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1.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 9166370, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35340587

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) lies at the apex of signal transduction cascades that results in induced destruction of joints in rheumatoid arthritis. It is therefore of great medicinal interest to modulate the cellular responses to TNF-α. Ebosin, a novel exopolysaccharide derived from Streptomyces sp, has been demonstrated to have remarkable therapeutic actions on collagen-induced arthritis in rats, while it also suppressed the production of IL-1ß, TNF-α, and IL-6 at both mRNA and protein levels in cultured fibroblast-like synoviocytes. In order to further understand the potential mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of ebosin at molecular level, we investigated the impact of it on the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways following TNF-α induced in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). The results showed that the phosphorylation levels of TNF-α-induced p38, JNK1, JNK2, IKKα, IKKß, and IκB, as well as NF-κB nuclear translocation, were reduced significantly in FLS cells in response to ebosin. Furthermore, we proved that ebosin decreased the level of NF-κB in the nucleus and blocked the DNA-binding ability of NF-κB using electrophoresis mobility gel shift assay. Besides, low levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-3) and chemokines (interleukin-8 and RANTES) were found in TNF-α-stimulated fibroblast-like synoviocytes treated with ebosin. These results indicate that ebosin can suppress a range of activities in both MAPK and NF-κB pathways induced by TNF-α in rat fibroblast-like synoviocytes, which provides a rationale for examining the use of ebosin as a potential therapeutic candidate for rheumatic arthritis.


Assuntos
NF-kappa B , Sinoviócitos , Animais , Fibroblastos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Ratos , Sinoviócitos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
2.
Adv Mater ; : e2200734, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501143

RESUMO

With the reduction of feature size and increase of integration density, the traditional three-dimensional (3D) semiconductors have been unable to meet the future requirements of chip integration. The current semiconductor fabrication technologies are approaching their physical limits based on the Moore's law. Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as graphene, transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), etc., are of great promise for future memory, logic, and photonic devices due to their unique and excellent properties. To prompt the 2D materials and devices from laboratory research stage to industrial integrated circuit-level, it is necessary to develop advanced nanopatterning methods to obtain high-quality, wafer-scale and patterned 2D products. In this article, we review the recent development of nanopatterning technologies, particularly towards realizing the large-scale practical application of 2D materials. Based on the technological progress, we further summarize the unique requirement and advances of the 2D integration process for logic, memory and optoelectronic devices. Finally, we prospect the opportunities and challenges of the nanopatterning technologies of 2D materials for future integrated chip devices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Front Nutr ; 9: 990380, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091253

RESUMO

Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was a highly salt-tolerant yeast, playing an important role in soy sauce fermentation. Previous studies reported that Z. rouxii under salt treatment produces better fermented food. However, the detailed change of main flavor substance was not clear. In this study, the physiological and transcriptomic analyses of Z. rouxii under salt treatment was investigated. The results revealed the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. Analysis of physiological data showed that the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids was significantly increased with the increment of salt concentrations. The analysis of organic acids showed that the content of succinic acid was significantly higher in the salt-treated Z. rouxii while oxalic acid was only identified at the 18% salt concentration-treated group. Results of volatile substances analysis showed that concentrations of 3-methyl-1-butanol and phenylethyl alcohol were significantly increased with the increment of salt concentrations. A comparison of transcriptome data showed that the genes involved in the TCA cycle and the linoleic acid synthesis process exhibited different expressions, which is consistent with the results of physiological data. This study helps to understand the change of main flavor substance of Z. rouxii under salt treatment and guide their applications in the high salt liquid state fermentation of the soy sauce.

4.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 2541358, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092784

RESUMO

Background: Breast cancer is a kind of cancer that starts in the epithelial tissue of the breast. Breast cancer has been on the rise in recent years, with a younger generation developing the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in breast tumor detection and treatment planning in today's clinical practice. As manual segmentation grows more time-consuming and the observed topic becomes more diversified, automated segmentation becomes more appealing. Methodology. For MRI breast tumor segmentation, we propose a CNN-SVM network. The labels from the trained convolutional neural network are output using a support vector machine in this technique. During the testing phase, the convolutional neural network's labeled output, as well as the test grayscale picture, is passed to the SVM classifier for accurate segmentation. Results: We tested on the collected breast tumor dataset and found that our proposed combined CNN-SVM network achieved 0.93, 0.95, and 0.92 on DSC coefficient, PPV, and sensitivity index, respectively. We also compare with the segmentation frameworks of other papers, and the comparison results prove that our CNN-SVM network performs better and can accurately segment breast tumors. Conclusion: Our proposed CNN-SVM combined network achieves good segmentation results on the breast tumor dataset. The method can adapt to the differences in breast tumors and segment breast tumors accurately and efficiently. It is of great significance for identifying triple-negative breast cancer in the future.


