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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 251: 1-24, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31011831

RESUMO

Heavy metal pollution in surface water is a global environmental problem. This study analyzed the trends, health risks, and sources of eight dissolved heavy metal species in river and lake water across five continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, and South America; Oceania was excluded owing to a lack of data) for the period 1970-2017. We wanted to assess the effects of various implemented countermeasures to pollution and to determine those that could be adopted worldwide. Collectively, the water system showed increasing trends for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Mn, and Fe and decreasing trends for Pb and Zn. The mean dissolved concentrations of most heavy metals were highest in Asia and lowest in Europe. Most heavy metals had low non-carcinogenic risks over this period. The cancer risks associated with Pb were lower than the hazardous level on all five continents over the five decades, whereas the cancer risks related to Cr exceeded the hazardous level in the 1970s, 2000s, and 2010s, and in Africa, Asia, and North America over the entire period. Mining and manufacturing were consistently found to be critical sources of metal pollution from 1970 to 2017. However, the heavy metal sources differed significantly by continent, with waste discharge and rock weathering dominant in Africa; mining and manufacturing, along with rock weathering, are dominant in Asia and South America; fertilizer and pesticide use, along with rock weathering, are dominant in North America; and mining and manufacturing, waste discharge, and rock weathering are dominant in Europe. Global trends in the metal loadings in water and in relevant pollution-control measures suggest that countermeasures in Europe have successfully controlled heavy metal pollution. The successful measures include implementing rigorous standards for metal emissions, limiting the metal concentrations in products, and rigorously treating metal-contaminated waste. Therefore, the measures implemented in Europe should be extended worldwide to treat heavy metal pollution in water.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluição Química da Água/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Lagos , Rios
2.
Planta ; 250(5): 1621-1635, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399791

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Cassava AGPase and AGPase genes have some unique characteristics. ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is a rate-limiting enzyme for starch synthesis. In this study, cassava AGPase genes (MeAGP) were analyzed based on six cultivars and one wild species. A total of seven MeAGPs was identified, including four encoding AGPase large subunits (MeAGPLs 1, 2, 3 and 4) and three encoding AGPase small subunits (MeAGPSs 1, 2 and 3). The copy number of MeAGPs varied in cassava germplasm materials. There were 14 introns for MeAGPLs 1, 2 and 3, 13 introns for MeAGPL4, and 8 introns for other three MeAGPSs. Multiple conservative amino acid sequence motifs were found in the MeAGPs. There were differences in amino acids at binding sites of substrates and regulators among different MeAGP subunits and between MeAGPs and a potato AGPase small subunit (1YP2:B). MeAGPs were all located in chloroplasts. MeAGP expression was not only associated with gene copy number and types/combinations, regions and levels of the DNA methylation but was also affected by environmental factors with the involvement of various transcription factors in multiple regulation networks and in various cis-elements in the gene promoter regions. The MeAGP activity also changed with environmental conditions and had potential differences among the subunits. Taken together, MeAGPs differ in number from those of Arabidopsis, potato, maize, banana, sweet potato, and tomato.

3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433123

RESUMO

Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal lymphoproliferative disease that represents a serious problem in the deer-rearing industry. To better understand an MCF-like disease that has emerged in northern China since 2015, we investigated ten cases by documenting clinical and epidemiological data and analysing causative agents and histopathological changes. In addition, a retrospective screen for Macavirus DNA and a questionnaire-based survey were conducted. Epizootic MCF in Chinese sika deer herds has emerged with a low morbidity of 3.8% (95% CI: 2.5%-5.1%) and a high mortality of 93.2% (95% CI: 86.6%-99.9%). The disease course varied from 3 to 12 days. Aetiologically, OvHV-2 was predominant in the MCFV, accounting for most MCF cases (21/23). In contrast, only two CpHV-2 isolates were phylogenetically closely related to CpHV-2. Diarrhoea and nasal discharges were the most frequent manifestations, although clinical signs varied in some cases. Pathologically typical lesions of haemorrhage, necrosis and lymphoid cell infiltration were readily observed in a variety of organs. Vasculitis caused by vascular and perivascular lymphoid cell infiltration was common. The retrospective survey suggested a low positive rate (3/275) of MCFV DNA in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). The questionnaire-based survey suggested the disease was neglected by local veterinarians, who did not acknowledge the risk of co-rearing deer with reservoir species. Collectively, the emerging epizootic MCF in Chinese sika deer herds remains neglected, emphasizing the urgency of initiating full-field diagnoses and control strategies.

