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1.
Biosci Rep ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843989

RESUMO

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) promotes cell homing and angiogenesis, but its effects on activating human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and promoting angiogenesis are unclear. We used bioinformatics to predict these processes. In vitro, BMSCs were stimulated in a high-glucose (HG) environment with 50 µg/mL or 100 µg/mL IL-8 were used as the IL-8 group. 5µmol/L Triciribine was added to the two IL-8 groups as the Akt inhibitor group. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in BMSCs conditioned medium (CM). Observe the changes in proliferation, apoptosis, migration ability and levels of VEGF and IL-6 in HUVEC each group. 70 processes and 26 pathways were involved in vascular development, through which IL-8 affected BMSCs. Compared with the high-glucose control group, HUVEC proliferation A value, Gap closure rate, and Transwell cell migration rate in the IL-8 50 and IL-8 100 CM groups were significantly increased (P<0.01, n=30). However, HUVEC apoptosis was significantly decreased (P<0.01, n=30). Akt and phospho-Akt protein contents in lysates of BMSCs treated with IL-8, as well as VEGF and IL-6 protein contents in the supernatant of BMSCs treated with IL-8, were all highly expressed (P<0.01, n=15). These analyses confirmed that IL-8 promoted the expression of 41 core proteins in BMSCs through the PI3K Akt pathway, which could promote the proliferation and migration of vascular endothelial cells. Therefore, in a high-glucose environment, IL-8 activated the Akt signaling pathway, promoted paracrine mechanisms of BMSCs, and improved the proliferation and migration of HUVECs.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(15): e25365, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the feasibility of combined application of indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with early breast cancer. METHODS: A total of 415 patients who underwent SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection were enrolled. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) was assessed in 197 patients with ICG and MB combination method, while, the other 218 patients were detected by MB method alone. During surgery, all SLNs were harvested for pathological examination. Then the detection rate and false negative rate of SLNs were comparatively analyzed between the 2 groups. RESULTS: In the combined ICG and MB group, the detection rate of SLNs was 96.9%, significantly higher than that of MB group, which was 89.7% (P < .05). Similarly, in combined group, the average number of SLNs per patient was 3.0, much higher than that of MB group, which was 2.1 (P < .05). There was no statistically significant difference in false negative rate between combined group and MB alone group, which was 7.3% and 10.5%, respectively (P = .791). CONCLUSION: The combined application of ICG and MB for SLNB is much more effective than MB alone in detecting SLNs.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 781: 146679, 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798888

RESUMO

The impacts of two ecological earthworms on the removal of chlortetracycline (CTC, 0.5 and 15 mg kg-1) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil were explored through the soil column experiments. The findings showed that earthworm could significantly accelerate the degradation of CTC and its metabolites (ECTC) in soil (P < 0.05), with epigeic Eisenia fetida promoting degradation rapidly and endogeic Metaphire guillelmi exhibiting a slightly better elimination effect. Earthworms alleviated the abundances of tetR, tetD, tetPB, tetG, tetA, sul1, TnpA, ttgB and intI1 in soil, with the total relative abundances of ARGs decreasing by 35.0-44.2% in earthworm treatments at the 28th day of cultivation. High throughput sequencing results displayed that the structure of soil bacteria community was modified apparently with earthworm added, and some possible CTC degraders, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium and Luteolibacter, were promoted by two kinds of earthworms. Redundancy analysis demonstrated that the reduction of CTC residues, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes owing to earthworm stimulation was responsible for the removal of ARGs and intI1 in soil. Additionally, intI1 declined obviously in earthworm treatments, which could weaken the risk of horizontal transmission of ARGs. Therefore, earthworm could restore the CTC-contaminated soil via enhancing the removal of CTC, its metabolites and ARGs.

5.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(11): 6613-6622, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705501

RESUMO

Recently, transition metal borides (MBenes, analogous to MXenes) have attracted interest due to their potential applications in energy conversion and storage. In this work, we performed density functional theory calculations to systematically explore the exfoliation properties of 14 MAlB phases and their water splitting and N2 reduction reaction (NRR) performances. Results showed a linear relationship between the binding energy and exfoliation energy with the coefficient (R2) of 0.95, indicating that the lower the binding energy of element Al in MAlB (M2AlB2), the higher the exfoliation energy required to synthesize monolayer MB from MAlB (M2AlB2). NiB (B site) was predicted to possess the best electrocatalytic activity for water splitting, hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) among the studied MBenes, and overpotentials on the NiB surface were calculated to be 0.08 V (for HER) and 0.37 V (for OER), respectively. The electronic properties and dynamic simulations indicated that NiB is the best candidate catalyst for water splitting. Conversely, the Fe site on FeB (FeB-Fe) was predicated to have the highest nitrogen reduction reaction (NRR) activity among the studied MBenes, with the overpotential ηNRR of 0.11 V. Furthermore, the B site of TaB (TaB-B) was identified as the best NRR catalyst against HER among the studied MBenes considering the HER side reaction.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 778: 146281, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721639

