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1.
Curr Pharm Des ; 21(22): 3239-47, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26027562

RESUMO

Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) enabling platform technologies have gathered significant momentum over the last two decades. Utilisation of the underpinning jetting process in tandem with desired materials (including polymers, ceramics, metals and even naturally occurring compounds such as peptides, DNA and cells) provides the basis for novel engineered therapies. Through EHDA processes, the generation of a variety of nano-meter and micro-meter scaled structures with control on surface and encapsulation features is attainable in a single step. While a host of adaptable EHDA techniques have evolved (e.g. printing and template patterning), there are two main processes that continue to dominate: electrospraying (ESy) and electrospinning (ESp). Although ESp has drawn considerable researcher interest for nanofibre applications, ESy is an important and timely process for nano- and micro-particle fabrication. Thus, an appropriate evaluation of ESy is vital. This short review focuses on key developments in the ESy field in relation to nanotechnologies with potential healthcare applications using metals, polymers and ceramics. An insight into the process of particle formation (during EHDA spraying or ESy), process parameters and materials specifications, is provided. Emerging biomedical and other healthcare research through nanotechnologies are highlighted.


Assuntos
Nanotecnologia , Humanos , Metais/química , Nanomedicina/métodos , Nanopartículas/química , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Polímeros/química , Propriedades de Superfície
2.
Crit Care ; 19: 79, 2015 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25887704

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) has been widely used for volume expansion, but its safety in adult patients has been questioned recently. The aim of this meta-analysis is to see whether or not HES has any adverse effect in pediatric patients. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving pediatric patients who received 6% low-molecular-weight HES, published before January 2014, were searched for in Pubmed, Embase database and Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently extracted the valid data, including the mortality, renal function, coagulation, blood loss, hemodynamic changes, and length of hospital and ICU stay. All data were analyzed by I (2)-test, and the results of statistical analysis were displayed in forest plots. Possible publication bias was tested by funnel plots. Bayesian analysis was performed using WinBUGS with fixed and random effects models. RESULTS: A total of 13 RCTs involving 1,156 pediatric patients were finally included in this meta-analysis. Compared with other fluids, HES did not significantly decrease the mortality (RR = -0.01; 95%CI: 0.05 to 0.03; P = 0.54; I(2) = 6%), creatinine level (I(2) -test: MD = 1.81; 95%CI: -0.35 to 3.98; P = 0.10;I(2) = 0%; Bayesian analysis: Fixed effect model MD = 1.77; 95%CI: -0.07 to 3.6; Random effects model MD = 1.78; 95%CI: -1.86 to 5.33), activated partial thromboplastin time (MD = 0.01; 95%CI: -1.05 to 1.07; P = 0.99; I(2) = 42%), and blood loss (MD = 17.72; 95%CI: -41.27 to 5.82; P = 0.10; I(2) = 0%) in pediatric patients. However, HES significantly decreased the blood platelet count (MD = 20.99; 95%CI: -32.08 to -9.90; P = 0.0002; I(2) = 28%) and increased the length of ICU stay (MD = 0.94; 95%CI: 0.18 to 1.70; P = 0.02; I(2) = 46%). CONCLUSIONS: Volume expansion with 6% HES significantly decreased the platelet count and increased the length of ICU stay, also might have an adverse effect on renal function. Therefore HES is not recommended for pediatric patients, which safety needs more high quality RCTs and studies to confirm in future.


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/uso terapêutico , Substitutos do Plasma/uso terapêutico , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Teorema de Bayes , Volume Sanguíneo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estado Terminal , Hidratação/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/efeitos adversos , Derivados de Hidroxietil Amido/farmacologia , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Substitutos do Plasma/efeitos adversos , Substitutos do Plasma/farmacologia , Contagem de Plaquetas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
3.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A ; 24(11): 770-6, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25376003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been performed clinically for more than 20 years. However, the incidence of bile duct injury (BDI) remains high despite attempts to prevent and reduce it. The aim of this study was to use an intraoperative unfavorable factors ratings system to identify unfavorable intraoperative factors and evaluate the effectiveness of application of the system in reducing BDI during LC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between January 2009 and December 2010, 780 patients who underwent LC were reviewed retrospectively, including 384 LC patients without graded treatment of intraoperative unfavorable factors (GTIUF) during 2009 and 396 LC patients with routine GTIUF during 2010. RESULTS: BDI was decreased significantly after routine GTIUF (5 cases without GTIUF versus 0 cases with routine GTIUF; P=.029). There was no significant difference in postoperative morbidity and mortality between the two groups. The mean operation duration of the routine GTIUF group was prolonged significantly (P<.0001). Laparoscopic cholecystitis grading, GTIUF, and doctor's experience were important factors affecting the duration of operation (P<.0001, P<.0001, and P<.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: GTIUF is an effective method that emphasizes identification of the course of the extrahepatic bile duct and reduces the occurrence of BDI, especially for inexperienced operators.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares/lesões , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/métodos , Colecistite/cirurgia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Ductos Biliares/cirurgia , Sistema Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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