4.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(4): 1541-1545, 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31329916

RESUMO

The southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) causes significant economic damage to rice crops. This virus is transmitted to rice plants by the planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) in a persistent, circular, and propagative manner. Researchers currently lack suitable methods for assaying the activity of SRBSDV in vitro and preserving the virus all year. We used a microinjection method to directly inject SRBSDV extracts into the hemocoel of S. furcifera nymphs. SRBSDV was subsequently detected by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction in more than 56.7% of the insects after 5 d and 60% of healthy rice plants fed by these insects also became SRBSDV infected. Moreover, injecting planthopper with an extract of SRBSDV-infected rice plant that had been frozen at -80°C for 220 d caused 63.3% to become viruliferous. These results indicate that SRBSDV can be successfully transmitted to S. furcifera by microinjection, and that extracts of SRBSDV-infected rice plants frozen at -80°C for 220 d still contain sufficient active SRBSDV to infect S. furcifera. We provide a novel way to preserve SRBSDV all year by injecting S. furcifera with the SRBSDV extract.

5.
J Econ Entomol ; 112(5): 2207-2214, 2019 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145453

RESUMO

Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become an invaluable technique for analyzing gene expression in many insects. However, this approach requires the use of stable reference genes to normalize the data. Chlorops oryzae causes significant economic damage to rice crops throughout Asia. The lack of suitable reference genes has hindered research on the molecular mechanisms underlying many physiological processes of this species. In this study, we used quantitative real-time PCR to evaluate the expression of eight C. oryzae housekeeping genes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ß-actin (ßACT), beta-tubulin (ßTUB), Delta Elongation factor-1 (EF1δ), ribosomal protein S11 (RPS11), RPS15, C-terminal-Binding Protein (CtBP), and ribosomal protein 49 (RP49) in different developmental stages and tissues in both larvae and adults. We analyzed the data with four different software packages: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder and compared the results obtained with each method. The results indicate that PRS15 and RP49 can be used as stable reference genes for quantifying gene expression in different developmental stages and larval tissues. GAPDH and ßACT, which have been considered stable reference genes by previous studies, were the least stable of the candidate genes with respect to larval tissues. GAPDH was, however, the most stable reference gene for adult tissues. We verified the candidate reference genes identified and found that the expression levels of Cadherins (Cads) changed when different reference genes were used to normalize gene expression. This study provides a valuable foundation for future research on gene function, and investigating the molecular basis of physiological processes, in C. oryzae.

6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 46(4): 3945-3953, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037548

RESUMO

The Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a novel Fijivirus, poses a major threat to rice production in East Asia. Analysis of the gene expression of SRBSDV-infected rice plants may reveal the molecular basis of interactions between the virus, its vector and rice plants. Reliable reference genes are required for accurate qRT-PCR analysis. However, no reliable, valid reference genes for examining gene expression in SRBSDV-infected rice plants have so far been identified. We examined the expression of eight candidate reference genes in the leaves of SRBSDV-infected, and healthy, rice plants at different points in time after virus inoculation. We used four dedicated algorithms, geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and RefFinder, to evaluate the performance of these candidate genes. The RefFinder results indicate that 18S, EF1α and UBQ10 are suitable reference genes. In addition, we used these three reference genes to analyze the expression of key genes involved in the isoprenoid metabolic pathway in rice leaves after infection by SRBSDV. The results of this analysis reveal that SRBSDV may suppress the production of the rice plant volatiles that attract natural enemies of its vector Sogatella furcifera, thereby increasing the likelihood of pathogen transmission.

