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1.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 370(3): 399-407, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253692

RESUMO

Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) has been proposed as a potential approach to enhance cognitive functioning and memory through boosting intracellular cGMP/cAMP and enhancing neuroplasticity in memory-related neural circuitry. Previous preclinical studies demonstrated that PDE2A inhibitors could reverse N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (5S,10R)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine or ketamine-induced memory deficit. Here, we report that the potent and selective PDE2A inhibitor 4-(1-azetidinyl)-7-methyl-5-[1-methyl-5-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]-1H-pyrazol-4-yl]-imidazo[5,1-f][1,2,4]triazine (PF-05180999) enhances long-term memory in a contextual fear conditioning model in the rat at the oral dose of 0.3 mg/kg. Target engagement at this efficacious dose was explored using in vivo autoradiography. Converse to the results of a decrease of PDE2A binding (target occupancy) by the PDE2A inhibitor, a paradoxical increase (up to 40%) in PDE2A binding was detected. However, a typical target occupancy curve could be generated by PF-05180999 at much higher doses. In vitro experiments using recombinant PDE2A protein or rat brain homogenate that contains native PDE2A protein demonstrated that increased cGMP after initial PDE2A inhibition could be responsible for the activation of PDE2A enzyme via allosteric binding to the GAF-B domain, leading to positive cooperativity of the dormant PDE2A enzymes. Our results suggest that when evaluating target engagement of PDE2A inhibitors for memory disorder in clinical setting with occupancy assays, the efficacious dose may not fall on the typical receptor/target curve. On the contrary, an increase in PDE2A tracer binding is likely seen. Our results also suggest that when evaluating target occupancy of enzymes, potential regulation of enzyme activities should be considered.

2.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 269881118812102, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30484737

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: A significant proportion of patients suffering from major depression fail to remit following treatment and develop treatment-resistant depression. Developing novel treatments requires animal models with good predictive validity. MRL/lpr mice, an established model of systemic lupus erythematosus, show depression-like behavior. AIMS:: We evaluated responses to classical antidepressants, and associated immunological and biochemical changes in MRL/lpr mice. METHODS AND RESULTS:: MRL/lpr mice showed increased immobility in the forced swim test, decreased wheel running and sucrose preference when compared with the controls, MRL/MpJ mice. In MRL/lpr mice, acute fluoxetine (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)), imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or duloxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) did not decrease the immobility time in the Forced Swim Test. Interestingly, acute administration of combinations of olanzapine (0.03 mg/kg, subcutaneously)+fluoxetine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) or bupropion (10 mg/kg, i.p.)+fluoxetine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) retained efficacy. A single dose of ketamine but not three weeks of imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or escitalopram (5 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment in MRL/lpr mice restored sucrose preference. Further, we evaluated inflammatory, immune-mediated and neuronal mechanisms. In MRL/lpr mice, there was an increase in autoantibodies' titers, [3H]PK11195 binding and immune complex deposition. There was a significant infiltration of the brain by macrophages, neutrophils and T-lymphocytes. p11 mRNA expression was decreased in the prefrontal cortex. Further, there was an increase in the 5-HT2aR expression, plasma corticosterone and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. CONCLUSION:: In summary, the MRL/lpr mice could be a useful model for Treatment Resistant Depression associated with immune dysfunction with potential to expedite antidepressant drug discovery.

3.
J Med Microbiol ; 67(8): 1181-1190, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29923819

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The microbiota composition of faeces and colonic contents were analysed to investigate the mechaninsm by which fermented soybean meal improves intestinal microbial communities, growth and immunity in weaning piglets. METHODOLOGY: Microbiota were investigated using16S rRNA gene sequencing and systematical bio-information Operational Taxonomic Units; α-diversity analyses indicated that fermented soybean meal increased bacterial species diversity. RESULTS: The levels of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteia in faeces, and Firmicutes and Tenericutes in the colon, increased significantly in piglets fed fermented soybean meal (P<0.05). The relative abundance of Clostridium sensu stricto1, Lachnospira and Bacteoides had positive correlations with diarrhoea in the piglets. Lactobacillus, Blautia and Clostridium sensu stricto1 levels were correlated with increases in the average daily feed intake of piglets. Lactobacillus and Lachnospira also had positive relationships with IgM levels, and lymphocytes levels were increased relative to Clostridium sensu stricto1. Lymphocyte numbers also increased with higher levels of Blautia and decreased with Clostridium sensu stricto1. Increased levels of Blautia were also correlated with significant increases in white blood cells. CONCLUSION: The significant differences in faecal and colonic bacteria were correlated with enhanced immunity and overall improved health in the weaning piglets.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Biodiversidade , Biota , Dieta/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Soja , Ração Animal , Animais , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Bacteriano/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Suínos
4.
Exp Neurol ; 304: 114-124, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522758

