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1.
Neurosci Bull ; 2020 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989424

RESUMO

Chemical stimulation of the kidney increases sympathetic activity and blood pressure in rats. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is important in mediating the excitatory renal reflex (ERR). In this study, we examined the role of molecular signaling in the PVN in mediating the capsaicin-induced ERR and sympathetic activation. Bilateral PVN microinjections were performed in rats under anesthesia. The ERR was elicited by infusion of capsaicin into the cortico-medullary border of the right kidney. The reflex was evaluated as the capsaicin-induced changes in left renal sympathetic nerve activity and mean arterial pressure. Blockade of angiotensin type 1 receptors with losartan or inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme with captopril in the PVN abolished the capsaicin-induced ERR. Renal infusion of capsaicin significantly increased NAD(P)H oxidase activity and superoxide anion production in the PVN, which were prevented by ipsilateral renal denervation or microinjection of losartan into the PVN. Furthermore, either scavenging of superoxide anions or inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN abolished the capsaicin-induced ERR. We conclude that the ERR induced by renal infusion of capsaicin is mediated by angiotensin type 1 receptor-related NAD(P)H oxidase activation and superoxide anion production within the PVN.

2.
Neurosci Bull ; 36(2): 143-152, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392556

RESUMO

Sympathetic activation and the kidney play critical roles in hypertension and chronic heart failure. The role of the kidney in sympathetic activation is still not well known. In this study, we revealed an excitatory renal reflex (ERR) in rats induced by chemical stimulation of the kidney that regulated sympathetic activity and blood pressure. The ERR was induced by renal infusion of capsaicin, and evaluated by the changes in renal sympathetic outflow, blood pressure, and heart rate. Renal infusion of capsaicin dose-dependently increased the contralateral renal sympathetic nerve activity, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate. Capsaicin in the cortico-medullary border had greater effects than in the cortex or medulla. Intravenous infusion of capsaicin had no significant effects. The effects of renal infusion of capsaicin were abolished by ipsilateral renal denervation, but were not affected by bilateral sinoaortic denervation. Renal infusion of capsaicin increased the ipsilateral renal afferent activity. The ERR was also induced by renal infusion of bradykinin, adenosine, and angiotensin II, but not by ATP. Renal infusion of capsaicin increased c-Fos expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus. Lesion of neurons in the PVN with kainic acid abolished the capsaicin-induced ERR. These findings indicate that chemical stimulation of kidney causes an excitatory reflex, leading to sympathetic activation, pressor response, and accelerated heart rate. The PVN is an important central nucleus in the pathway of the ERR.

3.
Inorg Chem ; 58(23): 15696-15699, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718161

RESUMO

A cobalt(II) coordination polymer with an unusual 4,4,4-connected network was hydrothermally synthesized and observed with high thermal, solvent, and pH stabilities. This polymer can serve as the first dual-responsive fluorescent chemosensor for the selective detection of acetylacetone and Cr2O72- ion (pH 3.0) in aqueous systems.

4.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776449

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is notably accurate for even minimal degree of hepatic steatosis in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). But routine use of MRS is limited by its cost and availability. In this study, we developed a diagnostic model combining ultrasonography with biomarkers to identify mild NAFLD, with MRS as the reference standard. A total of 422 eligible subjects were enrolled. The serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), cytokeratin 18 M65ED, proteinase 3, neutrophil elastase, alpha-1 antitrypsin, and neutrophil elastase/alpha-1 antitrypsin were measured using ELISA assays. We found that among the six biomarkers, only serum FGF21 was independently associated with intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTC, standardized ß = 0.185, P < 0.001) and was an independent risk factor for mild NAFLD. Thus, we established a Mild NAFLD Model based on FGF21, alanine transaminase, triglycerides, and body mass index. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of the Mild NAFLD Model was 0.853 (95% confidence interval: 0.816-0.886). Furthermore, a two-step approach combining ultrasonography with the Mild NAFLD Model displayed a better sensitivity for diagnosing mild NAFLD compared with each method alone, with a sensitivity of 97.32% and a negative predictive value of 85.48%. This two-step approach combining ultrasonography and the Mild NAFLD Model derived from serum FGF21 improves the diagnosis of mild NAFLD and can be applied to the early diagnosis of NAFLD in clinical practice.