Assuntos
Aprendizado Profundo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas , Algoritmos , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/diagnóstico por imagem
5.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 189: 115-125, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36084527

RESUMO

Epidermal waxes are part of the outermost hydrophobic structures of apples and play a significant role in enhancing apple resistance and improving fruit quality. The biosynthetic precursors of epidermal waxes are very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), which are made into different wax components through various wax synthesis pathways. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the AtLACS1 protein can activate the alkane synthesis pathway to produce very long-chain acyl CoAs (VLC-acyl-CoAs), which provide substrates for wax synthesis, from VLCFAs. The apple protein MdLACS1, encoded by the MdLACS1 gene, belongs to the AMP-binding superfamily and has long-chain acyl coenzyme A synthase activity, but its function in apple remains unclear. Here, we identified MdLACS1 in apple (Malus × domestica) and analyzed its function. Our results suggest that MdLACS1 promotes wax synthesis and improves biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, which were directly or indirectly dependent on wax. Our study further refines the molecular mechanism of wax biosynthesis in apples and elucidates the physiological function of wax in resistance to external stresses. These findings provide candidate genes for the synergistic enhancement of apple fruit quality and stress tolerance.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Malus , Acil Coenzima A/metabolismo , Monofosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Alcanos/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Malus/metabolismo , Epiderme Vegetal/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ceras/metabolismo
6.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 308: 102772, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087561

RESUMO

Advances in animal husbandry and better performance of livestock results in growing demands for feed and its nutrients, bioactive compounds (bioactives), such as vitamins, minerals, proteins, and phenolics, along with drugs/vaccines. To protect the feed bioactives in unintended circumstances, they can be encapsulated to achieve desired efficacy in animal feeding and nanoencapsulation gives more potential for better protection, absorption and targeted delivery of bioactives. This study reviews structures, properties, and methods of nanoencapsulation for animal feedings and relevant drugs. Essential oil (EOs) and plant extracts are mostly encapsulated bioactives and phytochemicals for poultry diets and chitosan is found as most effective nanocarrier to load EOs and plant extracts. Nanoparticles (NPs) and nanocapsules are frequently studied nanocarriers, which are mostly processed by using the ionotropic/ionic gelation. Nanofibers, nanohydrogels and nanoemulsions are not found yet for their application in feed bioactives. These nanocarriers can have an improved protection, stability, and controlled release of feed bioactives which benefits to additional nutrition for the growth of livestock regardless of the low stability and water solubility of bioactives. For ruminants' feeds, nano-minerals, vitamins, phytochemicals, essential fatty acids, and drugs are encapsulated by NPs to facilitate the delivery to target organs through direct penetration, to improve their bioavailability, to generate more efficient absorption in cells and tissues, and protect them from rapid degradation. Furthermore, safety and regulatory issues, as well as advantages and disadvantages of nanoencapsulation application in animal feeds are also discussed. The review shows an accurate design of NPs can largely mask safety issues with straightforward approaches and awareness of safety concerns is fundamental for better designing of nanoencapsulation systems and commercialization. This review gives an insight of understanding and potential of nanoencapsulation in ruminants and poultry feedings to obtain a better bioavailability of the nutrients and bioactives with improved safety and awareness for better designing of nanoencapsulating systems.