RESUMO

Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in the C9orf72 gene are a common genetic cause of familial and sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, the function of C9orf72 in neural development and the pathogenic mechanism underlying neurodegeneration are unknown. We found that disrupting C9orf72 expression by using C9orf72 constructs that lack the complete DENN domain result in reduced GTPase activity in zebrafish embryos, demonstrating the indispensability of the complete DENN domain. This effect was phenocopied by knocking down endogenous C9orf72 expression by using morpholinos. C9orf72-deficient zebrafish embryos exhibited impaired axonogenesis and motility defects. The C9orf72 deficiency upregulated the expression of tp53 and caused neuronal apoptosis. Knockdown Tp53 in the C9orf72-deficient embryos rescued only the apoptotic phenotype but not the phenotype with axonal and motility defects. The C9orf72 deficiency also induced ccng1 (encodes Cyclin G1) mRNA expression, and injection of a dominant-negative Cyclin G1 construct rescued the axonal impairment, apoptosis, and motility defects in the C9orf72-deficient embryos. Our results revealed the GTPase activity of C9orf72 and demonstrated that Cyclin G1 is an essential downstream mediator for C9orf72 in neural development and motility. Furthermore, downregulating Cyclin G1 was sufficient to rescue all the defects caused by C9orf72 deficiency. In summary, we revealed a novel regulatory mechanism underlying the role of C9orf72 in neurological and motility defects. This result facilitates understanding the function of the C9orf72 gene in the developing nervous system and provides a potential mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ALS-FTD.

5.
J Psychopharmacol ; 32(2): 146-155, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29378483

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder is a leading cause of disability globally. Improvements in the efficacy of antidepressant therapy are needed as a high proportion (>40%) of individuals with major depressive disorder fail to respond adequately to current treatments. The non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor channel blocker, (±)-ketamine, has been reported to produce a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant response in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder patients, which provides a unique opportunity for investigation of mechanisms that mediate its therapeutic effect. Efforts have also focused on the development of selective N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B antagonists which may retain antidepressant activity but have lower potential for dissociative/psychotomimetic effects. In the present study, we examined the central nervous system effects of acute, intravenous administration of (±)-ketamine or the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B antagonist, traxoprodil, in awake rats using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging. The study contained five treatment groups: vehicle, 3 mg/kg (±)-ketamine, and three doses of traxoprodil (0.3 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, and 15 mg/kg). Non-linear model fitting was performed on the temporal hemodynamic pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging data to generate brain activation maps as well as regional responses based on blood oxygen level dependent signal changes for group analysis. Traxoprodil at 5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg produced a dose-dependent pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging signal in rat forebrain regions with both doses achieving >80% N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype 2B occupancy determined by ex vivo [3H]Ro 25-6981 binding. The middle dose of traxoprodil (5 mg/kg) generated region-specific activations in medial prefrontal cortex, ventral orbital cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex whereas the high dose (15 mg/kg) produced a widespread pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging response in both cortical and subcortical brain regions which was similar to that produced by (±)-ketamine (3 mg/kg, intravenous).