7.
Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2019 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30732479

RESUMO

A new derivative of epicatechin glucopyranoside, (2R,3R)-3,7,4'-trihydroxy-5,3'-dimethoxyflavan 7-O-ß-d-glucopyranoside (1), together with three mononuclear phenolic acid esters, methyl orsellinate (2), ethyl orsellinate (3) and methyl ß-orcinolcarboxylate (4) were isolated from the bark of Styrax suberifolius. The structures of 1-4 were determined on the basis of extensive analysis of NMR and MS spectra combined with chemical hydrolysis. The antifungal activities of the isolated compounds against three plant pathogenic fungi, Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum and Phomopsis cytospore were evaluated using radial growth inhibition assay. Compounds 2, 3 and 4 exerted selective inhibitory activities against the tested fungi. Among of them, methyl ß-orcinolcarboxylate (4) exhibited obvious inhibitory effect against P. cytospore, with an inhibition rate of 86.72% at 100 µg/ml.

8.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 21(3): 240-245, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30656962

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic plants is significantly affected by hydrological regime and therefore the accumulation and translocation of cadmium in five organs-panicle, leaf, stem, root, and bud-of an emergent plant (Miscanthus sacchariflorus) were compared between the submerged environment and non-submerged environment. In the submerged condition, the cadmium concentration was higher in the panicle and leaf than in the stem, root, and bud. Cadmium concentration in the root exhibited a positive regression with cadmium concentration in the sediment. However, cadmium concentration in the panicle, leaf, stem, and bud exhibited no significant regression with cadmium concentration in the sediment. In the non-submerged environment, the cadmium concentration was higher in the below-ground organs than in the aboveground organs. The mean bioaccumulation coefficient in the 24 investigated plots in the submerged environment was higher than that in the 20 and 40 mg kg-1 cadmium treatments in the non-submerged environment. The mean translocation factor in the submerged environment was nine times higher than that in non-submerged environment. These results indicate that submergence enhanced cadmium bioaccumulation in the aboveground organs and that this plant can be used to remove heavy metals from polluted rivers and lakes.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio , Poaceae
9.
Food Chem ; 278: 170-177, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583358

RESUMO

A fast and accurate ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometric method was established to determine the presence of chlorogenic acid (CGA) according to potassium ferricyanide-Fe (III) detection system. The reaction temperature and pH level greatly influenced the CGA absorption spectrum. Maximum UV-vis absorption wavelength occurred at 790 nm under the optimum conditions (at 25 °C and pH 7.0). The results of UV-vis were further assessed by comparing the results with those of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The proposed method showed a wide linear sensing range of 10.0-800.0 µg mL-1 (R2 = 0.9996) and a high degree of precision (%R.S.D. < 1.50) and recovery (%R.S.D. > 3.39). Results of CGA and HPLC methods correlated well with each other. The proposed accurate, rapid, sensitive, low-cost, and high-throughput method was successfully used to quantify CGA in fermentation broth and fruits (Mango). Therefore, it may be applied for measuring CGA in biological samples.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Fermentação , Ferricianetos/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Mangifera/química , Espectrofotometria/métodos , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta/instrumentação
10.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 890, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chemosensory proteins are a family of insect-specific chemical sensors that sense specific chemical cues and regulate insect behavior. Chemosensory proteins have been identified and analyzed in many insect species, such as Drosophila melanogaster, Bactrocera dorsalis and Calliphora stygia. This research has revealed that these proteins play a crucial role in insect orientation, predation and oviposition. However, little is known about the chemosensory proteins of Chlorops oryzae, a major pest of rice crops throughout Asia. RESULTS: Comparative transcription analysis of the genes of Chlorops oryzae larvae, pupae and adults identified a total of 104 chemosensory genes, including 25 odorant receptors (ORs), 26 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 19 ionotropic receptors (IRs), 23 gustatory receptors (GRs) and 11 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). The sequences of these candidate chemosensory genes were confirmed and used to construct phylogenetic trees. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) confirmed that the expression of candidate OR genes in different developmental stages was consistent with the fragments per kilobase per million fragments (FPKM) values of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). CONCLUSIONS: The identification of chemosensory genes in C. oryzae provides a foundation for the investigation of the function of chemosensory proteins in this species, which, in turn, could allow the development of new, improved methods of controlling this pest.


