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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 864956, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422798

RESUMO

Autoimmune uveitis is a major cause of vision loss and glucocorticoids are major traditional medications, which may induce serious complications. Rapamycin has been demonstrated to exhibit immunosuppressive effects and is promising to be used in treating uveitis by intravitreal injection. However, repeated and frequent intravitreal injections increase the risk of severe ocular complications, while the efficacy of subconjunctival injection of rapamycin is low since it is difficult for rapamycin to penetrate eyeball. Recently, small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) have attracted considerable research interest as natural drug delivery systems that can efficiently cross tissues and biological membranes. SEVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-sEVs) also can exert immunosuppressive effect and ameliorate experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). The aim of this study was to construct a Rapamycin-loaded MSC-sEVs delivery system (Rapa-sEVs) and investigate its therapeutic effect on EAU by subconjunctival injection. Rapa-sEVs were prepared by sonication and characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and western blotting. Clinical and histological scores were obtained to assess the treatment efficacy. Additionally, T cell infiltration was evaluated by flow cytometry. The results indicated that Rapa-sEVs could reach the retinal foci after subconjunctival injection. Compared to sEVs and rapamycin alone, Rapa-sEVs can produce a more marked therapeutic effect and reduce ocular inflammatory cell infiltration. Overall, MSC-sEVs have significant potential for the delivery of rapamycin to treat EAU. Subconjunctival injection of Rapa-sEVs may be contender for efficacious steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Uveíte , Vesículas Extracelulares/patologia , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Uveíte/tratamento farmacológico
2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(16): 18513-18524, 2022 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35437011

RESUMO

A method for creating genuine nanopores in high area density on monolayer two-dimensional (2D) metallic oxides has been developed. By use of the strong reduction capability of hydroiodic acid, active metal ions, such as FeIII and CoIII, in 2D oxide nanosheets can be reduced to a divalent charge state (2+). The selective removal of FeO2 and CoO2 metal oxide units from the framework can be tuned to produce pores in a range of 1-4 nm. By monitoring of the redox reaction kinetics, the pore area density can be also tuned from ∼0.9 × 104 to ∼3.3 × 105 µm-2. The universality of this method to produce much smaller pores and higher area density than the previously reported ones has been proven in different oxide nanosheets. To demonstrate their potential applications, ultrasmall metal organic framework particles were grown inside the pores of perforated titania oxide nanosheets. The optimized hybrid film showed ∼100% rejection of methylene blue (MB) from the water. Its water permeance reached 4260 L m-2 h-1 bar-1, which is 1-3 orders of that for reported 2D membranes with good MB rejections.

3.
J Hazard Mater ; 435: 129006, 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35489314

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic heavy metals that cause severe soil pollution and pose health risks to humans. It is urgent to develop feasible strategies for Pb and Cd remediation. In this study, a bacteria consortium (Enterobacter asburiae G3, Enterobacter tabaci I12 and Klebsiella variicola J2 in a 1:3:3 proportion) with optimal Cd, Pb adsorption ability was constructed and immobilized on biochar (BC)/activated carbon (AC) via physisorption and sodium alginate encapsulation. The effects of mixed bacteria-loaded BC/AC on Cd and Pb remediation were investigated. The results indicated that their application reduced the DTPA-extractable Cd, Pb in soil by 22.05%-55.84% and 31.64%-48.13%, respectively. The residual Pb, Cd were increased while the exchangeable fractions were decreased. Soil urease, catalase and phosphatase activities were enhanced and soil bacterial community was improved, indicating a soil quality improvement. Consequently, the biomass of pakchoi plants was significantly increased. Cd and Pb in the shoots of pakchoi plants were decreased by 28.68%-51.01% and 24.18%-52.87%, respectively. Collectively, the bacteria-loaded BC/AC showed superior performance than free bacteria, BC and AC alone. Our study may provide a better understanding of the development of green and sustainable materials for remediation of heavy metal by the combination of BC/AC and functional bacteria.

