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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512131

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is accompanied with widespread impairment in social-emotional functioning. Classification of ASD using sensitive morphological features derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain may help us to better understand ASD-related mechanisms and improve related automatic diagnosis. Previous studies using T1 MRI scans in large heterogeneous ABIDE dataset with typical development (TD) controls reported poor classification accuracies (around 60%). This may because they only considered surface-based morphometry (SBM) as scalar estimates (such as cortical thickness and surface area) and ignored the neighboring intrinsic geometry information among features. In recent years, the shape-related SBM achieves great success in discovering the disease burden and progression of other brain diseases. However, when focusing on local geometry information, its high dimensionality requires careful treatment in its application to machine learning. To address the above challenges, we propose a novel pipeline for ASD classification, which mainly includes the generation of surface-based features, patch-based surface sparse coding and dictionary learning, Max-pooling and ensemble classifiers based on adaptive optimizers. The proposed pipeline may leverage the sensitivity of brain surface morphometry statistics and the efficiency of sparse coding and Max-pooling. By introducing only the surface features of bilateral hippocampus that derived from 364 male subjects with ASD and 381 age-matched TD males, this pipeline outperformed five recent MRI-based ASD classification studies with >80% accuracy in discriminating individuals with ASD from TD controls. Our results suggest shape-related SBM features may further boost the classification performance of MRI between ASD and TD.

2.
Immunotherapy ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012209

RESUMO

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between smoking status and efficacy of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors compared with conventional agents. Materials & methods: We reviewed Phase II/III trials of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors that reported hazard ratio (HR) in current/former and never smoking patients. Results: 15 qualifying trials comprising 9073 patients were eligible in this study. Compared with conventional agents, PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors correlated with prolonged progression-free survival (HR: 0.73; 0.58-0.92) and overall survival (HR: 0.75; 0.71-0.80) in current/former smoker patients but not in never-smoker patients (HR: 1.15 and 0.86 for progression-free survival and overall survival, respectively; both p > 0.05) irrespective of cancer type, target of experimental agents and treatment strategy. Conclusion: There exit smoking status-based efficacy difference in anti-PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.

3.
Ann Neurol ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016348

RESUMO

NOTCH2NLC GGC repeat expansions were recently identified in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID); however, it remains unclear whether they occur in other neurodegenerative disorders. This study aimed to investigate the role of intermediate-length NOTCH2NLC GGC repeat expansions in Parkinson's disease (PD). We screened for GGC repeat expansions in a cohort of 1011 PD patients and identified 11 patients with intermediate-length repeat expansions ranging 41-52 repeats, with no repeat expansions in 1134 controls. Skin biopsy revealed phospho-alpha synuclein deposition, confirming the PD diagnosis in two patients harboring intermediate-length repeat expansions, who had previously been diagnosed with NIID or essential tremors. Fibroblasts from PD patients harboring intermediate-length repeat expansions revealed NOTCH2NLC upregulation and autophagic dysfunction. Our results suggest that intermediate-length repeat expansions in NOTCH2NLC are potentially associated with PD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Anal Chem ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027589

RESUMO

Plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) in hybrid plasmonic-molecular systems has a broad range of applications from catalysis to analytical/biochemical/biophysical imaging and sensing. Herein, we experimentally and theoretically probed the influence of the distance (d) between the plasmonic nanoparticle and the conjugated molecules on the PRET efficiency (ηPRET) using two PRET systems, which involved tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA) or Cy3 molecules as acceptors and single spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as donors. The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) sequences precisely adjusted within 12.0 nm were utilized as a donor-acceptor spacer. Then, the ηPRET of the two systems under varied d-values was available from the reduction of the scattering intensity of AuNPs. Both experimental and quasi-static approximation data show that ηPRET displays a d-value-dependent decay function. This study would provide new insights into optimal PRET-based chemical/biochemical sensors.