Assuntos
Dípteros/genética , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Genes de Insetos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo
11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 14756, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283150

RESUMO

The present study aimed to develop a plate-screening method, based on the specific color development of complexes formed between chlorogenic acid, a valuable plant-derived compound, and aluminum (III), to detect chlorogenic acid-producing microbial strains. Modified media with 0.75 mM aluminum chloride were developed to identify CGA-producing bacteria (based on beef extract agar medium) or fungi (based on the potato dextrose agar medium). Compared with conventional screening, the modified media let to 3.3 times more CGA producers from plants, at 90.9% selective accuracy. Novel chlorogenic acid-biosynthesizing strains included Brevibacillus borstelensis B14, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B17, Bacillus badius B19, Sphingomonas yabuuchiae N21, Enterobacter tabaci N22, and Lodderomyces elongisporus S216 and P212. Strain S216 produced the highest chlorogenic acid yield (23.39 mg L-1). This study provides a highly efficient and low-cost tool for quick detection and subsequent identification of several newly isolated strains with chlorogenic acid-producing potential.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2113, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30271388

RESUMO

To better understand the effect of different disinfectants on the types and quantities of microorganisms in a broiler chicken house, five different types of disinfectants, including ozone, available chlorine, quaternary ammonium salt, glutaraldehyde, and mixed disinfectant, were used. The broiler house microbial communities were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing combined with air sampling. The results showed that the concentrations of airborne aerobic bacteria in the empty broiler houses after application of different disinfectants were significantly reduced compared to a house untreated with disinfectant (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), and the number of inhalable particles of airborne aerobic bacteria sharply decreased after disinfection. Of the five disinfectants, the mixed disinfectant had the best disinfection efficacy on the total microbial communities (P < 0.05). A total of 508,143 high-quality sequences were obtained by high-throughput sequencing, which identified 1995 operational taxonomic units. In total, 42 phyla and 312 genera were identified. The structures of airborne microbial communities in the broiler houses after the different disinfectants were applied differed. In the house treated with the mixed disinfectant, the microbial communities containing opportunistic pathogens, such as Escherichia-Shigella, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas, had the lowest abundance, with a significant decrease compared to the house untreated with disinfectant. The alpha diversity index showed low diversity of the microbial communities in the house treated with mixed disinfectant. In contrast to the other four disinfectants, only a small amount of bacteria was detected in the air sample in the house treated with the mixed disinfectant; specifically, only four phyla were found (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes). The mixed disinfectant produced a positive effect on disinfection for four phyla; however, it didn't thoroughly eliminate them. At genus level, Bacillus, Arenimonas, and Shinella could not be detected in the house treated with the mixed disinfectant, but were detected in houses treated with other disinfectants. The high-throughput sequencing results revealed that the combination of multiple disinfectants exhibited a good disinfection efficacy and that this technique could disinfect the air of broiler houses. These results will help guide the development of a reasonable program for broiler house disinfection.