6.
J Neurogastroenterol Motil ; 23(4): 517-525, 2017 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992675

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Increased salivary pepsin could indicate an increase in gastro-esophageal reflux, however, previous studies failed to demonstrate a correlation between salivary pepsin concentrations and 24-hour esophageal acid exposure. This study aims to detect the salivary pepsin and to evaluate the relationship between salivary pepsin concentrations and intercellular spaces (IS) in different gastroesophageal reflux disease phenotypes in patients. Methods: A total of 45 patients and 11 healthy volunteers were included in this study. All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 24-hour ambulatory multichannel impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring, and salivary sampling at 3-time points during the 24-hour MII-pH monitoring. IS were measured by transmission electron microscopy, and salivary pepsin concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The IS measurements were greater in the esophagitis (EE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and hypersensitive esophagus (HO) groups than in the functional heartburn (FH) and healthy volunteer groups, and significant differences were indicated. Patients with NERD and HO had higher average pepsin concentrations compared with FH patients. A weak correlation was determined between IS and salivary pepsin among patients with NERD (r = 0.669, P = 0.035). Conclusions: We confirmed the presence of a higher level of salivary pepsin in patients with NERD than in patients with FH. Salivary pepsin concentrations correlated with severity of mucosal integrity impairment in the NERD group. We suggest that in patients with NERD, low levels of salivary pepsin can help identify patients with FH, in addition the higher the pepsin concentration, the more likely the severity of dilated IS.

7.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 161: 53-61, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28911960

RESUMO

Approximately 30-60% of patients treated with existing antidepressants fail to achieve remission of depressive symptoms leading to Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD). There is an urgent need to develop novel medications, which is highly limited by the non-availability of relevant animal models with good predictive validity. ACTH administration has been shown to result in the resistance to acute and chronic effects of imipramine. However, the pharmacology of the model and the mechanisms contributing to the resistance are not completely understood. Furthermore, it is not known whether the ACTH administered animals show signs of depression-like behavior. Accordingly, we characterized the behavioral profile and sensitivity to antidepressants in BALB/c mice treated with ACTH and to evaluate some of the mechanisms responsible for the behavioral effects. Daily treatment with ACTH for 14, 21 or 28days failed to produce a depression-like phenotype in the sucrose preference test, voluntary wheel running or FST. In contrast, the acute antidepressant response in the FST was no longer observed in ACTH mice treated with fluoxetine, imipramine, duloxetine or bupropion. Interestingly, the combination of fluoxetine and a low dose of olanzapine, or the combination of fluoxetine and bupropion was efficacious in ACTH treated mice. Further, the sensitivity to a GluN2B receptor antagonist, radiprodil was retained in the ACTH model. To understand the mechanism responsible for the diminished response in these mice, we evaluated p11 (S100A10) mRNA expression and 5-HT2A protein expression. p11 expression was decreased and 5-HT2A protein content increased in ACTH treated mice. In summary, this model may have utility for the identification of novel treatments for TRD.


Assuntos
Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/toxicidade , Animais , Anexina A2/biossíntese , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Depressivo Resistente a Tratamento/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Receptor 5-HT2A de Serotonina/biossíntese , Proteínas S100/biossíntese
8.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 363(3): 377-393, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954811

RESUMO

(R)-3-((3S,4S)-3-fluoro-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)piperidin-1-yl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)pyrrolidin-2-one (BMS-986169) and the phosphate prodrug 4-((3S,4S)-3-fluoro-1-((R)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-2-oxopyrrolidin-3-yl)piperidin-4-yl)phenyl dihydrogen phosphate (BMS-986163) were identified from a drug discovery effort focused on the development of novel, intravenous glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate 2B receptor (GluN2B) negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). BMS-986169 showed high binding affinity for the GluN2B subunit allosteric modulatory site (Ki = 4.03-6.3 nM) and selectively inhibited GluN2B receptor function in Xenopus oocytes expressing human N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subtypes (IC50 = 24.1 nM). BMS-986169 weakly inhibited human ether-a-go-go-related gene channel activity (IC50 = 28.4 µM) and had negligible activity in an assay panel containing 40 additional pharmacological targets. Intravenous administration of BMS-986169 or BMS-986163 dose-dependently increased GluN2B receptor occupancy and inhibited in vivo [3H](+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine ([3H]MK-801) binding, confirming target engagement and effective cleavage of the prodrug. BMS-986169 reduced immobility in the mouse forced swim test, an effect similar to intravenous ketamine treatment. Decreased novelty suppressed feeding latency, and increased ex vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation was also seen 24 hours after acute BMS-986163 or BMS-986169 administration. BMS-986169 did not produce ketamine-like hyperlocomotion or abnormal behaviors in mice or cynomolgus monkeys but did produce a transient working memory impairment in monkeys that was closely related to plasma exposure. Finally, BMS-986163 produced robust changes in the quantitative electroencephalogram power band distribution, a translational measure that can be used to assess pharmacodynamic activity in healthy humans. Due to the poor aqueous solubility of BMS-986169, BMS-986163 was selected as the lead GluN2B NAM candidate for further evaluation as a novel intravenous agent for TRD.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Organofosfatos/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Pirrolidinonas/uso terapêutico , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/metabolismo , Administração Intravenosa , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Antidepressivos/farmacocinética , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Ondas Encefálicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Transtornos Dissociativos/induzido quimicamente , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Organofosfatos/efeitos adversos , Organofosfatos/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Pró-Fármacos/efeitos adversos , Pró-Fármacos/farmacocinética , Pirrolidinonas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinonas/farmacocinética , Ensaio Radioligante , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Xenopus
9.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 19(5): 505-509, 2017 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28506338

