immunity, this study aimed to investigate changes in salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) level in ASD and the underlying mechanism for any such changes. Methods: We recruited 36 children diagnosed with ASD and 35 normally developing children and measured their salivary IgA content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The valproate (VPA) -treated ASD mouse model was established by prenatal exposure to valproate and mouse salivary IgA content was also quantified by ELISA. The submandibular glands of VPA and control mice were isolated and analyzed using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence staining, and flow cytometry. ASD-related Streptococci were co-incubated with the human salivary gland (HSG) cell line, and western blotting was used to detect the levels of relevant proteins. Results: We found that salivary IgA content was significantly decreased in patients with ASD and had a significant ASD diagnostic value. The salivary IgA content also decreased in VPA mice and was significantly correlated with autistic-like behaviors among them. The mRNA and protein levels of the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (Pigr) were downregulated in the submandibular glands of VPA mice and the Pigr mRNA level was positively correlated with mouse salivary IgA content. HSG cells treated with ASD-related Streptococci had reduced PIGR protein level. Conclusion: Therefore, protective IgA levels were reduced in the saliva of individuals with ASD, which correlated with the bacteria-induced downregulation of Pigr in salivary glands. This study suggests a new direction for ASD diagnosis and prevention of oral diseases in ASD cohorts and provides evidence for the ASD mucosal immunophenotype in the oral cavity.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161246

RESUMO

In this work, an adaptive neural network (NN) optimized output-feedback control problem is studied for a class of stochastic nonlinear systems with unknown nonlinear dynamics, input saturation, and state constraints. A nonlinear state observer is designed to estimate the unmeasured states, and the NNs are used to approximate the unknown nonlinear functions. Under the framework of the backstepping technique, the virtual and actual optimal controllers are developed by employing the actor-critic architecture. Meanwhile, the tan-type Barrier optimal performance index functions are developed to prevent the nonlinear systems from the state constraints, and all the states are confined within the preselected compact sets all the time. It is worth mentioning that the proposed optimized control is clearly simple since the reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm is derived based on the negative gradient of a simple positive function. Furthermore, the proposed optimal control strategy ensures that all the signals in the closed-loop system are bounded. Finally, a practical simulation example is carried out to further illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...