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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 18114, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792331

RESUMO

Thelytokous Wolbachia-infected Trichogramma spp. are widely used egg parasitoids against lepidopteran pests in biological control programs. Wolbachia may manipulate host wasps for superparasitism and is sensitive to temperature. To explore effects of temperature and superparasitism, we compared fitness parameters and Wolbachia-mediated phenotype of thelytokous Wolbachia-infected Trichogramma dendrolimi between those emerging from superparasitised or single-parasitised hosts at 17, 21, 25, or 29 °C. Infected mothers of T. dendrolimi showed reduced superparasitism and parasitism increased with temperature. Wolbachia titre decreased with temperature when females emerged from singly-parasitised hosts, but there was no correlation in superparasitised hosts. Females showed higher Wolbachia titres at 21, 25, or 29 °C when developing from superparasitised hosts. The daily male ratio of offspring increased with temperature, and the day-age threshold for 5%, 50%, or 95% daily male ratio decreased with temperature in both parasitism forms. Females that emerged from superparasitised hosts had a shorter life span and reduced fecundity. These results indicate that Wolbachia may affect host behaviour by increasing superparasitism to enhance its spread, but this has negative effects on thelytokous Wolbachia-infected T. dendrolimi.

2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 4596368, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885794

RESUMO

Tissue hypoxia caused by upper airway collapse is a main cause of excessive oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory responses affect cell survival and ultimately contribute to tissue injury. In the present study, we proposed that the induction of ROS by hypoxia, as an intrinsic stress, activates myoblast pyroptosis in OSA. We found increased cell death and abnormal expression of pyroptosis markers in the skeletal muscle of OSA mice. In vitro studies showed hypoxia-induced pyroptotic death of C2C12 myoblasts, as evidenced by the activation of caspase-1 and gasdermin D (GSDMD). Hypoxia induced ROS overproduction and accumulation in myoblasts. More importantly, applying N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an ROS scavenger, rescued cell swelling, downregulated the inflammatory response, and prevented pyroptotic death in hypoxia-cultured myoblasts. Hypoxia stimulation promoted NF-κB P65 phosphorylation and HIF-1α nuclear translocation. Moreover, hypoxia increased the nuclear level of cleaved caspase-1 and GSDMD. NAC inhibited hypoxia-induced variations in the HIF-1α and NF-κB signaling pathway. Taken together, our results determined that hypoxia-induced ROS contribute to myoblast pyroptosis. Therefore, our findings suggest that ROS may be a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating hypoxia-induced cell death and tissue injury, especially in OSA and hypoxia-related diseases.

3.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 2019 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety is a common disorder with high social burden worldwide. Dysfunction of serotonin-1A receptor (5-HT1A receptor) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus has been predominantly implicated in the anxiety behavior. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the deficiency of postsynaptic 5-HT1A receptor in regulating anxiety behavior remains unclear. METHODS: Using pharmacological and genetic methods, we investigated the role of detate nNOS in 5-HT1A receptor decline and anxiety behavior induced by chronic mild stress (CMS) in mice. RESULTS: Here we showed that local elevation of glucocorticoids in the DG accounted for chronic stress-induced anxiety behavior. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mediated chronic stress-induced downregulation of 5-HT1A receptor in the DG through peroxynitrite anion (ONOO•) pathway but not cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway. By using pharmacological tool drugs and nNOS knockout mice, we found that nNOS in the DG played a key role in chronic stress-induced anxiety behavior. CONCLUSIONS: These findings uncovered an important role of nNOS-5-HT1A receptor pathway in the DG of the hippocampus in chronic stress-induced anxiety. Accordingly, we developed a "dentate nNOS-5-HT1A receptor closed-loop" theory (stress-glucocorticoids-nNOS-Nitric oxide-ONOO•-5-HT1A receptor -nNOS) of stress-related anxiety.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(51): e17820, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860946