4.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2200740, 2022 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35396797

RESUMO

Phosphorus- and phosphide-based materials with remarkable physicochemical properties and low costs have attracted significant attention as the anodes of alkali metal (e.g., Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca)-ion batteries (AIBs). However, the low electrical conductivity and large volume expansion of these materials during electrochemical reactions inhibit their practical applications. To solve these problems, various promising solutions have been explored and utilized. In this review, the recent progress in AIBs using phosphorus- and phosphide-based materials is summarized. Thereafter, the in-depth working principles of diverse AIBs are discussed and predicted. Representative works with design concepts, construction approaches, engineering strategies, special functions, and electrochemical results are listed and discussed in detail. Finally, the existing challenges and issues are concluded and analyzed, and future perspectives and research directions are given. This review can provide new guidance for the future design and practical applications of phosphorus- and phosphide-based materials used in AIBs.

5.
Integr Zool ; 2022 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35267235

RESUMO

The associations between feeding activities and environmental variables inform animal feeding tactics that maximize energetic gains by minimizing energy costs while maximizing feeding success. Relevant studies in aquatic animals, particularly marine mammals, are scarce due to difficulties in the observation of feeding behaviors in aquatic environments. This data scarcity concurrently hinders ecosystem-based fishery management in the context of small toothed-cetacean conservation. In the present study, a passive acoustic monitoring station was deployed in an East Asian finless porpoise habitat in Laizhou Bay to investigate potential relationships between East Asian finless porpoises and their prey. The data revealed that porpoises were acoustically present nearly every day during the survey period. Porpoise detection rates differed between spring and autumn in concert with activities of fish choruses. During spring, fish choruses were present throughout the afternoon, and this was the time when porpoise vocalizations were the most frequently detected. During autumn, when fish choruses were absent, porpoise detection rates decreased, and diurnal patterns were not detected. The close association between fish choruses and finless porpoise activities implies an "eavesdropping" feeding strategy to maximize energetic gains, similar to other toothed cetaceans that are known to engage similar feeding strategies. Underwater noise pollution, particularly those masking fish choruses, could interrupt finless porpoises' feeding success. Fisheries competing soniferous fishes with finless porpoise could impact finless porpoise viability through ecosystem disruption, in addition to fishing gear entanglement.

6.
Vet Microbiol ; 267: 109391, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259601

RESUMO

Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 14 (PTPN14) is a member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family which is a potential tumor suppressor. PTPs modulate the cellular level of tyrosine phosphorylation under normal and pathological conditions. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is one of the most important pathogens in the swine industry. Our previous membrane proteomics results showed that PTPN14 was markedly upregulated in PEDV-infected Vero cells. However, its biological roles in PEDV infection have not yet been investigated. In this study, we reported PTPN14 functions as a novel regulator of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation during PEDV infection. Firstly, PTPN14 was markedly upregulated in PEDV-infected Vero cells with the decrease of STAT3 phosphorylation. Knockdown of PTPN14 or phosphatase inhibitor treatment promoted PEDV proliferation and increased the phosphorylation of STAT3 in Vero cells. On the contrary, overexpression of PTPN14 inhibits viral infection in Vero cells. Moreover, dephosphorylation of STAT3 by PTPN14 might occur in the cytoplasm but not in nucleus. Collectively, our results indicate that PTPN14 plays a negative role in regulating STAT3 activation in PEDV infected Vero cells and demonstrate another layer of regulation in PEDV infection.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína , Animais , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Diarreia Epidêmica Suína/fisiologia , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Suínos , Tirosina/metabolismo , Células Vero
7.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 13(1): 100, 2022 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autoimmune uveitis is a sight-threatening intraocular inflammation mainly caused by immune dysregulation. The development of safe and effective therapeutic approaches is urgently needed. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been demonstrated to inhibit autoimmune responses; however, the immunosuppressive effect of MSC-sEVs is too weak for clinical transfer. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic effect of IL-10-overexpressing MSC-sEVs (sEV-IL10) on experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) and studied the underlying mechanism. METHODS: Mice were randomly grouped and received a single tail vein injection of different sEVs (50 µg) or PBS on day 11 post-immunization. The clinical and histological scores were graded, and the percentage of T helper cell was measured. To investigate the effect of sEVs on the proliferation of T-cells and the differentiation of Th1, Th17 and Treg cells, T-cells were cocultured with sEVs under the corresponding culture conditions. After labeled with PKH-26, sEVs were traced both in vivo and in vitro. RESULTS: Compared with normal or vector sEV-treated groups, mice in the sEV-IL10-treated group had lower clinical and histological scores with lower percentages of Th1 and Th17 cells in the eyes and higher percentages of Treg cells in the spleen and draining lymph nodes (LN). Furthermore, sEV-IL10 enhanced the suppressive effect of MSC-sEVs on the proliferation of T-cells and differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells, whereas upregulated the differentiation of Treg cells. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that MSC-sEVs were rapidly enriched in target tissues and internalized by T-cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that sEV-IL10 effectively ameliorates EAU by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of T-cells, indicating sEVs as a potential novel therapy for autoimmune uveitis or other autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes , Vesículas Extracelulares , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Uveíte , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Interleucina-10/genética , Camundongos , Células Th17 , Uveíte/prevenção & controle
8.
J Hazard Mater ; 431: 128624, 2022 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35278953