RESUMO

The widespread presence of phthalate esters (PAEs) in a variety of agricultural inputs has led to PAE contamination in soils and farm products. The endocrine disruption and carcinogenicity of PAEs have attracted much attention. Our research investigated the characteristics of PAE pollution in the soils of vegetable fields and adjacent stable crop fields in four provinces/municipalities across a major agricultural production area in China. We found that the concentrations of PAEs in vegetable soils were not significantly higher than those in stable crop soils. The noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) to humans were calculated to represent the risk posed by PAEs. The results showed that diet was the main route for noncarcinogenic risks from PAEs in crop soil and vegetable soils. Because of the combined effect of the population dietary structure and the concentration of PAEs in soils, the noncarcinogenic risks from PAEs in crop soils were similar to or higher than those in vegetable soils. The same pattern was also applicable to the carcinogenic risk from DEHP. Low noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks posed by DEHP and DBP indicated that the current level of PAEs in soils did not decrease the safety of agricultural products in the Huang-Huai-Hai region. Stable crop soil, as a non-negligibly phthalate-polluted area, is worthy of as much attention as vegetable soil. This study provides scientific support for food safety risk assessment and control of PAE pollution in the main agricultural production areas in China.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652570

RESUMO

Source identification of heavy metals in agricultural soils using small sample sizes, simple experimental procedures, and convenient analysis is urgently required. This study employed a simple source identification model using a visual comparison via radar plots, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and a multiple linear regression model to determine the source of heavy metal pollution in soil samples from the Chang-Zhu-Tan urban agglomeration area of China. The elemental compositions of major pollution sources (atmospheric deposition, organic fertilizer, irrigation water, and tailings) were compared with soil samples from 11 study locations and the model was used to determine the relative contribution of different pollution sources at each sample site. The results showed that the model successfully calculated the contribution of different pollution sources at each site based on the pollution characteristics and contaminant transport rules of the region. The proposed method overcomes the requirement for extensive data and complex experimental procedures. Furthermore, the model can determine the source of heavy metal contamination in single or small plots, which is important for the prevention and control of heavy metal soil pollution and remediation at the plot scale.

8.
Carbohydr Polym ; 259: 117710, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673989

RESUMO

Harmful algal blooms induce severe environmental problems. It is challenging to remove algae by the current available treatments involving complicate process and costly instruments. Here, we developed a CaO2@PEG-loaded water-soluble self-branched chitosan (CP-SBC) system, which can remove algae from water in one-step without additional instrumentation. This approach utilizes a novel flocculant (self-branched chitosan) integrated with flotation function (induced by CaO2@PEG). CP-SBC exhibited better flocculation performance than commercial flocculants, which is attributed to the enhanced bridging and sweeping effect of branched chitosan. CP-SBC demonstrated outstanding biocompatibility, which was verified by zebrafish test and algae activity test. CaO2@PEG-loaded self-branched chitosan can serve as an "Air flotation system" to spontaneous float the flocs after flocculation by sustainably released O2. Furthermore, CP-SBC can improve water quality through minimizing dissolved oxygen depletion and reducing total phosphorus concentrations.

9.
Bioorg Chem ; 109: 104717, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647744

RESUMO

Efforts toward finding potent CDK4 inhibitor for cancer therapy, a series of fluorine substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine derivatives were designed, synthesized, and evaluated. Among them, the optimal lead compound 18i was discovered with potent activity against CDK4 at the nanomolar level (IC50 = 2.5 nM) and exquisite selectivity which demonstrated only modest activity against 3 out of the 394 protein kinases. 18i exhibited a much greater in vitro antiproliferative activity against several human cancer cell lines than that of the approved drug ribociclib. Further mechanism studies revealed that 18i effectively stimulated cancer cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and induced tumor cell apoptosis. In the comparison of in vivo therapeutic effects in xenograft mouse models of breast cancer, oral administration of 18i showed a significantly better degree of inhibitory effect to ribociclib without obvious toxicity. All of the results indicated that 18i could be a promising CDK4 inhibitor for treating malignancies.