RESUMO

Department of Pediatrics, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China. zhuchuanlong@jsph.org.cn.


Assuntos
Ácido Glicirrízico/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Comprimidos
10.
Brain Res ; 1670: 86-95, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28501494

RESUMO

Ketamine produces rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in depressive patients. Preclinical studies demonstrate that ketamine stimulates AMPA receptor transmission and activates BDNF/TrkB-Akt/ERK-mTOR signaling cascades, leading to a sustained increase in synaptic protein synthesis and strengthening of synaptic plasticity, a potential mechanism underlying the antidepressant effects. The purpose of this study was to develop an immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay to map the distribution of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in the mouse brain in response to systemic ketamine treatment. We established a focused microwave irradiation-assisted IHC assay to detect phosphorylated (phospho) proteins including phospho-ERK, phospho- cAMP-response- element-binding protein (CREB), phospho- glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) and phospho- calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) with greater sensitivity and reproducibility in comparison to conventional IHC methods. A single dose of ketamine produced a robust, dose- and time-dependent increase in phospho-ERK immunoreactive (phospho-ERK-ir) neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the central nucleus of the amygdala. Phospho-ERK-ir neurons in the mPFC were primarily located in the prelimbic and anterior cingulate subregions with the morphology resembling pyramidal neurons. An increase in phospho-ERK-ir was also observed in the brainstem dorsal raphe nucleus and locus coeruleus. The NMDA GluN2B subtype receptor antagonist Ro 25-6981 increased phospho-ERK expression in the brain in a similar pattern as ketamine. In summary, we have established a sensitive and reliable focused microwave irradiation-assisted IHC assay, and defined the activation pattern of ERK, in response to systemic ketamine and Ro 25-6981 treatment, in brain regions that are potentially responsible for mediating the antidepressant effects.


Assuntos
Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Ketamina/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase 3 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/metabolismo , MAP Quinases Reguladas por Sinal Extracelular/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Receptores de AMPA/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 807: 1-11, 2017 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28438647

RESUMO

The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is thought to play an important role in human cognition. Here we describe the in vivo effects of BMS-902483, a selective potent α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, in relationship to α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor occupancy. BMS-902483 has low nanomolar affinity for rat and human α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and elicits currents in cells expressing human or rat α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that are about 60% of the maximal acetylcholine response. BMS-902483 improved 24h novel object recognition memory in mice with a minimal effective dose (MED) of 0.1mg/kg and reversed MK-801-induced deficits in a rat attentional set-shifting model of executive function with an MED of 3mg/kg. Enhancement of novel object recognition was blocked by the silent α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, NS6740, demonstrating that activity of BMS-902483 was mediated by α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. BMS-902483 also reversed ketamine-induced deficits in auditory gating in rats, and enhanced ex vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation examined 24h after dosing in mice. Results from an ex vivo brain homogenate binding assay showed that α7 receptor occupancy ranged from 64% (novel object recognition) to ~90% (set shift and gating) at the MED for behavioral and sensory processing effects of BMS-902483.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonismo Parcial de Drogas , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Quinuclidinas/farmacologia , Filtro Sensorial/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/agonistas , Animais , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células HEK293 , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Humanos , Potenciação de Longa Duração/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Ratos
12.
Neuropharmacology ; 118: 167-174, 2017 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28315351