5.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028984

RESUMO

Sustained elevation of corticosterone (CORT) is one of the common causes of aging and major depression disorder. However, the role of elevated CORT in late life depression (LLD) has not been elucidated. In this study, 18-month-old female rats were subjected to bilateral adrenalectomy or sham surgery. Their CORT levels in plasma were adjusted by CORT replacement and the rats were divided into high-level CORT (H-CORT), low-level CORT (L-CORT), and Sham group. We showed that L-CORT rats displayed attenuated depressive symptoms and memory defects in behavioral tests as compared with Sham or H-CORT rats. Furthermore, we showed that glutamatergic transmission was enhanced in L-CORT rats, evidenced by enhanced population spike amplitude (PSA) recorded from the dentate gyrus of hippocampus in vivo and increased glutamate release from hippocampal synaptosomes caused by high frequency stimulation or CORT exposure. Intracerebroventricular injection of an enzymatic glutamate scavenger system, glutamic-pyruvic transmine (GPT, 1 µM), significantly increased the PSA in Sham rats, suggesting that extracelluar accumulation of glutamate might be the culprit of impaired glutamatergic transmission, which was dependent on the uptake by Glt-1 in astrocytes. We revealed that hippocampal Glt-1 expression level in the L-CORT rats was much higher than in Sham and H-CORT rats. In a gradient neuron-astrocyte coculture, we found that the expression of Glt-1 was decreased with the increase of neural percentage, suggesting that impairment of Glt-1 might result from the high level of CORT contributed neural damage. In sham rats, administration of DHK that inhibited Glt-1 activity induced significant LLD symptoms, whereas administration of RIL that promoted glutamate uptake significantly attenuated LLD. All of these results suggest that glutamatergic transmission impairment is one of important pathogenesis in LLD induced by high level of CORT, which provide promising clues for the treatment of LLD.

6.
Clin Genet ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020905

RESUMO

The subcortical maternal complex (SCMC) is an oocyte-to-embryo-specific maternal functional module. Some variants of SCMC genes that contribute to pre-implantation embryonic arrest have been identified. However, more novel variants should be identified to broaden the phenotypic and genetic spectrum of SCMC genes and establish their roles in embryonic development. We identified 13 novel variants in the SCMC genes, TLE6, NLRP5, NLRP2 and PADI6, from 10 of a total of 50 infertile females with recurrent preimplantation embryonic arrest. Six variants in TLE6 were found in five patients with embryonic arrest, accompanied by direct cleavage and severe fragmentation at the cleavage stage. Three patients carried NLRP5 variants, and one patient each who carried NLRP2 and PADI6 variants had subsequent poor or failed fertilization and cleavage arrest with a relatively lower ratio of severely fragmented embryos. Our findings expand the genetic and phenotypic spectrum of SCMC gene variants associated with human embryogenesis and might help lay the foundation for the genetic diagnosis of female infertility.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002365

RESUMO

We earlier showed that Ang II- induced overexpression of Giα proteins contributes to the hyperproliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In addition, the implication of JAK2/STAT3 pathway in Ang II-induced hyperproliferation of VSMC has also been reported. However, the role of JAK2/STAT3 pathway in Ang II-induced overexpression of Giα proteins and hyperproliferation of VSMC remains unexplored. In the present study, we show that inhibition or knockdown of JAK2/STAT3 pathway by a specific inhibitor 'Cucurbitacin I' (CuI) or siRNAs attenuated Ang II-induced overexpression of Giα proteins and hyperproliferation of VSMC. In addition, the enhanced expression of cell cycle proteins induced by Ang II was also attenuated by CuI. Furthermore, Ang II-induced enhanced production of superoxide anion (O2-), H2O2, NADPH oxidase activity, as well as the enhanced expression of NADPH oxidase subunits implicated in enhanced expression of Giα proteins and hyperproliferation were also attenuated by inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 pathway. On the other hand, Ang II-induced inhibition/augmentation of the levels of nitric oxide/ peroxynitrite in VSMC were restored to control levels by CuI. In summary, our results demonstrate that Ang II through JAK2/STAT3 pathway increases nitroxidative stress which contributes to the overexpression of Giα proteins, cell cycle proteins and hyperproliferation of VSMC.