13.
J Vis Exp ; (139)2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272667

RESUMO

We present the chemoselective synthesis of 1-(iodoethynyl)-4-methylbenzene, 1-(1,2-diiodovinyl)-4-methylbenzene, and 1-methyl-4-(1,2,2-triiodovinyl)benzene as representative examples for the practical chemoselective preparation of 1-iodoalkynes, 1,2-diiodoalkenes, and 1,1,2-triiodoalkenes from the chemoselective iodination of terminal alkynes mediated by hypervalent-iodine reagents. The chemoselectivity was confirmed by using p-tolylethyne as a model substrate to screen a variety of iodine sources and/or the hypervalent-iodine reagents. A combination of tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI) and (diacetoxyiodo)benzene (PIDA) selectively generates 1-iodoalkynes, while a combination of KI and PIDA generates 1,2-diiodoalkenes. A one-pot synthesis based on both TBAI-PIDA and KI-PIDA yields the corresponding 1,1,2-triiodoalkenes. These protocols were subsequently applied to the synthesis of synthetically important aromatic and aliphatic 1-iodoalkynes, 1,2-diiodoalkenes, and 1,1,2-triiodoalkenes, which were obtained in good yield with excellent chemoselectivity.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(9)2018 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30235813

RESUMO

ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) is an important enzyme in the starch synthesis pathway. Its enzyme activity can determine the efficiency of starch biosynthesis. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the main staple crop worldwide and has a high starch content in its storage root. However, the inner regulatory mechanism of AGPase gene family is unclear. MePHD1; a plant homeodomain transcription factor; was isolated through a yeast one-hybrid screening using the promoter of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit1a (MeAGPS1a) as bait, and cassava storage root cDNA library as prey. This factor could bind to the MeAGPS1a promoter in vitro and in vivo, and its predicted binding region ranged from -400 bp to -201 bp, at the translation initiation site. The transcript level of MePHD1 could be induced by five plant hormones, and a temperature of 42 °C. This was down-regulated during the maturation process of the storage root. MePHD1 protein could repress the promoter activity of MeAGPS1a gene by a dual-luciferase assay; which indicated that MePHD1 is a negative regulator for the transcript level of MeAGPS1a gene.

15.
J Food Prot ; 81(9): 1557-1564, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30138054

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to analyze the aerosol concentrations and microbial community structures in closed cage broiler houses at different broiler growth stages to assess the dynamic pattern of microbial aerosols in closed cage systems. Our results revealed that the total concentration of bacterial aerosols gradually increased during the growth cycle of broilers. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed that microbial compositions differed tremendously during different growth stages, although Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the dominant taxa in samples from all broiler growth stages. At the genus level, dominant phylotypes displayed great variation during different growth stages. Escherichia and Shigella were the most dominant taxa throughout the growth cycle, increasing from 4.3 to 12.4% as the broilers grew. The alpha index revealed that the microbial diversity displayed significant differences between the different growth stages and that the bacterial community had the highest diversity when broilers were 22 days old. High-throughput sequencing analyses revealed that environmental microbes and opportunistic pathogens had relatively high abundances during the winter growth period. The data revealed the composition and aerodynamic diameters of microbial aerosols in closed cage broiler houses at different broiler growth stages in winter. The results also enabled us to elucidate the dynamic pattern of microbial aerosols in broiler houses in response to bacterial communities. Our results may provide a basis for developing technologies for air quality control in caged poultry houses.

16.
J Vet Sci ; 19(5): 716-720, 2018 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041287

RESUMO

Herpesvirus infections in Cervidae are a serious threat affecting some deer species worldwide. In our attempt to identify malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses in deer herds, ten gammaherpesviral DNA fragments were identified in five species of deer in herds in China by using a pan-herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction assay targeting viral DNA polymerase. Notably, in sambar (Rusa unicolor), a novel gamma-2 herpesvirus was identified that showed a close relationship with fallow deer lymphotropic herpesvirus (LHV), while the other fragments were phylogenetically grouped together with Elk-LHV. Determination of whether these viruses have any clinical implication in these deer species should be undertaken urgently.