RESUMO

Adaptor-associated kinase 1 (AAK1), a member of the Ark1/Prk1 family of serine/threonine kinases, plays a role in modulating clatherin coated endocytosis of specific surface receptors. We have demonstrated that AAK1 inhibitors are efficacious in rodent models of neuropathic pain (Kostich et al., 2016). Here we have characterized the binding properties and distribution pattern of the tritiated AAK1 radioligand, [3H]BMT-046091, in rodents and cynomolgus monkeys, and used the radioligand to measure the brain target occupancy following systemic administration of AAK1 inhibitors. We have found that [3H]BMT-046091 is potent and selective AAK1 inhibitor. It inhibits AAK1 phosphorylation of a peptide derived from a physiologic substrate, the µ2 subunit of the adaptor protein complex, with an IC50 value of 2.8 nM, and is inactive at >5 µM in a panel of functional or binding assays for receptors, transporters and enzymes. [3H]BMT-046091 binding in the brain is absent in the AAK1 knockout mouse, and is displaceable with a high concentration of AAK1 inhibitors in wild type mice. Specific [3H]BMT-046091 binding is widespread in the brain and spinal cord with the highest density in the cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, striatum and thalamus. In the spinal cord, [3H]BMT-046091 binding appears enriched in the dorsal horn superficial layers. Oral administration of LP-935509, an AAK1 inhibitor, results in a dose-dependent occupation of AAK1 binding sites in the brain and spinal cord. The increase in AAK1 binding site occupancy by LP-935509 correlates with the decrease in antinociceptive responses in the rat chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/complicações , Aminas/farmacocinética , Animais , Autorradiografia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/farmacocinética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Lateralidade Funcional , Gabapentina , Haplorrinos , Hiperalgesia/etiologia , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Naftiridinas/química , Naftiridinas/farmacocinética , Neuralgia/etiologia , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ligação Proteica/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Ensaio Radioligante , Ratos , Trítio/farmacocinética , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacocinética
13.
Oncotarget ; 8(67): 111608-111622, 2017 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29340078

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke is a cerebrovascular thrombotic disease with high morbidity and mortality. Qi deficiency blood stasis (QDBS) and Yin deficiency blood stasis (YDBS) are the two major subtypes of ischemic stroke according to the theories of traditional Chinese medicine. This study was conducted to distinguish these two syndromes at transcriptomics level and explore the underlying mechanisms. Male rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, QDBS/MCAO group and YDBS/MCAO group. Morphological changes were assessed after 24 h of reperfusion. Microarray analysis with circulating mRNA was then performed to identify differential gene expression profile, gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were carried out to predict the gene function, gene co-expression and pathway networks were constructed to identify the hub biomarkers, which were further validated by western blotting and Tunel staining analysis. Three subsets of dysregulated genes were acquired, including 445 QDBS-specific genes, 490 YDBS-specific genes and 1676 blood stasis common genes. Our work reveals for the first time that T cell receptor, MAPK and apoptosis pathway were identified as the hub pathways based on the pathway networks, while Nfκb1, Egfr and Casp3 were recognized as the hub genes by co-expression networks. This research helps contribute to a clearer understanding of the pathological characteristics of ischemic stroke with QDBS and YDBS syndrome, the proposed biomarkers might provide insight into the accurate diagnose and proper treatment for ischemic stroke with blood stasis syndrome.

14.
J Med Chem ; 59(24): 11138-11147, 2016 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002964

RESUMO

We describe a highly efficient route for the synthesis of 4a (BMS-986104). A key step in the synthesis is the asymmetric hydroboration of trisubstituted alkene 6. Particularly given the known difficulties involved in this type of transformation (6 → 7), the current methodology provides an efficient approach to prepare this class of compounds. In addition, we disclose the efficacy of 4a in a mouse EAE model, which is comparable to 4c (FTY720). Mechanistically, 4a exhibited excellent remyelinating effects on lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induced demyelination in a three-dimensional brain cell culture assay.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Receptores de Lisoesfingolipídeo/agonistas , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estrutura Molecular , Naftalenos/síntese química , Naftalenos/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
15.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 7(12): 1635-1640, 2016 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27744678