8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 601, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028240

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) is a potentially lethal condition of pregnant women with a high mortality rate. Potential predictors related to postpartum recovery time and prognostic factors of AFLP are still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate potential predictors for prognosis and postpartum recovery time of AFLP. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 76 AFLP patients in our hospital from 2002 to 2017 and investigated potential predictors using univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) was found to be associated with prognosis in AFLP patients (P = 0.005, OR = 26.844). The postpartum recovery time analysis showed that AFLP patients with a age < 25 had the shortest recovery time, but no significant difference (P = 0.134, OR = 5.952). The postpartum recovery time of patients with liver failure (LF) was significantly prolonged compared to those without LF (P = 0.036, OR = 10.052). Cryoprecipitate, and plasma infusion showed no significant effect on prognosis or recovery time. Artificial liver support therapy (ALST) had no effect on prognosis, but it might affect postpartum recovery time with no statistical significance (P = 0.128, OR = 5.470). CONCLUSION: HE is a potential predictor for prognosis of AFLP. LF is a potential predictor for postpartum recovery time.

9.
New Phytol ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037639

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) regulates the deployment of a phalanx of immune responses, chief among these is the activation of a constellation of defence-related genes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The Arabidopsis thaliana zinc finger transcription factor (ZF-TF), S-nitrosothiol (SNO) Regulated 1 (SRG1), is a central target of NO bioactivity during plant immunity. Here we characterise the remaining members of the SRG gene family. Both SRG2 and especially SRG3, were positive regulators of salicylic acid-dependent plant immunity. Informatively, analysis of SRG single, double and triple mutants, implied SRG family members have additive functions in plant immunity and surprisingly are under reciprocal regulation. SRG2 and SRG3 localised to the nucleus and functioned as EAR domain-dependent transcriptional repressors: NO abolished this activity for SRG3 but not SRG2. Consistently, loss of GSNOR function, resulting in increased (S)NO levels, fully suppressed the disease resistance phenotype established from SRG3 but not SRG2 over-expression. Remarkably, SRG3 but not SRG2 was S-nitrosylated in vitro and in vivo. Our findings suggest the SRG family has separable functions in plant immunity and surprisingly, these ZF-TFs exhibit reciprocal regulation. Remarkably, through neo-functionalization, the SRG family has evolved to become differentially regulated by the key, immune-related redox cue, NO.

10.
New Phytol ; 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006771

RESUMO

Post-translational modification of proteins mediated by SIZ1, a small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase, regulates multiple biological processes in plants. However, its role in the regulation of lateral root formation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the apple SUMO E3 ligase MdSIZ1 promotes lateral root formation. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, the auxin response factor MdARF8 was screened out as a protein-protein interaction partner of the SUMO-conjugating E2 enzyme MdSCE1, indicating that MdARF8 may be a substrate for MdSIZ1. The interaction between MdARF8 and MdSCE1 was confirmed by pull-down, Y2H, and Co-IP assays. MdSIZ1 enhanced the conjugating enzyme activity of MdSCE1 to form a MdSCE1-MdSIZ1-MdARF8 complex, thereby facilitating SUMO modification. We identified two arginine substitution mutations at K342 and K380 in MdARF8 that blocked MdSIZ1-mediated SUMOylation, indicating that K342 and K380 are the principal SUMOylation sites of the MdARF8 protein. Moreover, MdARF8 promoted lateral root formation in transgenic apple plants, and the phenotype of reduced lateral roots in the Arabidopsis siz1-2 mutant was restored in siz1-2/MdARF8 complementary plants. Our findings reveal an important role for sumoylation in the regulation of lateral root formation in plants.