10.
J Environ Manage ; 284: 112045, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567357

RESUMO

The study investigates a bioremediation process of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal and odour mitigation combined with energy harvesting. Sediment microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) were constructed with the addition of nitrate in the sediment to simultaneously remove acid-volatile sulphide (AVS) and PAHs. With the combined nitrate-SMFC treatment, over 90% of the AVS was removed from the sediment in 6 weeks of the SMFC operation and a maximum of 94% of AVS removal efficiency was reached at Week 10. The highest removal efficiencies of phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene was 93%, 80%, and 69%, respectively. The maximum voltage attained for the combined nitrate-SMFC treatment was 341 mV. Illumina HiSeq sequencing revealed that the autotrophic denitrifiers Thiobacillus are the dominant genus. In electricity generation, both sulphide-oxidation and PAH-oxidation are the possible pathways. Besides, the addition of nitrate stimulated the growth of Pseudomonas which is responsible for the electricity generation and direct biodegradation of the PAHs, indicating a synergistic effect. The developed bioremediation process demonstrated the potential in the in-situ bioremediation process utilizing SMFC combined with nitrate-induced bioremediation.


Assuntos
Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Biodegradação Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Nitratos , Odorantes
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145355, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578146

RESUMO

Zeolite has a high adsorption capacity for heavy metals, but it is difficult to separate from the medium because of its small particle size. In this study, magnetic zeolite was synthesized from natural, low-grade molybdenum ore by adding nano ferroferric oxide (saturation magnetization 83.43 emu/g) directly in the hydrothermal synthesis process, which was used to adsorb cadmium from wastewater. The results of scanning electron microscopy showed that the nano ferroferric oxide was adhered to the surface of the zeolite to make it magnetic. The vibrating sample magnetometer showed that the larger the amount of nano ferroferric oxide added, the higher the saturation magnetization of the magnetic zeolite. The saturation magnetization of the magnetic zeolite with a loading proportion of 25% was 18.18 emu/g with a specific surface area of 459.8 m2/g. The adsorption experiments showed that when the pH value is greater than 4, the adsorption capacity of magnetic zeolite is high and stable, and the theoretical maximum adsorption capacity is 204.2 mg Cd/g. Na+ and Ca2+ have different inhibitory functions on the adsorption capacity. The mapping graphs showed that cadmium is captured by the magnetic zeolite after contact with cadmium, and XRD confirmed the presence of cadmium oxide in the magnetic zeolite after adsorption, XPS and EDS results indicated that ion exchange is one of the main mechanisms of cadmium adsorption by magnetic zeolites, and electrostatic adsorption may also have a contribution.

12.
J Hazard Mater ; 412: 125212, 2021 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524732

RESUMO

This study explored the change of tetracycline degradation efficiency, metabolic pathway, soil physiochemical properties and degraders in vermiremediation by two earthworm species of epigeic Eisenia fetida and endogeic Amynthas robustus. We found a significant acceleration of tetracycline degradation in both earthworm treatments, and 4-epitetracycline dehydration pathway was remarkably enhanced only by vermiremediation. Tetracycline degraders from soils, earthworm intestines and casts were different. Ralstonia and Sphingomonas were potential tetracycline degraders in soils and metabolized tetracycline through direct dehydration pathway. Degraders in earthworm casts (Comamonas, Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas) and intestines (Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter) dehydrated 4-epitetracycline into 4-epianhydrotetracycline. More bacterial lineages resisting tetracycline were found in earthworm treatments, indicating the adaptation of soil and intestinal flora under tetracycline pressure. Earthworm amendment primarily enhanced tetracycline degradation by neutralizing soil pH and consuming organic matters, stimulating both direct dehydration and epimerization-dehydration pathways. Our findings proved that vermicomposting with earthworms is effective to alter soil microenvironment and accelerate tetracycline degradation, behaving as a potential approach in soil remediation at tetracycline contaminated sites.

13.
Infect Genet Evol ; 90: 104766, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581328

RESUMO

In September 2019, a highly prevalent infectious disease caused severe hydropericardium hepatitis syndrome (HHS) in a peacock farm in Central China. The disease showed high mortality of 78.6% in 28-42 day-old peacocks. In this study, one strain of highly pathogenic fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) was isolated from peacocks and designated as HN19. Molecular characterization of amino acid revealed that HN19 contains the same deletions as the dominate strains in chickens in China recently. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that HN19 showed higher homology with other FAdV-4 strains isolated from China, indicating that HN19 might originate from previously FAdV-4 predecessor in China. Experimental infection of the HN19 strain via intramuscular injection led to 100% mortality rate in 21-day-old specific pathogenic-free (SPF) chickens. To our knowledge, this represents the first report on the prevalence of FAdV-4 in peacocks. These results suggested that the potential risk of cross-species transmission of FAdV-4 from chickens to peacocks, highlighting the need for implementing strict biosecurity measures to avoid the mixing of different bird species.