RESUMO

Atmospherically deposited cadmium (Cd) may accumulate in plants through foliar uptake; however, the foliar uptake, accumulation, and distribution processes of Cd are still under discussion. Atmospherically deposited Cd was simulated using cadmium sulfide (CdS) with various particle sizes and solubility. Water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk, WS) and pak choi (Brassica chinensis L., PC) leaves were treated with suspensions of CdS nanoparticles (CdSN), which entered the leaves via the stomata. Cd concentrations of WS and PC leaves treated with 125 mg L-1 CdSN reached up to 39.8 and 11.0 mg kg-1, respectively, which are higher than the critical leaf concentration for toxicity. Slight changes were observed in fresh biomass, photosynthetic parameters, lipid peroxidation, and mineral nutrient uptake. Exposure concentration, rather than particle size or solubility, regulated the foliar uptake and accumulation of Cd. Subcellular and the high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) results revealed that Cd was majorly stored in the soluble fraction and cell walls, which is an important Cd detoxification mechanism in leaves. The potential health risks associated with consuming CdS-containing vegetables were highlighted. These findings facilitate a better understanding of the fate of atmospheric Cd in plants, which is critical in ensuring food security.


Assuntos
Brassica , Ipomoea , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
9.
J Inflamm Res ; 15: 939-951, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination can effectively prevent the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the incidence of vaccination failure is about 5~10% and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. T cells have an essential role in the recipient's immune response to vaccine, which could be elucidated by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics analysis. METHODS: We conducted HTS of the T cell receptor ß chain (TRB) complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) repertoires in eighteen positive responders (responders) and 10 negative responders (non-responders) who all had HepB vaccination, the repertoire features of BV, BJ and V-J genes and their diversity, respectively, were compared between the positive and negative responders using the Mann-Whitney test. Moreover, the relatively conserved motifs in CDR3 were revealed and compared to those in the other group's report. RESULTS: The diversity of TRB CDR3 and the frequencies of BV27 and BV7-9 are significantly increased for HepB vaccine responders compared to those in non-responders. The motifs of CDR3s in BV27/J1-1, BV27/J2-5, and BV7-9/J2-5, respectively, were most expressed as "NTE", "QETQ", and "GG-Q (E)-ETQ". Moreover, the motif "KLNSPL" was determined in nearly 80% CDR3s in BV27/J1-6 from HepB vaccine responders for the first time. CONCLUSION: Our results present the comprehensive profiles of TRB CDR3 in the HepB vaccine responders and non-responders after standard vaccination protocol and determine the relatively conservative motifs of CDR3s that may respond to the HepB vaccine. Further results suggest that the profile of TRB repertoire could distinguish the HepB vaccine responders from non-responders and provide a new target for optimizing and improving the efficiency of the HepB vaccine.