RESUMO

Combination studies of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor antagonists and serotonin-selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have shown promise in preclinical models of depression. Such a combination may offer important advantages over the current standard of care. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of an indazole-based chemotype to provide a series of potent dual NK1 receptor antagonists/serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors to overcome issues of ion channel blockade. This effort culminated in the identification of compound 9, an analogue that demonstrated favorable oral bioavailability, excellent brain uptake, and robust in vivo efficacy in a validated depression model. Over the course of this work, a novel heterocycle-directed asymmetric hydrogenation was developed to facilitate installation of the key stereogenic center.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Indazóis/farmacologia , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Antidepressivos/síntese química , Antidepressivos/química , Antidepressivos/toxicidade , Transtorno Depressivo/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Gerbillinae , Humanos , Indazóis/síntese química , Indazóis/química , Indazóis/toxicidade , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1/síntese química , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1/química , Antagonistas do Receptor de Neuroquinina-1/toxicidade , Ratos , Receptores da Neurocinina-1/metabolismo , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/síntese química , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/química , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/toxicidade , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Regulador Transcricional ERG/metabolismo
16.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 16: 106, 2016 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27576498

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Defects in distal oesophageal peristalsis was thought to be an indication of incomplete bolus transit (BT). However, the role of transition zone (TZ) defects in the BT in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients needs clarification. The aim of this study was to assess the TZ defects in GORD patients and to explore the relationship between TZ defects and BT. METHODS: One hundred and two patients with reflux symptoms and 20 healthy adults were included in the study. All subjects underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, high resolution impedance manometry (HRiM) and 24-h ambulatory multichannel impedance-pH (MII-pH) monitoring. Patients were subgrouped into reflux oesophagitis (RE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), hypersensitive oesophagus (HO) and functional heartburn (FH) classified following MII-pH monitoring. Oesophageal pressure topography was analysed to define TZ defects by spatial or temporal TZ measurements exceeding 2 cm or 1 s, weak and fragmented swallows were excluded, and the association between TZ and BT was investigated. RESULTS: Following liquid swallows, there were no significant differences in TZ delay time and TZ length between groups (RE: 1.75 s (1.32-2.17) and 2.50 cm (2.40-3.20); NERD: 1.60 s (1.10-2.00) and 2.20 cm (2.10-2.65); HO: 1.60 s (1.30-1.80) and 2.70 cm (2.30-3.00); FH: 1.55 s (1.20-2.17) and 3.10 cm (2.25-5.00); Healthy volunteers: 1.50 s (1.20-1.90) and 2.30 cm (2.10-3.00). However, individuals with TZ defects had lower complete BT rates compared with those without TZ defects (p < 0.001). There were also significantly more incomplete BT in patients with RE, HO and FH than in healthy controls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In GORD patients, TZ defects correlated with proximal bolus retention in the corresponding area independent of distal weak peristalsis.


Assuntos
Junção Esofagogástrica/fisiopatologia , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/fisiopatologia , Peristaltismo/fisiologia , Adulto , Impedância Elétrica , Monitoramento do pH Esofágico , Esôfago/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 358(3): 371-86, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27411717

RESUMO

To identify novel targets for neuropathic pain, 3097 mouse knockout lines were tested in acute and persistent pain behavior assays. One of the lines from this screen, which contained a null allele of the adapter protein-2 associated kinase 1 (AAK1) gene, had a normal response in acute pain assays (hot plate, phase I formalin), but a markedly reduced response to persistent pain in phase II formalin. AAK1 knockout mice also failed to develop tactile allodynia following the Chung procedure of spinal nerve ligation (SNL). Based on these findings, potent, small-molecule inhibitors of AAK1 were identified. Studies in mice showed that one such inhibitor, LP-935509, caused a reduced pain response in phase II formalin and reversed fully established pain behavior following the SNL procedure. Further studies showed that the inhibitor also reduced evoked pain responses in the rat chronic constriction injury (CCI) model and the rat streptozotocin model of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Using a nonbrain-penetrant AAK1 inhibitor and local administration of an AAK1 inhibitor, the relevant pool of AAK1 for antineuropathic action was found to be in the spinal cord. Consistent with these results, AAK1 inhibitors dose-dependently reduced the increased spontaneous neural activity in the spinal cord caused by CCI and blocked the development of windup induced by repeated electrical stimulation of the paw. The mechanism of AAK1 antinociception was further investigated with inhibitors of α2 adrenergic and opioid receptors. These studies showed that α2 adrenergic receptor inhibitors, but not opioid receptor inhibitors, not only prevented AAK1 inhibitor antineuropathic action in behavioral assays, but also blocked the AAK1 inhibitor-induced reduction in spinal neural activity in the rat CCI model. Hence, AAK1 inhibitors are a novel therapeutic approach to neuropathic pain with activity in animal models that is mechanistically linked (behaviorally and electrophysiologically) to α2 adrenergic signaling, a pathway known to be antinociceptive in humans.