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With the development of economy and the acceleration of population aging, Prostate cancer (PCa) has presented a situation of high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The recent studies have shown that Chinese patent medicine combined with endocrine therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer not only plays a synergistic role in enhancing the efficacy. This review hopes to adopt meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicine in the treatment of pain caused by prostate cancer and provides evidence for its application in clinical practice. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will search for PubMed, Cochrane Library, AMED, EMbase, WorldSciNet; Nature, Science online and China Journal Full-text Database (CNKI), China Biomedical Literature CD-ROM Database (CBM), and related randomized controlled trials included in the China Resources Database. The time is limited from the construction of the library to June 2019. We will use the criteria provided by Cochrane 5.1.0 for quality assessment and risk assessment of the included studies, and use the Revman 5.3 and Stata13.0 software for meta-analysis of the effectiveness, recurrence rate, and symptom scores of pain caused by prostate cancer. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This systematic review will evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese patent medicine for pain caused by prostate cancer. Because all of the data used in this systematic review and meta-analysis has been published, this review does not require ethical approval. Furthermore, all data will be analyzed anonymously during the review process Trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42019131544.


Assuntos
Dor do Câncer/terapia , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Idoso , Dor do Câncer/diagnóstico , China , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/epidemiologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 8218650, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772710

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder characterized by abnormal hormone levels in peripheral blood and poor-quality oocytes. PCOS is a pathophysiological syndrome caused by chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of melatonin regulation on androgen production and antioxidative damage in granulosa cells from PCOS patients with hypoestrogenia and hyperandrogenia. Methods: Cumulus-oocyte complexes were collected from PCOS patients who had low levels of estrogen in follicular fluids. Results: Melatonin triggered upregulation of cytochrome P450 family 19 subfamily A member 1 (CYP19A1) expression via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway in luteinized granulosa cells. As a result, conversion of androgen to 17ß-estradiol was accelerated. We also found that melatonin significantly reduced the levels of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthetase and NO in luteinized granulosa cells. Levels of transcripts encoding NF-E2-related factor-2 and its downstream target heme oxygenase-1 were also increased, leading to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. We also found that melatonin could improve oocyte development potential. Conclusion: Our preliminary results showed that melatonin had a positive impact on oocyte quality in PCOS patients with hypoestrogenia and hyperandrogenia.

6.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 2943-2946, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602837

RESUMO

Hugan Tablets is a Chinese patent medicine,it has the function of anti-inflammation and reducing transaminase. Based on questionnaire investigation of doctors and a systematic review of research literature on Hugan Tablets,using international clinical practice guidelines' developing methods,with the best available evidence and fully combining expert experience,and following the principle of " evidence-based,consensus-based and experience-based",Expert consensus statement on Hugan Tablets in clinical practice was developed by more than 30 multidisciplinary experts from the nationwide,aimed at guiding and standardizing the rational use of Hugan Tablets by clinicians and to improve clinical efficacy and safety. The expert consensus adopts internationally recognized recommendation criteria for classification of evidence: GRADE. The formation of expert consensus adopts the nominal group technique. Six main considerations are quality of evidence,curative effect,safety,economical efficiency,patient acceptability and other factors. If there is sufficient evidence,a " recommendation" is formed,using GRADE grid voting rule. If there isn' t sufficient evidence,a " consensus opinion" is formed,using majority counting rule. Focus on the indication,usage and dosage,drug use in special population and safety of Hugan Tablets,two recommendations and eight consensus opinions were put forward. Through expert meetings and correspondence,a nationwide consultation and peer review was conducted. This consensus applies to clinicians in hospitals and grass-roots health services,to provide guidance and reference for the rational use of Hugan Tablets.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Consenso , Humanos , Medicamentos sem Prescrição , Comprimidos
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(14): 3022-3034, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602849