5.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 785, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481863

RESUMO

Objective: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is associated with the processing of negative emotions. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism plays an important role in the pathogenesis of mental disorders. We aimed to determine the changes in GABA levels in the ACC of perimenopausal women with depression. Methods: We recruited 120 perimenopausal women, who were followed up for 18-24 months. After reaching menopause, the participants were divided into a control group (n = 71), an anxiety group (n = 30), and a depression group (n = 19). The participants were examined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). TARQUIN software was used to calculate the GABA concentrations in the ACC before and after menopause. The relationship of the GABA levels with the patients' scores on the 14-item Hamilton Anxiety Scale and 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale was determined. Results: GABA decreased with time. The postmenopausal GABA levels were significantly lower in the depression group than in the anxiety group and were significantly lower in both these groups than in the normal group. The postmenopausal GABA levels were significantly lower than the premenopausal levels in the normal, anxiety, and depression groups (P = 0.014, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). The premenopausal GABA levels did not significantly differ between the normal vs. anxiety group (P = 0.907), normal vs. depression group (P = 0.495), and anxiety vs. depression group. The postmenopausal GABA levels were significantly lower in the depression group than in the anxiety group and were significantly lower in both these groups than in the normal group, normal vs. anxiety group (P = 0.022), normal vs. depression group (P < 0.001), and anxiety vs. depression group (P = 0.047). Conclusion: Changes in GABA concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex are related with the pathophysiological mechanism and symptoms of perimenopausal depression.

6.
J Nutr Biochem ; 72: 108212, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473513

RESUMO

Migration of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of hypertension and several other vascular diseases. Curcumin (1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a bioactive constituent from Curcuma longa, is commonly used as a spice, food additive or dietary pigment. It has several health benefits including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. This study examined the roles of curcumin in VSMC migration in hypertension and underlying mechanism. VSMC was isolated and prepared from thoracic aorta of Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). VSMC migration was evaluated with Boyden chamber assay and wound-healing assay. Curcumin attenuated VSMC migration, inhibited nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) expression and reduced interleukin (IL)-1ß concentration in VSMC of SHR, which were similar to the effects of NLRP3 knockdown on IL-1ß concentration and VSMC migration. Curcumin inhibited NFκB activation in VSMC of SHR, which was similar to the effects of NFκB inhibitor BAY11-7082 on NFκB activation. In another in vitro model of rat VSMC migration, curcumin also inhibited angiotensin II-induced VSMC migration, NFκB activation, NLRP3 expression and IL-1ß production. Intragastric administration of curcumin in SHR attenuated hypertension and reduced NFκB activation, NLRP3 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expressions and aortic media thickness. These results indicate that curcumin inhibits VSMC migration via inhibiting NFκB-mediated NLRP3 expression in VSMC of SHR or in angiotensin II-treated VSMC. Curcumin attenuates hypertension, vascular inflammation and vascular remodeling in SHR.

7.
Front Neurol ; 10: 860, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440202

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Remote white matter and cortex reorganization may contribute to functional reorganization and clinical outcome after acute infarcts. To determine the microstructural changes in the remote intact corticospinal tract (CST) and precentral gyrus cortex connected to the acute infarct after subcortical stroke involving the CST over 6 months. Methods: Twenty-two patients with subcortical stroke involving the CST underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical assessment in the acute phase (baseline) and 6 months (follow-up) after the stroke. The MRI sequences included T1-weighted imaging, T2-weighted imaging, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and diffusion kurtosis imaging. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and track-density imaging (TDI) values were generated using DTI data for the centrum semiovale, corona radiata, posterior limb of internal capsule, and cerebral peduncle. The mean kurtosis (MK) value of the precentral gyrus cortex was calculated. Changes in the FA, TDI, and MK values between the baseline and follow-up and the relationship between these changes were analyzed. Results: The TDI and FA values of all parts of the ipsilesional (IL) CST, including the noninvolved upper and lower parts, decreased at the 6-month follow-up (P < 0.001). The MK values of the stroke lesion (P < 0.001) and IL precentral gyrus cortex (P = 0.002) were lower at follow-up than at the baseline. The ΔTDI (r = 0.689, P < 0.001) and Δ FA values (r = 0.463, P = 0.03) of the noninvolved upper part of the IL CST were positively correlated with the ΔMK value of the IL precentral gyrus cortex. Conclusion: Secondary degeneration occurred in the remote part of the CST and the remote IL precentral gyrus cortex after subcortical stroke involving the CST. The secondary degeneration in the upper part of the CST was correlated with that in the IL precentral gyrus cortex.