Assuntos
Cervos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Herpesviridae/classificação , Animais , China , DNA Viral/análise , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecções por Herpesviridae/virologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
17.
3 Biotech ; 8(7): 293, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29963353

RESUMO

Mosquitocidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strain S2160-1 was proposed to be an alternative to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti). Discovering and validating a toxic gene by experimentation was a complex and time-consuming task, which can benefit from high-throughput sequencing analysis. In this research, we predicted and identified toxic proteins in the strain S2160-1 based on the draft whole genome sequence data. Through a local BLASP, 46 putative toxins were identified in S2160-1 genome, by searching against a customized B. thuringiensis toxin proteins database containing 653 protein or peptide sequences retrieved from public accessible resources and PCR/clone results in our laboratory (e value = 1e - 5). These putative toxins consist of 42 to 1216 amino acids. The molecular weights are ranged from 4.86 to 137.28 kDa. The isoelectric point of these candidate toxins varied from 4.3 to 10.06, and 16 out of which had a pH greater than 7.0. The analysis of tertiary structure and PFAM domain showed that 12 potential plasmid toxins may share higher similarity (9/12 QMEAN4 score > 0.3) with known Bt toxins. In addition, functional annotation indicated that these 12 potential toxins were involved in "sporulation resulting in formation of a cellular spore" and "toxin activity". Moreover, multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis were carried out to elucidate the evolutionary relationship among 101 known crystal or toxin proteins from public database and them with MEGA 6.0. It indicated that PS2160P2_1 and PS2160P2_153 may be potential Cry4-like toxins in Bt S2160-1. This research may lay the foundation for future functional analysis of Bt S2160-1 toxin proteins to reveal their biological roles.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29744779

RESUMO

Bioaccumulation of five heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) in six plant organs (panicle, leaf, stem, root, rhizome, and bud) of the emergent and perennial plant species, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, were investigated to estimate the plant's potential for accumulating heavy metals in the wetlands of Dongting Lake. We found the highest Cd concentrations in the panicles and leaves; while the highest Cu and Mn were observed in the roots, the highest Pb in the panicles, and the highest Zn in the panicles and buds. In contrast, the lowest Cd concentrations were detected in the stem, roots, and buds; the lowest Cu concentrations in the leaves and stems; the lowest Mn concentrations in the panicles, rhizomes, and buds; the lowest Pb concentrations in the stems; and the lowest Zn concentrations in the leaves, stems, and rhizomes. Mean Cu concentration in the plant showed a positive regression coefficient with plot elevation, soil organic matter content, and soil Cu concentration, whereas it showed a negative regression coefficient with soil moisture and electrolyte leakage. Mean Mn concentration showed positive and negative regression coefficients with soil organic matter and soil moisture, respectively. Mean Pb concentration exhibited positive regression coefficient with plot elevation and soil total P concentration, and Zn concentration showed a positive regression coefficient with soil available P and total P concentrations. However, there was no significant regression coefficient between mean Cd concentration in the plant and the investigated environmental parameters. Stems and roots were the main organs involved in heavy metal accumulation from the environment. The mean quantities of heavy metals accumulated in the plant tissues were 2.2 mg Cd, 86.7 mg Cu, 290.3 mg Mn, 15.9 mg Pb, and 307 mg Zn per square meter. In the Dongting Lake wetlands, 0.7 × 103 kg Cd, 22.9 × 103 kg Cu, 77.5 × 103 kg Mn, 3.1 × 103 kg Pb, and 95.9 × 103 kg Zn per year were accumulated by aboveground organs and removed from the lake through harvesting for paper manufacture.