RESUMO

To characterize the chemical constituents of Huanbei Zhike Prescription by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry( UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). A Thermo Syncronls C18 column( 2. 1 mm×100 mm,1. 7 µm) was used with methanol( A)-0. 1% formic acid solution( B) as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The injection volume was 2 µL; the column temperature was 40 ℃; the flow rate was 0. 3 m L·min-1; and electrospray ionization( ESI) source was used to collect data in positive and negative ion modes. The ion scanning range was m/z 50-1 200,with capillary voltage of 3 000 V,ion source temperature of100 ℃,atomization gas flow rate of 50 L·h-1,desolvent gas flow rate of 800 L·h-1,desolvent temperature of 400 ℃,cone hole voltage of 40 V,with argon as the collision gas and the collision energy was 20-35 V. The excimer ion peak information was analyzed by Waters UNIFI data processing software. The molecular formula with error within 1×10-5 was compared with the data in database to identify the compounds. The secondary fragment ion information of the target compound was selected,and then compared with the retention time and fragmentation patterns provided by the database and the existing literature to further confirm the compositions and structures of the compounds. A total of 68 main compounds in Huanbei Zhike Prescription were identified,including 38 flavonoids,10 organic acids,6 terpenoids and 10 nitrogen-containing compounds,of which 12 compounds were verified by the control substances. This method is rapid and accurate,which provides a new strategy for the qualitative analysis of the chemical constituents of Huanbei Zhike Prescription,and lays a foundation for the further study and quality control of the compound pharmacodynamic substance.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Terpenos/análise
8.
Chronobiol Int ; 36(12): 1723-1732, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31609143

RESUMO

We investigated the relationship between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and the mRNA and protein expression levels of the circadian genes of the Period (Per) family, Per1, Per2 and Per3. Tissue sections of HNSCC and normal head and neck tissues from two patient cohorts from two different hospitals were collected to assess the mRNA and protein expressions of the three Per family genes using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The clinicopathological features and disease prognosis for the latter cohort were analyzed through IHC and statistical methods. Protein positive expression levels of the three Per family genes in HNSCC tissues was found to be approximately two times lower than that in normal tissues (p < .01). Moreover, patients with locally advanced HNSCC showed significantly greater downregulation of Per1, Per2 and Per3 mRNA expression levels as compared to patients with early-stage cancer (p < .05). Immunohistochemical examination of HNSCC patient tissues revealed a positive correlation between the Per family protein expression and the clinical tumor staging (p < .05). In addition, the Per protein-positive expression group showed higher 3-year survival rates [overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS)] as assessed by Kaplan-Meier plots and statistical analysis (p < .05). Our findings confirm the positive correlation between Per family gene expression and survival outcomes and support their role as prognostic markers for HNSCC.

9.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(18)2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514431

RESUMO

Rubber, as a kind of macromolecular material often used in large ships, aviation, aerospace, and other fields, has remarkable viscoelasticity at room temperature. Therefore, it is of great significance to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of polymer composites. In this paper, four kinds of rubber materials are taken as research objects. Based on the principle of ultrasonic detection, the viscoelastic evaluation of the sample materials is carried out through experiments and simulations. On the basis of previous research, the surface reflection method (SRM) and the bottom reflection method (BRM) are compared in depth. First, the spectrum of received signals is analyzed, and the storage elastic modulus, loss elastic modulus, attenuation coefficient and loss tangent value are obtained. Secondly, the results of the BRM and the SRM are compared and analyzed in the frequency domain of -6 dB. The results show that both the SRM and BRM are feasible in the evaluation of the viscoelasticity of the material, and the variation trends observed for the above-mentioned parameters in the effective frequency domain are consistent, especially at the center frequency. Finally, aiming at the mode transformation of the acoustic wave around the ultrasonic sensor, the practical performance of the surface reflection method is optimized by increasing the diameter of the ultrasonic sensor.