14.
J Med Chem ; 64(3): 1733-1761, 2021 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497575

RESUMO

Pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays roles in detoxification and other physiological processes. PXR activation may enhance drug metabolism (leading to adverse drug reactions) or inhibit inflammation. Therefore, PXR agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists may serve as research tools and drug candidates. However, a specific PXR modulator with an associated structure-activity relationship is lacking. Based on the scaffold of specific human PXR (hPXR) antagonist SPA70 (10), we developed 81 SPA70 analogs and evaluated their receptor-binding and cellular activities. Interestingly, analogs with subtle structural differences displayed divergent cellular activities, including agonistic, dual inverse agonistic and antagonistic, antagonistic, and partial agonistic/partial antagonistic activities (as in compounds 111, 10, 97, and 42, respectively). We generated a pharmacophore model that represents 81 SPA70 analogs, and docking models that correlate strong interactions between the compounds and residues in the AF-2 helix with agonistic activity. These compounds are novel chemical tools for studying hPXR.


Assuntos
Receptor de Pregnano X/agonistas , Receptor de Pregnano X/antagonistas & inibidores , Antineoplásicos/síntese química , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Fármacos , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
J Hazard Mater ; 408: 124880, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388628

RESUMO

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are capable of removing tetracycline in soils, in which the degradation efficiency of tetracycline is hindered by its strong adsorption capacity. Phosphate was chosen as a competitor for tetracycline adsorption to improve its removal rate in soil MFCs. The results showed that 42-50% of tetracycline was degraded within 7 days, which was 42-67% higher than open-circuit treatments. Compared with closed-circuit treatments without phosphate addition, the removal efficiencies of tetracycline after phosphate addition increased by 19-25% on day 51, and accumulated charge outputs were enhanced by 31-52%, while the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes decreased by 19-27%. Like Geobacter, the abundance of Desulfurispora and Anaeroomyxobacter in the anode showed similar tendencies with current densities, suggesting their dominant roles in bioelectricity generation. Gemmatimonadetes bacterium SCN 70-22, Azohydromonas australica, Steroidobacter denitrificans and Gemmatirosa kalamazoonesis were found to be potential electrotrophic microbes in the cathode. The expressed flavoprotein 2,3-oxidoreductase, quinol oxidase and fumarate reductase might have promoted the transfer efficiency of electrons from cathodes to cells, which finally accelerated the biodegradation rate of tetracycline in addition to the polyphenol oxidase. This study provides an insight into functional enzyme genes in the soil microbial electrochemical remediation.

16.
Chemosphere ; 273: 129644, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485131

RESUMO

The application of crops straw and biochar in trace metals remediation from the contaminated environment attracted more and more attention during the past decade. Although there has been some review work on the mechanism of trace metals stabilization by crops straw, the effects and mechanisms of interaction among soil indigenous-microbes and crops-straw for trace metal adsorption and stabilization is still unclear. In this study, the dynamic effects along with potential mechanisms of wheat-straw (WS), wheat-straw biochar (WBC) and biologically modified wheat-straw (BMWS) were conducted to investigate the adsorption, leaching behaviour, chemical fractions and bioavailability of cadmium (Cd). The results showed that the biosorption capacity (qe) was most elevated in the BMWS treatment (14.42 mg g-1) as compared to WBC (6.28 mg g-1) and WS (4.20 mg g-1). The application of BMWS, WBC and WS at the rate of 3% significantly reduced Cd concentration in leachate to 53, 45 and 21% respectively, as compared to control. The addition of BMWS reduced the exchangeable Cd fraction resulted an increase in organic matter and carbonate bound Cd fraction in the soil. The DTPA extractable Cd was significantly decreased by 31.2 and 28.6% with the application of BMWS and WBC at 3% w/w respectively as compared to control. The research results may provide a novel perceptive for the development of functional materials and strategies for eco-friendly and sustainable trace metal remediation in contaminated soil and water by combination of straw and soil-indigenous microorganisms.