7.
Eur J Radiol ; 156: 110504, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108474

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the diagnostic performance of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and MRI-based radiomics analysis for lymph node metastasis (LNM) detection in patients with cervical cancer (CC). METHODS: We searched relevant databases for studies on ADC values and MRI-based radiomics analysis for LNM detection in CC between January 2001 and December 2021. Methodological quality assessment of risk of bias using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 and radiomics quality score (RQS) of the studies was conducted. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. Diagnostic performance was compared between the two quantitative analyses using a two-sample Z-test. RESULTS: In total, 22 studies including 2314 patients were included. Unclear risk of bias was observed in 4.5-36.4% of the studies. The 8 radiomics studies exhibited a median (interquartile range) RQS of 13.5 (5.5-15.75). The pooled sensitivity, specificity, LR+, LR-, DOR, and AUC of the ADC values vs radiomics analysis were 0.86 vs 0.84, 0.85 vs 0.73, 5.7 vs 3.1, 0.17 vs 0.22, 34 vs 14, and 0.91 vs 0.86, respectively. There was no threshold effect or publication bias, but significant heterogeneity existed among the studies. No significant difference was detected in the diagnostic performance of the two quantitative analyses using the Z-test. CONCLUSION: ADC values are more clinically promising because they are more easily accessible and widely applied, and exhibit a non-statistically significant trend to outperform radiomics analysis.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial function plays an essential role in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) pathogenesis. Vascular elasticity is evaluated by the echo-tracking (ET) technique. In this study, we aimed to assess the clinical value of the ET technique in women with GDM and provide a basis for early evaluation and prevention of gestational diabetes. METHODS: Sixty-five patients with GDM and 65 gestational week-matched normal glucose tolerance pregnant women were enrolled in this study. The endothelial function parameters of pressure-strain elasticity coefficient (EP), the common carotid stiffness index (ß), arterial compliance (AC), single-point pulsed-wave velocity (PWVß), and augment index (AI) of bilateral common carotid arteries, were compared between the GDM and control groups by using ET technique. The correlations between plasma glucose levels and ET parameters were also analyzed. RESULTS: Our results indicated that EP, ß, PWVß, and AI were significantly higher in the GDM group (p<0.05), whereas AC was significantly lower in patients with GDM than in the control group (p<0.001). In addition, fasting plasma glucose and plasma glucose level after 2 h oral glucose tolerance test was correlated with ET parameters of EP, ß, PWVß, AI, and AC. CONCLUSIONS: The application of ET technology to gestational diabetes women could provide a basis for early evaluation and prevention of gestational diabetes. It would detect early and accurate signs of diabetes in pregnant women and provide a timely and reasonable clinical treatment plan to reduce and delay the occurrence of complications.

9.
ACS Omega ; 7(36): 32631-32639, 2022 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36119981

RESUMO

Arsenic is a kind of element widely distributed in the environment that may pose a threat to the ecological environment and human health, while effective remediation and sustainable utilization of arsenic-containing sludge is a challenge. Based on stabilization/solidification blast furnace slag-based cementitious materials (BCMs), this study innovatively proposes to improve the arsenic (As) solidification efficiency and long-term stability by using the activation mode of CaO and NaCl. The effects of different factors on the properties of the BCM were measured by unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The long-term stability and safety of the BCM were verified by leaching toxicity and improved three stage continuous extraction method (BCR) tests. Experimental results show that the addition of CaO provides conditions for the formation of ettringite (AFt), thus promoting the crystal growth of AFt. The addition of NaCl can promote the formation of Cl-AFt and play a good long-term stabilizing role. When the content of the alkali activator is 10% and the modulus is 1.0, the contents of CaO and NaCl are 10 and 1%, respectively. The BCM has the best efficiency in terms of UCS and As solidification. The UCS at 28 days was 5.4 MPa, and the leaching concentration of As was 0.309 mg/L, and the As solidification efficiency was up to 99.9%. In the improved BCR test, the proportions of residual and oxidizable states of arsenic increased by 19.6 and 13.5%, respectively, and the stability of heavy metals improved. These findings show that the BCM has good long-term stability and safety. Overall, this study shows that CaO and NaCl significantly increase the output of AFt and achieve the purpose of efficient and stable solidification of As by the BCM.