Assuntos
Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Neuralgia/fisiopatologia , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/deficiência , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Ratos , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/enzimologia , Medula Espinal/fisiopatologia
18.
Springerplus ; 5(1): 757, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27386242

RESUMO

In recent years, social network services have grown rapidly. The number of friends of each user using social network services has also increased significantly and is so large that clustering and managing these friends has become difficult. In this paper, we propose an algorithm called mCAF that automatically clusters friends. Additionally, we propose methods that define the distance between different friends based on different sets of measurements. Our proposed mCAF algorithm attempts to reduce the effort and time required for users to manage their friends in social network services. The proposed algorithm could be more flexible and convenient by implementing different privacy settings for different groups of friends. According to our experimental results, we find that the improved ratios between mCAF and SCAN are 35.8 % in similarity and 84.9 % in F 1 score.

19.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159996, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27467081

RESUMO

The development of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists is considered a promising approach for the treatment of cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia patients. In the present studies we characterized the novel agent, (2R)-N-(6-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)-4-pyrimidinyl)-4'H-spiro[4-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,5'-[1,3]oxazol]-2'-amine (BMS-933043), in vitro and in rodent models of schizophrenia-like deficits in cognition and sensory processing. BMS-933043 showed potent binding affinity to native rat (Ki = 3.3 nM) and recombinant human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (Ki = 8.1 nM) and agonist activity in a calcium fluorescence assay (EC50 = 23.4 nM) and whole cell voltage clamp electrophysiology (EC50 = 0.14 micromolar (rat) and 0.29 micromolar (human)). BMS-933043 exhibited a partial agonist profile relative to acetylcholine; the relative efficacy for net charge crossing the cell membrane was 67% and 78% at rat and human alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors respectively. BMS-933043 showed no agonist or antagonist activity at other nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes and was at least 300 fold weaker at binding to and antagonizing human 5-HT3A receptors (Ki = 2,451 nM; IC50 = 8,066 nM). BMS-933043 treatment i) improved 24 hour novel object recognition memory in mice (0.1-10 mg/kg, sc), ii) reversed MK-801-induced deficits in Y maze performance in mice (1-10 mg/kg, sc) and set shift performance in rats (1-10 mg/kg, po) and iii) reduced the number of trials required to complete the extradimensional shift discrimination in neonatal PCP treated rats performing the intra-dimensional/extradimensional set shifting task (0.1-3 mg/kg, po). BMS-933043 also improved auditory gating (0.56-3 mg/kg, sc) and mismatch negativity (0.03-3 mg/kg, sc) in rats treated with S(+)ketamine or neonatal phencyclidine respectively. Given this favorable preclinical profile BMS-933043 was selected for further development to support clinical evaluation in humans.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Espiro/uso terapêutico , Receptor Nicotínico de Acetilcolina alfa7/agonistas , Animais , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Quinuclidinas/farmacologia , Ensaio Radioligante , Ratos , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Compostos de Espiro/farmacologia
20.
ACS Med Chem Lett ; 7(3): 289-93, 2016 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26985317

RESUMO

Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) are of interest due to their potential therapeutic utility in schizophrenia and other cognitive disorders. Herein we describe the discovery and optimization of a novel oxazolidinone-based chemotype to identify BMS-955829 (4), a compound with high functional PAM potency, excellent mGluR5 binding affinity, low glutamate fold shift, and high selectivity for the mGluR5 subtype. The low fold shift and absence of agonist activity proved critical in the identification of a molecule with an acceptable preclinical safety profile. Despite its low fold shift, 4 retained efficacy in set shifting and novel object recognition models in rodents.

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