11.
Eur J Med Chem ; 207: 112784, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007722

RESUMO

Exosomes are cystic vesicles secreted by living cells with a phospholipid bilayer membrane. Importantly, these vesicles could serve to carry lipids, proteins, genetic materials, and transmit biological information in vivo. The cell-specific proteins and genetic materials in exosomes are capable of reflecting their cell origin and physiological status. Based on the different tissues and cells (macrophage, dendritic cells, tumor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, various body fluids, and so on), exosomes exhibit different characteristics and functions. Furthermore, owing to their high delivery efficiency, biocompatibility, and multifunctional properties, exosomes are expected to become a new means of drug delivery, disease diagnosis, immunotherapy, and precise treatment. At the same time, in order to supplement or enhance the therapeutic applicability of exosomes, chemical or biological modifications can be used to broaden, change or improve their therapeutic capabilities. This review focuses on three aspects: the characteristics and original functions of exosomes secreted by different cells, the modification and transformation of exosomes, and the application of exosomes in different diseases.

12.
Chemosphere ; 264(Pt 1): 128439, 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011477

RESUMO

Diclofenac (DCF), naproxen (NPX) and ibuprofen (IBF) are three of the most commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) worldwide. They are widely detected in natural waters due to their persistence in wastewater treatment, and their removal is desirable in future wastewater management worldwide. In this study, "acid catalyst" functionalisation and subsequent carbonisation were adopted to synthesise a P-doped microporous carbonous adsorbent (CScPA) for NSAID removal. The CScPA was evaluated in depth for its adsorption performance (i.e., isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics of adsorption at lab-scale). The CScPA had a large surface area (791.1 m2/g) and good porosity (0.392 cm3/g), which facilitated a high maximum adsorption capacity of 62.02 mg/g for a NSAID mixture. Thermodynamic data indicated that the adsorption of these NSAIDs was an endothermic process determined by physisorption (low-energy interactions). XPS analysis revealed the specific interactions involved in the adsorption process, including π-π and n-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interactions and hydrogen (H-) bonding. The Freundlich isotherm and Elovich kinetic model provided the best fit to the experimental results, which indicated surface heterogeneity (of the CScPA) and cooperative adsorption mechanisms. The adsorption process was shown to have potential to be applied to real wastewater effluent containing NSAIDs at low environmentally relevant concentrations (removal reached > 90% at 10 µg/L). Analysis of different implementation and cost related factors suggested that the CScPA has the potential for use with "real-world" water matrices, offering a sustainable treatment process for pharmaceutical remediation in wastewater.

13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1868(1): 118856, 2020 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931817

RESUMO

NIR, a novel INHAT, negatively regulates the transcription activity of tumor repressor p53. However, if NIR functions in the tumorigenesis dependent on the regulation of p53 remains unknown. Here, we report that NIR promotes progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) through regulating RB function. Firstly, we found that NIR expression is upregulated in the human CRC tissues and significantly associated with the poor outcome of the patients. Sequence alignment shows that NIR contains an RB-binding motif LxCxE in its INHAT-2 domain. We demonstrate that NIR interacts with RB via INHAT-2 in CRC cells and promotes RB degradation through proteasome-mediated pathway. Further, either full-length GFP-NIR or GFP-NIR-INHAT2 facilitates poly-ubiquitination of RB. In addition, NIR inhibits RB acetylation by INHAT-2, suggesting NIR might promote RB degradation through inhibiting RB acetylation. Importantly, endogenous NIR is downregulated upon DNA damage, which is consistent with the upregulation of total level and acetylation of RB. We further show that Flag-NIR inhibits DNA damage-induced RB acetylation. Thus, downregulation of NIR might contribute to maintain the cellular homeostasis under DNA damage. Consequently, depletion of NIR inhibits cell proliferation and tumor growth in mouse xenografts. Taken together, we demonstrate that NIR promotes CRC progression partially through inhibiting RB acetylation and promoting RB degradation. Targeting NIR may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for NIR-upregulated CRC patients.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993286