10.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(6): 3524-3534, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35226472

RESUMO

The transport of nanoplastics (NPs) through porous media is influenced by dissolved organic matter (DOM) released from agricultural organic inputs. Here, cotransport of NPs with three types of DOM (biocharDOM (BCDOM), wheat strawDOM (WSDOM), and swine manureDOM (SMDOM)) was investigated in saturated goethite (GT)-coated sand columns. The results showed that codeposition of 50 nm NPs (50NPs) with DOM occurred due to the formation of a GT-DOM-50NPs complex, while DOM loaded on GT-coated sand and 400 nm NPs (400NPs) aided 400NPs transport due to electrostatic repulsion. According to the quantum chemical calculation, humic acid and cellulose played a significant role in 50NPs retardation. Owing to its high concentration, moderate humification index (HIX), and cellulose content, SMDOM exhibited the highest retardation of 50NPs transport and promoting effect on 400NPs transport. Owing to a high HIX, the effect of BCDOM on the mobility of 400NPs was higher than that of WSDOM. However, high cellulose content in WSDOM caused it to exhibit a 50NPs retardation ability that was similar to that of BCDOM. Our results highlight the particle size selectivity and significant influence of DOM type on the transport of NPs and elucidate their quantum and colloidal chemical-interface mechanisms in a typical agricultural environment.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , 2,5-Dimetoxi-4-Metilanfetamina , Animais , Celulose , Substâncias Húmicas/análise , Compostos de Ferro , Minerais , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Areia , Suínos
11.
J Healthc Eng ; 2022: 5430175, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35035844

RESUMO

As a common clinical chronic disease, the incidence of diabetes is increasing year by year. According to the latest statistics from the International Diabetes Federation, as of 2019, the global prevalence of diabetes has reached 8.3%. This study aims to investigate the effect of CXCL-13 on the migration ability of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and to clarify the specific molecular mechanism of the protective effect of hMSCs on islet B cells. The hMSCs were cultured in high-glucose environment, and the effect of CXCL-13 on the migration ability of hMSCs was determined by Transwell experiment. After coculture of hMSCs and islet B cells, the activity of cells was detected by CCK8 assay, the expression of Ki-67 in cells was detected by RT-PCR, and the expression of P53 was detected by Western blot to investigate the effect of hMSCs on the proliferation and apoptosis of islet B cells. The effect of hMSCs on the function of islet B cells was determined by glucose stimulated insulin secretion experiment. Transwell experiment results showed that CXCL-13 could promote the migration of hMSCs to islet B cells in high-glucose environment. The results of CCK-8 showed that the cell activity in the coculture group was significantly higher than that of the other groups, and RT-PCR showed that the expression of Ki-67 was significantly increased in the coculture group of hMSCs and islet B cells. The results of Western blot showed that the expression of P53 was significantly decreased in the coculture group, and the glucose stimulated insulin secretion test showed that insulin secretion was significantly increased. It was found that after the inhibition of ATK, cell activity was significantly reduced, and apoptosis was significantly increased. Meanwhile, the expression of Ki-67 was inhibited, the expression of P-53 was significantly increased, and insulin secretion was significantly reduced. To sum up, in a high-glucose environment, CXCL-13 effectively promoted the migration of hMSCs, and hMSCs protected the activity and function of islet B cells through Akt signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Quimiocina CXCL13/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Quimiotaxia , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Humanos , Insulina , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
12.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-8, 2022 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35075951

RESUMO

Two new cycloartane triterpenoid glycosides, soulieoside V (1) and 15-deacetylbeesioside O (2), together with one known compound, beesioside J (3), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of Actaea vaginata. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods and by comparison with data reported in the literature. All the compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell lines.