10.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1976, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507578

RESUMO

Synechococcus is one of the most important contributors to global primary productivity, and ocean warming is predicted to increase abundance and distribution of Synechococcus in the ocean. Here, we investigated molecular response of an oceanic Synechococcus strain WH8102 grown in two nitrogen sources (nitrate and urea) under present (25°C) and predicted future (28°C) temperature conditions using an isobaric tag (IBT)-based quantitative proteomic approach. Rising temperature decreased growth rate, contents of chlorophyll a, protein and sugar in the nitrate-grown cells, but only decreased protein content and significantly increased zeaxanthin content of the urea-grown cells. Expressions of CsoS2 protein involved in carboxysome formation and ribosomal subunits in both nitrate- and urea-grown cells were significantly decreased in rising temperature, whereas carbohydrate selective porin and sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) were remarkably up-regulated, and carbohydrate degradation associated proteins, i.e., glycogen phosphorylase kinase, fructokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, were down-regulated in the urea-grown cells. Rising temperature also increased expressions of three redox-sensitive enzymes (peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin, and CP12) in both nitrate- and urea-grown cells. Our results indicated that rising temperature did not enhance cell growth of Synechococcus; on the contrary, it impaired cell functions, and this might influence cell abundance and distribution of Synechococcus in a future ocean.

11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 396, 2019 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the final phase of China's national programme to eliminate malaria by 2020, it is vitally important to monitor the resistance of malaria vectors for developing effective vector control strategies. In 2017 Shanghai declared that it had eliminated malaria; however, the insecticide resistance status of the primary malaria vector Anopheles sinensis remains unknown. METHODS: We examined the pyrethroid and organophosphate resistance of An. sinensis via a bioassay of two populations from the Chongming District of Shanghai. The voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) and acetylcholinesterase 1 (ace-1) genes were partially sequenced to examine the association between resistance phenotype and target site genotype. In addition, the geographical distribution, polymorphism and genotype frequencies of insecticide resistance genes were examined using samples collected during routine mosquito surveillance in 2016 and 2017 from Chongming, Songjiang, Jiading and Qingpu Districts. RESULTS: In Chongming District, the An. sinensis population near Dongtan National Nature Reserve showed resistance to pyrethroids, sensitivity to organophosphate, no knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in the VGSC gene, and a low frequency (1.71%) of the ace-1 119S allele. An An. sinensis population near the Chongming central area (CM-Xinhe population) showed high resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates and high frequencies of kdr 1014F and 1014C (80.73%) and ace-1 119S (85.98%) alleles. A significant association was detected between the homozygous kdr mutation 1014F/1014F and pyrethroid resistance in the CM-Xinhe population, indicating that the kdr mutation is probably recessive. Eight kdr genotypes with 1014F and 1014C substitutions were detected in the four surveyed districts of Shanghai. TTT and GGC/AGC were the dominant kdr allele and ace-1 genotype, respectively, and were prevalent in most Shanghai An. sinensis populations. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our assessment of insecticide resistance gene mutations in Shanghai, we identified a kdr mutation-free population in Chongming Dongtan. However, high frequencies of target-site mutations of insecticide resistance genes were observed in most areas of Shanghai. Bioassays of An. sinensis populations in the central Chongming District indicated the high insecticide resistance status of An. sinensis populations in Shanghai. We accordingly recommend a restriction on insecticide usage and development of effective integrated pest/vector management interventions to support disease control efforts.