10.
Chin Herb Med ; 14(1): 58-69, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120127

RESUMO

Objective: To find a suitable ecological cultivation measure to solve the problem of root-knot nematode disease of Panax quinquefolium (Panacis Quinquefolii Radix) and the heavy metals accumulating in its roots. Methods: Three-year-old P. quinquefolium was treated with four different combinations of microbial inoculant (MI) and garbage fermentation liquid (GFL) [the joint application of 'TuXiu' MI and Fifty potassium MI (TF), the combination use of 'No. 1' MI and Fifty potassium MI (NF), 'Gulefeng' poly-γ-glutamic acid MI (PGA), GFL], and the untreated control (CK). Here, high-throughput sequencing, ICP-MS and UPLC were employed to systematically characterize changes of microbial diversity and structure composition, heavy metals (As, Cd and Pb) content and ginsenoside content among different treatments. Results: The results revealed that different MIs and GFL could increase the root dry weight of P. quinquefolium, PGA enhanced it by 83.24%, followed by GFL (49.93%), meanwhile, PGA and GFL were able to lessen root-knot nematode disease incidence by 57.25% and 64.35%. The treatment of PGA and GFL can also effectively reduce heavy metals in roots. The As content in GFL and PGA was decreased by 52.17% and 43.48% respectively, while the Cd and Pb contents of GFL and PGA was decreased somewhat. Additionally, the content of total ginsenosides was increased by 42.14% and 42.07%, in response to TF and NF, respectively. Our metagenomic analysis showed that the relative abundance of particular soil microbial community members related to the biocontrol of root-knot nematode disease and plant pathogen (i.e., Chaetomium in NF, Xylari in GFL, and Microascus in PGA), heavy metal bioremediation (Hyphomacrobium in PGA and Xylaria in GFL), and nitrogen fixation (Nordella and Nitrospira in TF) was significantly increased; notably, potential harmful microflora, such as Plectosaphaerella and Rhizobacter, were more abundant in the control group. Conclusion: MI and GFL could improve the quality of P. quinquefolium by modifying its rhizosphere microbial community structure and composition, both of them are beneficial to the development of ecological cultivation of P. quinquefolium.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36122677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: &Aims: Src homology and collagen (Shc) proteins are major adapters to extra-cellular signals however the regulatory role of Shc isoforms in sterile inflammatory responses in alcoholic hepatitis (AH) has not been fully investigated. We hypothesized that in an isoform-specific manner Shc modulates pre-apoptotic signals, calreticulin (CRT) membrane exposure and recruitment of inflammatory cells. METHODS: Liver biopsy samples from patients with AH vs. healthy subjects were studied for Shc expression using DNA microarray data and immunohistochemistry. ShcKD (hypomorph) and age-matched wild type (WT) mice were pair-fed according to the chronic-plus-binge alcohol (NIAAA) diet. To analyze hepatocyte-specific effects, AAV8-TBG-Cre (ShcHepKO)-mediated deletion was performed in fl/fl Shc mice. Lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory signals, redox radicals, NADH/NAD+ ratio, as well as cleaved caspase 8, BAP31, Bax, and Bak, in vivo. CRT translocation was studied in ethanol-exposed p46ShcẟSH2-transfected hepatocytes by membrane biotinylation in conjunction with p-Eif2α, BAP31, caspase 8, Bax/Bak. The effects of idebenone, a novel Shc inhibitor was studied in alcohol/pair-fed mice. RESULTS: Shc was significantly induced in patients with AH (p<0.01). ALT, NADH/NAD+ ratios, production of redox radicals, lipid peroxidation improved (p<0.05), and IL-1ß, MCP-1, and CXCL10 were reduced in ShcKD and ShcHepKO mice. In vivo, Shc-dependent induction, and in hepatocytes, p46Shc-dependent increase in pre-apoptotic proteins Bax/Bak, caspase 8, BAP31 cleavage and membrane translocation of CRT/Erp57 were seen. Idebenone protected against alcohol-mediated liver injury. CONCLUSION: Alcohol induces p46Shc-dependent activation of pre-apoptotic pathways and translocation of CRT to the membrane, where it acts as a DAMP, instigating immunogenicity. Shc inhibition could be a novel treatment strategy in AH.

13.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; : 17470218221129853, 2022 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36123780

RESUMO

Time structure refers to the ratio of time spent moving during visible segments and occluded segments in position prediction motion (PM) tasks. Recent research has found that an equal time structure can improve performance in position prediction motion tasks. However, there is no research to explore the influence of time structure on number PM task. In three behavioral experiments, this study explored whether an equal time structure improved number prediction motion performance, as it did in position tasks. The results demonstrated that an equal time structure could improve participant performance in the number prediction motion task (Experiment 1). However, equal time structures did not improve task performance when the numbers before the transition number were presented regularly one by one (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 showed that participants could actively take advantage of equal time information when the numbers before the transition number were presented irregularly. These findings demonstrated that when the number sequence was not presented in order, people could use the time structure heuristics to estimate CTEs. People could sub-vocally count through mental number space when the number sequence was presented in order.