13.
Small ; 18(12): e2106868, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35088573

RESUMO

In terms of the large-scale hydrogen production by water electrolysis, achieving the bifunctional electrocatalyst with high efficiency and stability at high current densities is of great significance but still remains a grand challenge. To address this issue, herein, one unique hybrid electrode is synthesized with the local photothermal effect (LPTE) by supporting the novel ternary nickel (Ni)bismuth (Bi)sulfur (S) nanosheet arrays onto nickel foam (Ni3 Bi2 S2 @NF) via a one-pot hydrothermal reaction. The combined experimental and theoretical observations reveal that owing to the intrinsic LPTE action of Bi, robust phase stability of Ni3 Bi2 S2 as well as the synergistic effect with hierarchical configuration, upon injecting the light, the as-prepared Ni3 Bi2 S2 exhibits remarkably improved efficiency of 44% and 35% for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively. Such enhanced values are also comparable to those performed in working media heated to 80 °C. In addition, the overall water splitting system by using Ni3 Bi2 S2 @NF as bifunctional electrodes only delivers an ultralow voltage of 1.40 V at 10 mA cm-2 under LPTE, and can be stable more than 36 h at 500-1000 mA cm-2 . More broadly, even worked at 0-5 °C, alkaline simulated seawater and high salt seawater, the electrodes still show apparent LPTE effect for improving catalytic efficiency.

14.
Poult Sci ; 101(3): 101695, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35077922

RESUMO

Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the primary causative agent of hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) causing great economic losses to the world poultry industry. The exact factors responsible for the pathogenesis of hypervirulent FAdV-4 have not been completely elucidated. Hypervirulent FAdV-4 infection induces inflammatory damages in accompany with a high level of proinflammatory interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß) secretion in a variety of organs. Investigation of the mechanisms underlying hypervirulent FAdV-4-induced IL-1ß secretion would contribute to understanding of the pathogenesis of FAdV-4. Here, we investigated whether FAdV-4 infection activates NLRP3 inflammasome in chicken macrophage cell line HD11. The results showed that stimulation of HD11 with hypervirulent FAdV-4 induced NLRP3- and Caspase-1-dependent secretion of IL-1ß. Genetic knockdown of NLRP3 or Caspase-1 expression, a critical component of inflammasome, significantly downregulated IL-1ß expression, indicating that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome contributed to the FAdV-4-induced IL-1ß secretion. Moreover, ATP signaling and potassium efflux were involved in the process of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our data indicated that hypervirulent FAdV-4 infection induces the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and followed by massive secretion of IL-1ß of macrophages, which thereby contribute to the inflamed lesion of tissues.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Animais , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Interleucina-1beta , Macrófagos/metabolismo
15.
Allergy ; 2022 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35034364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a predominantly type 2-mediated inflammatory disease with high symptom burden and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This report aimed to comprehensively understand the effects of dupilumab on domains of HRQoL, their individual elements, and health status in patients with severe CRSwNP from phase 3 SINUS-24 (NCT02912468) and SINUS-52 (NCT02898454) trials. METHODS: Patients were randomized to dupilumab (n = 438) or placebo (n = 286) for 24 weeks (SINUS-24), or 52 weeks (SINUS-52). Disease-specific HRQoL using 22-item sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT-22), and health status using EuroQoL-visual analog scale (EQ-VAS) was evaluated in the pooled intention-to-treat (ITT) population (Week 24), SINUS-52 ITT (Week 52) and in the subgroups with/without asthma; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-exacerbated respiratory disease (NSAID-ERD); and prior sinus surgery. RESULTS: At baseline, patients had poor disease-specific HRQoL and general health status and identified "Decreased sense of smell/taste" and "Nasal blockage" as the most important symptoms. Dupilumab significantly improved SNOT-22 total, domain (Nasal, Sleep, Function, Emotion, and Ear/facial), and 22-item scores, and EQ-VAS, at Week 24 vs placebo (all p < .0001), with continued improvements to Week 52 in SINUS-52. Improvements occurred irrespective of comorbid asthma, NSAID-ERD, or prior surgery. A significantly greater proportion of dupilumab-treated patients exceeded clinically meaningful thresholds for SNOT-22 total score and EQ-VAS vs placebo (all subgroups p < .05 except patients without surgery at Week 24). CONCLUSIONS: Dupilumab treatment led to significant clinically meaningful improvements across all aspects of disease-specific HRQoL, and general health status in patients with severe CRSwNP.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 820: 153259, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35065113