12.
Mol Plant Microbe Interact ; 32(10): 1391-1401, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408392

RESUMO

Salicylic acid (SA) is closely related to disease resistance of plants. WRKY transcription factors have been linked to the growth and development of plants, especially under stress conditions. However, the regulatory mechanism of WRKY proteins involved in SA production and disease resistance in apple is not clear. In this study, MdPBS3.1 responded to Botryosphaeria dothidea and enhanced resistance to B. dothidea. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, yeast one-hybrid assays, and chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR demonstrated that MdWRKY46 can directly bind to a W-box motif in the promoter of MdPBS3.1. Glucuronidase transactivation and luciferase analysis further showed that MdWRKY46 can activate the expression of MdPBS3.1. Finally, B. dothidea inoculation in transgenic apple calli and fruits revealed that MdWRKY46 improved resistance to B. dothidea by the transcriptional activation of MdPBS3.1. Viral vector-based transformation assays indicated that MdWRKY46 elevates SA content and transcription of SA-related genes, including MdPR1, MdPR5, and MdNPR1 in an MdPBS3.1-dependent way. These findings provide new insights into how MdWRKY46 regulates plant resistance to B. dothidea through the SA signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Resistência à Doença , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus , Proteínas de Plantas , Transdução de Sinais , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença/genética , Malus/genética , Malus/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 362, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The MYB transcription factor family is one of the largest transcriptional factor families in plants and plays a multifaceted role in plant growth and development. However, MYB transcription factors involved in pathogen resistance in apple remain poorly understood. RESULTS: We identified a new MYB family member from apple, and named it MdMYB30. MdMYB30 was localized to the nucleus, and was highly expressed in young apple leaves. Transcription of MdMYB30 was induced by abiotic stressors, such as polyethylene glycol and abscisic acid. Scanning electron microscopy and gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that ectopically expressing MdMYB30 in Arabidopsis changed the wax content, the number of wax crystals, and the transcription of wax-related genes. MdMYB30 bound to the MdKCS1 promoter to activate its expression and regulate wax biosynthesis. MdMYB30 also contributed to plant surface properties and increased resistance to the bacterial strain Pst DC3000. Furthermore, a virus-based transformation in apple fruits and transgenic apple calli demonstrated that MdMYB30 increased resistance to Botryosphaeria dothidea. Our findings suggest that MdMYB30 plays a vital role in the accumulation of cuticular wax and enhances disease resistance in apple. CONCLUSIONS: MdMYB30 bound to the MdKCS1 gene promoter to activate its transcription and regulate cuticular wax content and composition, which influenced the surface properties and expression of pathogenesis-related genes to resistance against pathogens. MdMYB30 appears to be a crucial element in the formation of the plant cuticle and confers apple with a tolerance to pathogens.

14.
ACS Omega ; 4(3): 5137-5146, 2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459689

RESUMO

In this paper, one imidazole macrocyclic divalent cation with a flexible configuration was chosen with the aim of the immobilization of its conformation. Six novel organic-inorganic hybrid supramolecules {([syn/anti-did](CdI4)(C2H3N)} (1), {([syn/anti-did](HgI4)(C2H3N)} (2), {([syn/syn-did](Pb2I8)(PbI5)} (3), {([syn/syn-did](Bi2I8)(BiI5)} (4), {([syn/syn-did](Ag4Br6)} n (5), and {([syn/anti-did](Ag2I4)} (6) [did2+ = (12z, 52z)-11H, 51H-1, 5(1, 3)-diimidazol-3-iuma-3, 7(1, 2)-dibenzenacyclooctaphane-13, 53-diium] have been synthesized through the self-assembly reaction of did2+ with different metals under solvothermal reaction. These compounds have been unambiguously confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, IR, thermogravimetric and X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Crystallographic analysis shows that the anions of compounds 1 and 2 are isostructural with mononuclear anion structure, the anions of compounds 3, 4, and 6 are of binuclear structure, and compound 5 anion is a one-dimensional anionic chain structure. Imidazole cyclophanes of organic cations may exist in a syn/syn-conformation in 3-5 or syn/anti conformation in 1, 2, 6, but tilting angles in compounds 1-6 were different. This article described the photocatalytic degradation of organic dye in waste water and the optical band gap of compounds 1-6. The calculated semiconductor band gap of compounds 1-6 is smaller than that of TiO2, so compounds 1-6 have semiconductor properties. Compound 1 has the smallest band gap value, and the photocatalytic performance is the best.