14.
Chem Biodivers ; 2022 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125239

RESUMO

(+)-Talarolactone C ( 1 ), Talarolactone A ( 2 ), Talarolactone B ( 3 , sulfoxide derivative), and Talarolactone D ( 4 , sulfone derivative) were isolated from Talaromyces sp. which was cultured in rice medium with sodium butyrate. The structures of talarolactone analogues above were characterized by a combination of spectroscopic, X-ray crystallographic, and computational methods. These talarolactones and Talarolactone A sodium ( 5 ) with the same carbon skeleton showed different fluorescence characteristics.

15.
Stem Cells Int ; 2022: 2799844, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117725

RESUMO

Background: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and their secreted extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) possess similar proregenerative effects when injected into defects immediately following trauma. However, MSC-EVs are superior to MSCs in terms of storage and rejection reflection, while immediate administration of MSC-EVs is related to several target cells for most donor cells die within few weeks. Besides, the inflammatory cascade is incited, providing an unfavorable environment for target cells. We hypothesized that delayed injection of MSC-EVs might have priority on tissue regeneration than instant injection. Method: Extracellular vesicles isolated from adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADSC-EVs) were administered into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro at different doses. The migration of HUVECs was assessed using the scratch wound healing assay, whereas the length of tubes and number of vessel-like structures formed by HUVECs were determined using tube formation assay. Next, 24 BALB/c nude mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8). For the EV-delayed group, ADSC-EVs were injected into transplanted fat a week later than the EV-immediate group. The volume and weight of grafts were measured at 3 months after fat transplantation. Further, the number of CD31-possitive vessels and CD206-possitive cells in the fat grafts was quantified. Results: Compared with the EV-immediate group, the EV-delayed group had a higher fat tissue retention volume (0.11 ± 0.02 mL versus 0.08 ± 0.01 mL), more neovessels (31.00 ± 4.60 versus 24.20 ± 3.97), and fewer cysts. Furthermore, there were more Ki67-positive cells (25.40 ± 7.14 versus 16.20 ± 4.17) and CD206-positive M2 macrophages cells (23.60 ± 3.44 versus 14.00 ± 3.85) in the EV-delayed group than in the EV-immediate group. Conclusion: Delayed injection of ADSC-EVs promotes fat graft volume retention by stimulating angiogenesis. These findings suggest that delayed supplementation might be a more effective strategy for the application of MSC-EVs in tissue regeneration.

16.
J Cancer ; 13(11): 3251-3257, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36118520

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading malignancy associated with cancer-related deaths worldwide. Many studies have indicated that mucin (MUC) expression plays an important role in cancer metastasis and recurrence. MUC6 expression is observed in gastric and oncocytic phenotypes and may play an important role during cancer progression. We found the level of MUC6 is lower in HCC patients but did not affect the survival of HCC patients. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the combined effect of MUC6 polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility to and clinicopathological characteristics of HCC. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of MUC6 (rs61869016, rs6597947, and rs7481521) from 1197 healthy controls and 423 HCC patients were analyzed using real-time PCR. After adjusting for other co-variants, we found that carrying a CC genotype at MUC6 rs61869016 had a lower risk of developing HCC than wildtype carriers. Moreover, patients with a smoking habit who carried the C allele of rs61869016 and T allele of rs7481521 had a higher (B or C) Child-Pugh score than other genotypes, suggesting significant functional compromise and decompensated disease. Therefore, our findings suggest that genetic variations in MUC6 may corelate to HCC and indicate progression in HCC patients.

17.
Mol Plant ; 2022 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36114668

RESUMO

Photosynthesis, which provides oxygen and energy for all living organisms, is circadian-regulated. Photosynthesis-associated metabolism must tightly coordinate with circadian clock to maximize the efficiency of the light-energy capture and carbon fixation. However, the molecular basis for the interplay of photosynthesis and circadian clock is not fully understood, particularly in crop plants. Here, we report two central oscillator genes of circadian clock, OsPRR95 and OsPRR59 in rice, which function as transcriptional repressors to negatively regulate the rhythmic expression of the chloroplast-localized Mg2+ transporter gene, OsMGT3. OsMGT3-dependent rhythmic Mg fluctuations modulate carbon fixation and consequent sugar output in rice chloroplasts. Furthermore, sugar triggers the increase of superoxide, which may act as a feedback signal to positively regulate the expression of OsPRR95 and OsPRR59. Thus, our results reveal a negative-feedback loop that strengthens the crosstalk between photosynthetic carbon fixation and circadian clock, which may provide adaptations to optimize plant performance in fluctuating environments.