RESUMO

In this study, the nano-scale spatial distribution of natural organic matter (NOM) on the surface of iron (hydr)oxides and its relevance to oxyanion (PO43-) and metal cation (Cd2+ and Cu2+) adsorption to the assemblage of oxide (goethite) and NOM (humic acids (HA) or fulvic acids (FA)) was investigated with experiments and advanced surface complexation modeling. Both the linear additive Multi-Surface model (MSM) and the more sophisticated Natural Organic Matter-Charge Distribution (NOM-CD) model were used. The MSM model ignores the effects of NOM-mineral interaction on ion adsorption, whereas the NOM-CD model considers this effect. The results showed that with the increase of NOM loading on oxides, deviation between the MSM and NOM-CD model became bigger for PO43-, but smaller for Cd2+ and Cu2+. Oxyanions bind mainly to oxides and therefore the competitive effect of NOM cannot be neglected, which explains the large difference between these two models for PO43-. On the contrary, at a relatively high NOM loading, a large fraction of NOM extends further away from the surface of oxides. Thus for metal cations that bind mainly to NOM, the influence of NOM-mineral interaction on their adsorption is small and the results of the MSM and NOM-CD model are similar. In top soils, the NOM loading on oxides is often high, therefore the linear additive MSM is applicable for metal cation speciation calculations as reported in many literatures. An approach based on the NOM-CD model was proposed, which can not only calculate the macroscopic solid-solution distribution of both cations and anions, but can also provide information regarding their microscopic surface speciation.


Assuntos
Substâncias Húmicas , Minerais , Adsorção , Cátions , Óxidos
17.
Food Chem ; 373(Pt B): 131488, 2022 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34768107

RESUMO

The rapid development of greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) in densely populated areas may cause the heavy metal/metalloid accumulation in soil and pose a threat to human health. In this study, 180 pairs of topsoil and pak choi (Brassica chinensis L.) samples were collected from GVP fields in Xi'an city in Northwest China to analyze health risks of Cd, Cr, Pb, and As in soil and pak choi combining in vitro bioaccessibility investigation. The results showed that Cd and Cr were common pollutants in both soil and pak choi. In the soil-pak choi system, the indexes of non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk for adults and children were 1.53, 2.68, and 1.37 × 10-4, 8.14 × 10-5, respectively, thereby indicating the presence of heavy metal/metalloid health risks for both groups. Based on the results, procedures to mitigate heavy metal/metalloid contamination risks should be discussed more during the development of GVP in the largest city in Northwest China.


Assuntos
Brassica , Metaloides , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Adulto , Criança , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras
18.
Laryngoscope ; 132(2): 265-271, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850966