15.
ACS Omega ; 4(5): 8926-8934, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31459980

RESUMO

Seven supramolecular compounds comprising multivalent imidazolium macrocycles and metal halides, {[MC-IM][Ag2I4]} n (1), {[PC-IM]2[Ag7I11]} n (2), {[ODC-IM][Ag3I7]} (3), {[ODC-IM][Bi2I10]} (4), {[MDC-IM][Bi2I10]} (5), {[PDC-IM][Bi2I10]} (6), and {[MDC-IM][HgI4]} (7), have been synthesized by solvothermal reactions and structurally characterized by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Notably, the three tetravalent imidazolium macrocycles were introduced for the first time and the extended anion structures are featured with three-dimensional coordination networks, one-dimensional chains, or zero-dimensional oligomers. This new study attempts to not only fill the gap in this supramolecular hybrid area that has been neglected but also enrich the type of imidazolium cyclophane. It is important that good efforts were devoted to study the adsorption properties of supramolecular compounds. Compound 5 exhibited great adsorption performance for organic dyes methylene blue, methyl orange, and rhodamine B (RhB) and can be evaluated as a potential candidate for industrial wastewater treatment.

16.
Nanoscale ; 11(35): 16393-16405, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436768

RESUMO

Polymeric carbon nitride (CN) is a promising metal-free catalyst plagued by a low intrinsic activity. Herein, a novel strategy based on controllable in situ surface engineering and morphology was developed to synergistically boost the catalytic activity of CN by tuning the hydroxyl groups on its surface and constructing a unique nanostructure. The controllable introduction of hydroxyl groups on CN nanoshells, prepared by the thermal condensation of oxygen-containing supramolecular precursors formed in water, led to spatial separation of the HOMO and LUMO, and effective exciton dissociation, as verified by experiments and ab initio calculations. Furthermore, the hollow hemispherical nanoshell endowed more exposed active sites, optimal mass transport, and dynamic modulations. The optimized hollow hemispherical CN nanoshells exhibited remarkable catalytic activity, with a photoelectrocatalytic OER overpotential of about 330 mV at a current density of 10 mA cm-2, outperforming state-of-the-art precious-metal catalyst IrO2. High activity for the visible-light photocatalytic HER and pollutant degradation were also observed. This study proposes that, through rational surface group modification, a polymer material with high catalytic activity can be practically realized, which is promising for the design of efficient metal-free catalysts.

17.
Plant Mol Biol ; 101(1-2): 149-162, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267255

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Here we describe that the regulation of MdWRKY31 on MdHIR4 in transcription and translation levels associated with disease in apple. The phytohormone salicylic acid (SA) is a main factor in apple (Malus domestica) production due to its function in disease resistance. WRKY transcription factors play a vital role in response to stress. An RNA-seq analysis was conducted with 'Royal Gala' seedlings treated with SA to identify the WRKY regulatory mechanism of disease resistance in apple. The analysis indicated that MdWRKY31 was induced. A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis demonstrated that the expression of MdWRKY31 was induced by SA and flg22. Ectopic expression of MdWRKY31 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana increased the resistance to flg22 and Pseudomonas syringae tomato (Pst DC3000). A yeast two-hybrid screen was conducted to further analyze the function of MdWRKY31. As a result, hypersensitive-induced reaction (HIR) protein MdHIR4 interacted with MdWRKY31. Biomolecular fluorescence complementation, yeast two-hybrid, and pull-down assays demonstrated the interaction. In our previous study, MdHIR4 conferred decreased resistance to Botryosphaeria dothidea (B. dothidea). A viral vector-based transformation assay indicated that MdWRKY31 evaluated the transcription of SA-related genes, including MdPR1, MdPR5, and MdNPR1 in an MdHIR4-dependent way. A GUS analysis demonstrated that the w-box, particularly w-box2, of the MdHIR4 promoter played a major role in the responses to SA and B. dothidea. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, yeast one-hybrid assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation-qPCR demonstrated that MdWRKY31 directly bound to the w-box2 motif in the MdHIR4 promoter. GUS staining activity and a protein intensity analysis further showed that MdWRKY31 repressed MdHIR4 expression. Taken together, our findings reveal that MdWRKY31 regulated plant resistance to B. dothidea through the SA signaling pathway by interacting with MdHIR4.