19.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 3(4): 263-270, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Napabucasin is a first-in-class cancer stemness inhibitor that targets STAT3, which is a poor prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. This study aimed to test napabucasin in advanced colorectal cancer. METHODS: This study was a double-blind randomised phase 3 trial done at 68 centres in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. Patients with advanced colorectal cancer with a good Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (0-1) for whom all available standard therapies had failed were eligible for the study. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive placebo or napabucasin through a web-based system with a permuted block method, after stratification by ECOG performance status, KRAS status, previous VEGF inhibitor treatment, and time from diagnosis of metastatic disease. Napabucasin 480 mg or matching placebo was taken orally every 12 h. All patients received best supportive care. The primary endpoint was overall survival assessed in an intention-to-treat analysis. This is the final analysis of this trial, which is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01830621. FINDINGS: Accrual began on April 15, 2013, and was stopped for futility on May 23, 2014, at which point 282 patients had undergone randomisation (138 assigned to the napabucasin group and 144 to the placebo group). Overall survival did not differ significantly between groups: median overall survival was 4·4 months (95% CI 3·7-4·9) in the napabucasin group and 4·8 months (4·0-5·3) in the placebo group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1·13, 95% CI 0·88-1·46, p=0·34). The safety population included 136 patients in the napabucasin group and 144 patients in the placebo group. More patients who received napabucasin had any grade of treatment-related diarrhoea (108 [79%] of 136 patients), nausea (69 [51%]), and anorexia (52 [38%]) than did patients who received placebo (28 [19%] of 144 patients, 35 [24%], and 23 [16%], respectively). The most common severe (grade 3 or worse) treatment-related adverse events were abdominal pain (five [4%] patients receiving napabucasin vs five [3%] receiving placebo), diarrhoea (21 [15%] vs one [1%]), fatigue (14 [10%] vs eight [6%]), and dehydration (six [4%] vs one [1%]). 251 (89%) patients had data on pSTAT3 expression, of whom 55 (22%) had pSTAT3-positive tumours (29 in the napabucasin group, 26 in the placebo group). In a prespecified biomarker analysis of pSTAT3-positive patients, overall survival was longer in the napabucasin group than in the placebo group (median 5·1 months [95% CI 4·0-7·5] vs 3·0 months [1·7-4·1]; HR 0·41, 0·23-0·73, p=0·0025). INTERPRETATION: Although there was no difference in overall survival between groups in the overall unselected population, STAT3 might be an important target for the treatment of colorectal cancer with elevated pSTAT3 expression. Nevertheless, these results require validation. FUNDING: Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute and Boston Biomedical.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Naftoquinonas/uso terapêutico , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Benzofuranos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naftoquinonas/efeitos adversos , Metástase Neoplásica , Estudos Prospectivos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida , Tempo para o Tratamento
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 25(8): 8002-8011, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29305802

RESUMO

The growth performance of Salix triandroides cuttings at three water cadmium (Cd) concentrations (0, 20, and 40 mg L-1) and three water levels (- 40 cm, water level 40 cm below the soil surface; 0 cm, water level even with the soil surface; and 40 cm, water level 40 cm above soil surface) was investigated to evaluate its potential in phytoextraction strategies. Compared to cuttings in the - 40 or 0 cm water levels, cuttings in the 40 cm water level showed significantly lower biomass, height, and adventitious root length and significantly fewer leaves and adventitious roots. However, these growth and morphological parameters were not different among the three water Cd concentrations. Water level decreased stomatal conduction and transpiration rate but showed no significant effects on chlorophyll concentration or photosynthetic rate. Chlorophyll concentration and stomatal conductance were higher at 40 mg L-1 Cd treatment than at 0 or 20 mg L-1 Cd treatment; yet, photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate were not different. Cd concentration in the leaves and stems increased as the water level increased, but the highest Cd concentration in the roots occurred in the 0 cm water level. As water Cd concentration increased, Cd concentration in the leaves, stems, and roots increased in all three water levels, except in stems in the - 40 cm water level. Under Cd stress, cuttings in the - 40 or 0 cm water levels were characterized by a higher bioaccumulation coefficient, but a lower translocation factor, than those in the 40 cm water level. However, the bioaccumulation coefficient increased with increasing water Cd concentration in all three water levels, as did the translocation factor in the 40 cm water level. The tolerance index for the cuttings was the same among all water levels and water Cd concentrations. The results clearly indicated that the low water level increased plant growth and Cd accumulation in underground parts, while the high water level decreased plant growth but increased Cd accumulation in aboveground parts.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Salix/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Água/química , Água/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , Cádmio/química , Cádmio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Salix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salix/metabolismo , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo
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