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Clinical trials of biologics to treat chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) have evaluated objective outcomes (e.g., University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test [UPSIT], nasal polyps score [NPS], and computed tomography Lund-Mackay score [CT-LMK]) and patient-reported symptoms (e.g., nasal congestion/obstruction [NC], loss of smell [LoS], and total symptom score [TSS]). We estimated anchor-based thresholds for clinically meaningful change in objective and patient-reported outcomes in patients with CRSwNP using data from LIBERTY NP SINUS-24 and SINUS-52 trials (NCT02912468; NCT02898454). METHODS: Target patient-reported outcomes were NC, LoS, and TSS; target objective outcomes were UPSIT, NPS, and CT-LMK. Anchor measures were the 22-item sinonasal outcome test (SNOT-22) rhinologic symptoms domain and total score and rhinosinusitis visual analog scale (VAS). The appropriateness of each anchor measure was evaluated by reviewing correlations between change in anchor measures and target outcomes and descriptive scores on target outcomes by levels of change in the anchor measure. Established thresholds for anchor measures (3.8 points for SNOT-22 rhinologic symptoms, 8.9 points for SNOT-22 total, 1-category improvement for rhinosinusitis VAS) were used to estimate clinically meaningful score changes for each target outcome. RESULTS: Based on correlations between change in anchor measures and target outcomes, SNOT-22 rhinologic symptoms domain was deemed the most appropriate anchor measure. Using this anchor measure, thresholds for clinically meaningful within-patient change were NC: 1 point; LoS: 1 point; TSS: 3 points; UPSIT: 8 points; NPS: 1 point; and CT-LMK: 5 points. CONCLUSION: These thresholds support interpretation of efficacy results for target outcomes in CRSwNP trials. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Laryngoscope, 132:265-271, 2022.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Pólipos Nasais/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Pólipos Nasais/complicações , Rinite/complicações , Sinusite/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Int J Drug Policy ; 100: 103528, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808533

RESUMO

One important public concern about the impact of recreational marijuana legalization is how legalization may affect police performance in solving serious crimes. Based on Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) data from 2007 to 2017, this study used difference-in-differences (DID) analysis and the synthetic control method (SCM) to examine the effect of recreational marijuana legalization on the clearance rates for multiple types of violent crimes in Oregon (OR), a state that legalized recreational marijuana in late 2014. Results offer some evidence suggesting a beneficial impact of legalization on violent crime clearances, as manifested by significant increases in the clearance rate for overall violent crimes and that for aggravated assault in OR counties relative to those in the non-legalized states following legalization. Results also demonstrate that the positive effect of legalization on violent crime clearance rates appears to reduce over time.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Crime , Humanos , Legislação de Medicamentos , Oregon , Polícia
20.
Allergy ; 77(1): 186-196, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The human monoclonal antibody dupilumab blocks interleukin (IL)-4 andIL-13, key and central drivers of type 2 inflammation. Dupilumab, on background mometasone furoate nasal spray (MFNS), improved outcomes in the phase III SINUS-52 study (NCT02898454) in patients with severe chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). This posthoc analysis of SINUS-52 examined whether eosinophilic status of CRSwNP was a predictor of dupilumab efficacy. METHODS: Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to dupilumab 300 mg every 2 weeks (q2w) until week 52; dupilumab 300 mg q2w until Week 24, then 300 mg every 4 weeks until week 52; or placebo (MFNS) until week 52. Coprimary endpoints were change from baseline in nasal polyps score (NPS), nasal congestion (NC), and Lund-Mackay score assessed by CT (LMK-CT) at week 24. Patients (n = 438) were stratified by eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) status according to the Japanese Epidemiological Survey of Refractory Eosinophilic Rhinosinusitis algorithm. RESULTS: Dupilumab significantly improved NPS, NC, and LMK-CT scores versus placebo at week 24 in all ECRS subgroups (p < 0.001), with improvements maintained or increased at week 52 (p < 0.001). There was no significant interaction between ECRS subgroup (non-/mild or moderate/severe) and dupilumab treatment effect for all endpoints at weeks 24 and 52 (p > 0.05), except LMK-CT at week 24 (p = 0.0275). Similar results were seen for the secondary endpoints. Dupilumab was well tolerated across all ECRS subgroups. CONCLUSION: Dupilumab produced consistent improvement in symptoms of severe CRSwNP irrespective of ECRS status. Therefore, blood eosinophil level may not be a suitable biomarker for dupilumab efficacy in CRSwNP.


Assuntos
Pólipos Nasais , Rinite , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Pólipos Nasais/complicações , Pólipos Nasais/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Rinite/complicações , Rinite/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
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