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença , Malus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/imunologia , Arabidopsis/microbiologia , Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/imunologia , Frutas/microbiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes Reporter , Malus/imunologia , Malus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Pseudomonas syringae/fisiologia , Plântula/genética , Plântula/imunologia , Plântula/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Tabaco/genética , Tabaco/imunologia , Tabaco/microbiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Técnicas do Sistema de Duplo-Híbrido
18.
Mol Reprod Dev ; 86(9): 1189-1198, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31304658

RESUMO

NEK5, a member of never in mitosis-gene A-related protein kinase, is involved in the regulation of centrosome integrity and centrosome cohesion at mitosis in somatic cells. In this study, we investigated the expression and function of NEK5 during mouse oocyte maturation and preimplantation embryonic development. The results showed that NEK5 was expressed from germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages during oocyte maturation with the highest level of expression at the GV stage. It was shown that NEK5 localized in the cytoplasm of oocytes at GV stage, concentrated around chromosomes at germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) stage, and localized to the entire spindle at prometaphase I, MI and MII stages. The small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of Nek5 significantly increased the phosphorylation level of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 in oocytes, resulting in a decrease of maturation-promoting factor activity, and severely impaired GVBD. The failure of meiotic resumption caused by Nek5 depletion could be rescued by the depletion of Wee1B. We found that Nek5 depletion did not affect CDC25B translocation into the GV. We also found that NEK5 was expressed from 1-cell to blastocyst stages with the highest expression at the blastocyst stage, and Nek5 depletion severely impaired preimplantation embryonic development. This study demonstrated for the first time that NEK5 plays important roles during meiotic G2/M transition and preimplantation embryonic development.

19.
Materials (Basel) ; 12(11)2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185661

RESUMO

The reflected waves received from ultrasonic waves propagating in materials contain information that constitutes the physical properties, material composition, defects, and degradation states. When measuring the dynamic viscoelasticity, the traditional bottom reflection method (BRM) cannot be used to measure the bottom irregular samples. In this paper, the storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss tangent are extracted by the surface reflection method (SRM) to evaluate the elastomer sample viscoelasticity. A theoretical study on the phase change caused by multiple reflections in the case of non-thin layer coupling is conducted. Based on this research, the experimental system is built. The results show that considering the thickness of the coupling layer can optimize the determination of viscoelasticity and reduce the error of the viscoelastic evaluation results of an elastomer with the traditional BRM. Finally, based on the principle of the SRM, the density of the elastomers is measured, and the feasibility and overall efficiency of this method are verified by experiments.

20.
Hortic Res ; 6: 66, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231524

RESUMO

The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a major element involved in apple (Malus domestica) production because of its role in seed germination and early seedling development. The WRKY family, which is one of the largest families of transcription factors, plays an important role in ABA signaling in plants. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of WRKY-mediated ABA sensitivity in apple are poorly understood. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis indicated that MdWRKY31 is a key factor induced by ABA. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that MdWRKY31 is induced by ABA in response to PEG4000, which is used to simulate drought. As a transcription factor, MdWRKY31 is localized in the nucleus. Ectopic expression of MdWRKY31 in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana enhanced plant sensitivity to ABA. Overexpression of MdWRKY31 in apple roots and apple calli increased sensitivity to ABA, whereas repression of MdWRKY31 reduced sensitivity to ABA in the roots of 'Royal Gala'. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation PCR, and yeast one-hybrid assays indicated that MdWRKY31 directly binds to the promoter of MdRAV1. Expression analyses of transgenic apple calli containing MdWRKY31 and pMdRAV1::GUS implied that MdWRKY31 represses the expression of MdRAV1. We also found that MdRAV1 binds directly to the promoters of MdABI3 and MdABI4 and repressed their expression. Our findings reveal a new important regulatory mechanism of MdWRKY31-MdRAV1-MdABIs in the ABA signaling pathway in apple.

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