18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(9): 4625-4635, 2022 Sep 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096603

RESUMO

Brackish water irrigation increases soil salinity and changes the soil environment, which affects the structure and diversity of soil fungi. In this study, the effects of biochar and straw (3.7 t·hm-2 and 6 t·hm-2, respectively) on soil physical and chemical properties and fungal community structure diversity were investigated on the basis of long-term brackish water irrigation. The results showed that compared to the absence of biochar and straw application (control), biochar application significantly increased pH and the contents of total carbon, available potassium, and available phosphorus in soil but significantly decreased the soil conductivity by 20.71%. Straw treatment significantly increased the content of available potassium and phosphorus but significantly decreased the soil bulk density and conductivity by 4.17% and 64.50%, respectively. The biochar and straw treatment showed an increasing trend in the Chao1 index and ACE index of the fungal community but a decreasing trend in the Shannon index and Simpson index. The dominant fungal phyla in the soil were Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Glomeromycota. The dominant fungal genera were Chaetomium, Gibberella, Fusarium, Idriella, and Mortierella. Biochar and straw were applied to increase the relative abundance of Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota, Basidiomycota, Glomeromycota, and Chaetomium. However, the relative abundance of Chytridomycota, Gibberella, and Idriella decreased. LEfSe analysis showed that biochar application and straw returning decreased the number of potential biomarkers in fungal communities. RDA results showed that soil fungal community structure was significantly correlated with EC1:5 and TN. Brackish irrigation had adverse effects on soil, in which EC1:5and TN were the main factors driving the change in soil fungal community structure. The soil fungal community adapted to a salt-stress environment through the improvement of soil by biochar and straw.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Carvão Vegetal , Fósforo , Potássio , Águas Salinas , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2203890, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36109187

RESUMO

Achieving robust underwater adhesion by bioadhesives remains a challenge due to interfacial water. Herein a coacervate-to-hydrogel strategy to enhance interfacial water repulsion and bulk adhesion of bioadhesives is reported. The polyethyleneimine/thioctic acid (PEI/TA) coacervate is deposited onto underwater substrates, which can effectively repel interfacial water and completely spread into substrate surface irregularities due to its liquid and water-immiscible nature. The physical interactions between coacervate and substrate can further enhance interfacial adhesion. Furthermore, driven by the spontaneous hydrophobic aggregation of TA molecules and strong electrostatic interaction between PEI and TA, the coacervate can turn into a hydrogel in situ within minutes without additional stimuli to develop enhanced matrix cohesion and robust bulk adhesion on diverse underwater substrates. Molecular dynamics simulations further reveal atomistic details of the formation and wet adhesion of the PEI/TA coacervate via multimode physical interactions. Lastly, it is demonstrated that the PEI/TA coacervate-derived hydrogel can effectively repel blood and therefore efficiently deliver the carried growth factors at wound sites, thereby enhancing wound healing in an animal model. The advantages of the PEI/TA coacervate-derived hydrogel including body fluid-immiscibility, strong underwater adhesion, adaptability to fit irregular target sites, and excellent biocompatibility make it a promising bioadhesive for diverse biomedical applications.

20.
Genomics ; : 110483, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115504

RESUMO

The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in coronary heart disease (CHD). However, only a few studies focusing on the relationship between gut microbiota and CHD in ethnic populations are available. Here, we employed shotgun sequencing of the gut metagenome to analyze the taxonomic composition and functional annotation of the gut microbiota of 14 CHD patients, 13 patients with non-stenosis coronary heart disease (NCHD), and 18 healthy controls (HT) in Tibetan subjects. We found that the α-diversity of the gut microbiota was not significantly different among the three groups., whereas ß-diversity was significantly altered in the CHD group compared with HT. Based on the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria species effectively distinguished patients with CHD from the control group. Most of the enriched species belonged to Proteobacteria. The pathways that contributed the most to the differences between groups were amino acid metabolism-related pathways, especially lysine biosynthesis. The enzymes of the lysine biosynthesis pathway, including K01714 and K00821, were significantly decreased in the CHD group. Our findings increase the understanding of the association between CHD pathogenesis and gut microbiota in the Tibetan population, thus paving the way for the development of improved diagnostic methods and treatments for Tibetan patients with CHD.

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