RESUMO

Waterborne superhydrophobic coatings have attracted tremendous attention recently, but their practical applications are severely limited by hydrophobic instability and poor mechanical durability. Herein, a novel robust waterborne PTFE-CP&MgO-AOP superhydrophobic coating was successfully fabricated by reinforcing composite interfaces. Combined with the self-polymerization of dopamine and the in-situ grown MgO, CNTs-polydopamine&MgO (CP&MgO) particles with improved interfacial compatibility were obtained. Through the cross-linking and hydrogen bonding interactions, phosphate networks (CP&MgO-AOP) with aluminum orthophosphate (AOP) binder were formed during dehydration polymerization. The phosphate networks not only enhanced the interfacial interaction among CP&MgO to form coral-like structures, but also strengthened the interfacial binding force between the waterborne PTFE coating and the substrate. With the enhanced composite interfacial strength, the waterborne PTFE-CP&MgO-AOP coating exhibited excellent wear-resistance, which can withstand more than 1.27 × 105 abrasion cycles. Moreover, the chemical bonding between the functional groups of phosphate networks and metal substrate improved the adhesion strength from Grade 5 to 1. Furthermore, the prepared coating surface with the reticular/coral-like composite structures can lock stable gas layer to maintain excellent hydrophobic stability, even under the condition of strong acidic/alkaline, high temperature, xenon lamp irradiation and mechanical wear. Thus, this study is expected to open new insights into interficial enhancement of robust waterborne superhydrophobic coatings.

16.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996155

RESUMO

Amoxicillin is used to treat various bacterial infections (eg, pneumonia, sepsis, meningitis) in infants. Despite its frequent use, there is a lack of population pharmacokinetic studies in infants, resulting in a substantial variability in dosing regimens used in clinical practice. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetics of intravenous amoxicillin in infants and suggest an optimal dosage regimen. Blood samples were collected for the determination of amoxicillin concentrations using an opportunistic sampling strategy. The amoxicillin plasma concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using NONMEM. A total of 62 pharmacokinetic samples from 47 infants (age range, 0.09 to 2.0 years) were available for analysis. A 2-compartment model with first-order elimination was most suitable to describe the population pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, and covariate analysis showed that only current body weight was a significant covariate. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that the currently used dosage regimen (25 mg/kg twice daily) resulted in only 22.4% of infants reaching their pharmacodynamic target, using a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) break point of 2 mg/L, whereas a dosage regimen (60 mg/kg thrice daily), as supported by the British National Formulary for Children, resulted in 80.9% of infants achieving their pharmacodynamic target. It is recommended to change antibiotics for infections caused by Escherichia coli (MIC = 8.0 mg/L) because only 27.9% of infants reached target using 60 mg/kg thrice daily.

17.
Vaccine ; 38(44): 6904-6913, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907758

RESUMO

Streptococcus suis, a major zoonotic pathogen in swine, can be classified into 35 serotypes. However, no universal vaccine against the multiple serotypes of S. suis is available, though some studies have shown homologous protection. Hence, developing an effective universal vaccine to protect pigs against multiple S. suis serotypes is necessary, or at the very least, to protect pigs against diseases caused by the dominant pathogenic serotypes. Enolase, a highly conserved surface protein, is present in all of the described S. suis serotypes. rSC0016 is an improved recombinant attenuated S. Choleraesuis vaccine vector, combining a sopB mutation with regulated delayed systems, achieving an adequate balance between host safety and immunogenicity. In order to develop a universal vaccine against the multiple serotypes of S. suis, a novel recombinant vaccine strain rSC0016 that carries a heterologous antigen enolase was developed in this study. According, it was found that the recombinant vaccine strain rSC0016(pS-Enolase) exhibited better colonization compared to the vaccine control strain rSC0018(pYA3493). In addition, a mouse model immunized with the strain rSC0016(pS-Enolase) elicited significant IgG antibody responses against both enolase and Salmonella antigens, while inducing good mucosal, humoral, and cellular immune responses against enolase. Finally, immunization with rSC0016(pS-Enolase) was shown to confer 100%, 80%, and 100% protection against the serotypes of SS2, SS7, and SS9, respectively, and significantly reduced histopathological lesions in mice. Overall, this study provides a promising universal vaccine candidate for use against the multiple serotypes of S. suis.