17.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448426

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to comparatively analyze the therapeutic efficacy upon multiple medication plans over Lopinavir/Ritonavir (LPV/r), Arbidol (ARB) and Methylprednisolone on patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Totally 75 COVID-19 patients admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine from January 22, 2020 to February 29, 2020 were recruited and grouped based on whether or not LPV/r and ARB were jointly used and whether or not Methylprednisolone was used. Indexes including body temperature, time for nucleic acid negative conversion, hospital stays and laboratory indexes were examined and compared. RESULTS: For all patients, there were no significant differences in the change of body temperature, the time for negative conversion and hospital stays whether LPV/r and ARB were jointly used or not. While for severe and critically severe patients, Methylprednisolone noticeably reduced the time for negative conversion. Meanwhile, the clinical efficacy was superior on patients receiving Methylprednisolone within 3 days upon admission, and the duration of hospital stays was much shorter when Methylprednisolone was given at a total dose of 0-400 mg than a higher dose of >400 mg if all patients received a similar dose per day. Nonetheless, no significant changes across hepatic, renal and myocardial function indexes were observed. CONCLUSION: LPV/r combined with ARB produced no noticeably better effect on COVID-19 patients relative to the single agent treatment. Additionally, Methylprednisolone was efficient in severe and critically severe cases, and superior efficacy could be realized upon its early, appropriate and short-term application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Arch Oral Biol ; 123: 105034, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472098

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the proliferation, mineralization, inflammation and hypoxia responses of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) in vitro and its effect on inflammatory pulp tissue in rats in vivo. DESIGN: The optimum concentration of EGCG was selected by creating a dose response curve. Expression of odontogenic/osteogenic-related genes and inflammatory cytokines after stimulation with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was detected by real-time PCR. Under hypoxic conditions, cell proliferation and expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected.In vivo, the maxillary first molars of SD rats were pulpotomized and stimulated with 5 mg/mL LPS for 30 min. Normal saline and EGCG were used to flush the pulp chamber. After 2 months, samples were removed for micro-CT scanning and HE staining. RESULTS: CCK-8 assay revealed that 10 µg/mL EGCG had no significant effect on the proliferation of hDPSCs. EGCG inhibited expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. Furthermore, EGCG rescued cell proliferation ability, increased SOD activity and reduced ROS expression under hypoxia.In vivo, reduced inflammatory cell accumulation was observed in the coronal pulp in the EGCG group, while in the control group, diffuse inflammatory cells were observed in the radicular pulp. CONCLUSION: EGCG had no obvious effects on calcified nodule formation but significantly inhibited the inflammatory response of hDPSCs and inhibited apoptosis of hDPSCs caused by hypoxia injury. In vivo, EGCG exerts inhibitory effects on pulp tissue inflammation.


Assuntos
Catequina/análogos & derivados , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Células-Tronco/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Apoptose , Catequina/farmacologia , Hipóxia Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Inflamação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 403: 123614, 2021 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829227

RESUMO

Soot nanoparticles (SNPs) are airborne contaminants that could potentially penetrate skin, but their aggregation after contact with sweat may lower their health risks. This study investigated SNP aggregation kinetics in 4 artificial sweat standards and 21 human sweat samples. Effects of sweat inorganic (NaCl, Na2HPO4, and NaH2PO4) and organic (L-histidine, lactic acid, and urea) constituents, pH, temperature, and concentrations were examined. Results showed that SNP aggregation rates in 4 standards followed American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) > British Standard (EN) > International Standard Organization (ISO) pH 5.5 > ISO pH 8.0, and could be described by the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The aggregation rates increased with concentrations of SNPs, inorganic salts, L-histidine, and lactic acid, decreased with increasing pH and concentration of urea, and were weakly influenced by temperature. Systematic characterizations revealed SNP adsorption for organic sweat constituents. SNPs aggregated rapidly to ∼1000 nm in AATCC, but remained stable in ISO pH 8.0 and > 14/21 human sweat fluids over 20 min. The SNP aggregation rates correlated negatively with pH (r = -0.531*) and |ζ potential| (r = -0.464*) of human sweat samples. Sweat evaporation could promote aggregation of SNPs, hence lowering their potential harm via dermal exposure.

20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 254: 117281, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357857

RESUMO

Practical application of powder photocatalysts is far from satisfying due to their low photon utilization, inconvenient recovery and potential environmental risk. In this study, an easily recoverable, environmentally friendly and highly transparent floatable magnetic photocatalyst carrier was prepared based on biopolymer alginate and Fe3O4 particles. Further, three different types of photocatalysts were chosen as model semiconductor photocatalysts and loaded on the shell of the carriers. The freeze process facilitated the formation of internal cavities that enhanced floating ability and transparency of the spheres. Meanwhile, the excellent floating performance offered massive reaction sites for pollutants reacting with photocatalysts, O2 and photons on the air/water interface. Photodegradation results showed all three floatable hybrid photocatalysts exhibited enhanced photocatalytic efficiencies compared to the virgin photocatalysts. In short, the carrier can integrate excellent floating ability, environmental friendliness and full recycling with good stability, and it can greatly improve the photocatalytic efficiency of various powder semiconductor photocatalysts.

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