18.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 632, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Management of Rüedi-Allgöwer III or AO/OTA type C3 pilon fracture presents numerous challenges to the orthopaedic surgeon. A joint preservation technique using a large autologous ilium with periosteum in combination with internal implant fixation was reported to improve the outcome of reconstruction. METHODS: Twenty-five patients according to Tscherne/Oestern FxCO-I closed fracture and FxOI open fractures classification after Rüedi-Allgöwer III or AO/OTA type C3 pilon fracture received a large autologous ilium with periosteum for tibiotalar joint reconstruction and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), between March 2015 and September 2018. The visual analog scale (VAS), American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society (AOFAS) score, and Burwell and Charnley criteria were used for outcome analysis. RESULTS: Twenty patients with an average age of 45.2 years were followed for an average of 18.3 months. The VAS and AOFAS scores, and Burwell and Charnley ratings were recorded at the last follow-up after reconstructive surgery. Two patients developed redness and swelling at the wound site, but recovered after local care and dressing changes. No patient displayed deep surgical site infection, donor site complication, non-union or local complication during the final follow-up. The average bone union time was 18.3 months (range 3-36). CONCLUSIONS: Large autologous ilium with periosteum in combination with ORIF can be performed for tibiotalar joint reconstruction. This experimental procedure reduces the risk of post-operative complications following articular reconstruction for Rüedi-Allgöwer III or AO/OTA type C3 pilon fractures in short follow-up. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, retrospective cohort study.

19.
J Environ Manage ; 276: 111310, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891984

RESUMO

Tetracyclines are extensively used to treat human and animal infectious diseases due to its effective antimicrobial activities. About 70-90% of its parent materials are released into the environment through urine and feces, implying they are the most frequently detected antibiotics in the environment with high ecological risks. Adsorption and photocatalysis have been promising techniques for the removal of tetracyclines due to effectiveness and efficiency. Graphene-based materials provide promising platforms for adsorptive and photocatalytic removal of tetracyclines from aqueous environment owning to distinctive remarkable physicochemical, optical, and electrical characteristics. Herein, we intensively reviewed the available literatures in order to provide comprehensive insight about the applications and mechanisms of graphene-based materials for removal of tetracyclines via adsorption and phototocatalysis. The synthesis methods of graphene-based materials, the tetracycline adsorption and photocatalytic-degradation conditions, and removal mechanisms have been extensively discussed. Finally concluding remarks and future perspectives have been deduced and recommended to stimulate further researches in the subject. The review study can be used as theoretical guideline for further researchers to improve the current approaches of material synthesis and application towards tetracyclines removal.

20.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1580-1588, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981359

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess current level of sodium and potassium intake and their associations with blood pressure (BP) using the 24-hour urinary data in a large sample of China. Data from participants aged 18 to 75 years were collected as the baseline survey of Action on Salt China in 2018. Of 5454 adults, 5353 completed 24-hour urine collection. The average sodium, potassium excretion, and sodium-to-potassium molar ratio were 4318.1±1814.1 mg/d (equivalent to 11.0±4.6 g/d of salt), 1573.7±627.1 mg/d, and 5.0±2.1, respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors and correcting for regression dilution, each 1000-mg increase in sodium excretion was associated with increased systolic BP (1.32 mm Hg [95% CI, 0.92-1.81]) and diastolic BP (0.34 mm Hg [95% CI, 0.09-0.60]). Each 1000-mg increase in potassium excretion was inversely associated with systolic BP (-3.19 mm Hg [95% CI, -4.38 to -2.20]) and diastolic BP (-1.56 mm Hg [95% CI, -2.29 to -0.90]). Each unit increase in sodium-to-potassium molar ratio was associated with an increase of systolic BP by 1.21 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.91-1.60) and diastolic BP by 0.44 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.24-0.64). The relationships between sodium and BP mostly increase with the rise of BP quantiles. Potassium shows the opposite trend. The current sodium intake in Chinese adults remains high and potassium intake is low. Sodium and sodium-to-potassium ratio were positively associated with BP, whereas potassium was inversely associated with BP. Registration- URL: https://tinyurl.com/vdr8rpr; Unique identifier: ChiCTR1800017553. URL: https://tinyurl.com/w8c7x3w; Unique identifier: ChiCTR1800016804. URL: https://tinyurl.com/s3ajldw; Unique identifier: ChiCTR1800018119.

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