8.
Front Neurol ; 10: 882, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456742

RESUMO

Background and purpose: Hypoperfusion plays an important role in the pathophysiology of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). Lenticulostriate arteries (LSAs) are some of the most important cerebral arterial small vessels. This study aimed to investigate whether the number of LSAs was associated with the cerebral perfusion in SVD patients and determine the correlation between the number of LSAs and SVD severity. Methods: Five hundred and ninety-four consecutive patients who underwent digital subtraction angiography were enrolled in this study. The number of LSAs was determined. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) was used to calculate the cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), and time to peak (TTP). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed to assess cerebral infarct, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVSs), and lacunes. An SVD compound score was calculated to express the level of cerebral SVD load. Results: The SVD scores were negatively correlated with the number of the LSAs (P < 0.001, r s = -0.44). The number of LSAs was inversely associated with the presence of any type of SVD (P < 0.001). The adjusted ORs of the SVD severity were 0.31 for LSA group 1 (LSA > 20) vs. group 2 (LSA = 10-20) and 0.47 for LSA group 2 (LSA = 10-20) vs. group 3 (LSA < 10). MTT and TTP were significantly higher and CBF was significantly lower when the number of LSAs was between 5 and 10 on each side of the basal ganglia (P < 0.001, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). The CBV was slightly lower when the number of LSAs was between 5 and 10, while it was significantly lower when the number was <5 on each side of the basal ganglia (P < 0.05, <0.0001, respectively). Conclusion: LSA count was lower in SVD patients than the non-SVD participants and there was a positive correlation between the cerebral perfusion and the number of LSAs. The LSA number was negatively associated with SVD severity, hypoperfusion might play an important role. This finding may have potentially important clinical implications for monitoring LSA in SVD patients.

9.
Neural Regen Res ; 14(12): 2141-2146, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397353

RESUMO

Diffusion kurtosis imaging can be used to assess pathophysiological changes in tissue structure and to diagnose central nervous system diseases. However, its sensitivity in assessing hippocampal differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment has not been characterized. Here, we examined 20 individuals with Alzheimer's disease (11 men and 9 women, mean 73.2 ± 4.49 years), 20 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (10 men and 10 women, mean 71.55 ± 4.77 years), and 20 normal controls (11 men and 9 women, mean 70.45 ± 5.04 years). We conducted diffusion kurtosis imaging, using a 3.0 T magnetic resonance scanner, to compare hippocampal differences among the three groups. The results demonstrated that the right hippocampal volume and bilateral mean kurtosis were remarkably smaller in individuals with Alzheimer's disease compared with those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal controls. Further, the mean kurtosis was lower in the amnestic mild cognitive impairment group compared with the normal control group. The mean diffusion in the left hippocampus was lower in the Alzheimer's disease group than in the amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal control groups, while the mean diffusion in the right hippocampus was lower in the Alzheimer's disease group than in the normal control group. Fractional anisotropy was similar among the three groups. These results verify that bilateral mean kurtosis and mean diffusion are sensitive to the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment. This study was approved by the Ethics Review Board of Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital of Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China on May 4, 2010 (approval No. 2010(C)-6).

10.
BMC Med Imaging ; 19(1): 55, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine the effect of region of interest (ROI) on tumor's apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and interobserver variability in thyroid nodules. METHODS: Thirty-three individuals with 45 pathologically-confirmed thyroid nodules were assessed by preoperative diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with b values of 0 and 400 s/mm2, respectively. Two readers evaluated the ADC values of lesions based on three ROI techniques: whole-volume, single-slice and small solid-sample groups. Interobserver variability was analyzed for all ROI techniques, and the mean ADCs of benign and cancerous thyroid nodules were compared. RESULTS: For the mean ADCs of non-cancerous thyroid nodules, average differences and limits of agreement (LOAs) between readers were 0.00 [- 0.17-0.17] × 10- 3 mm2/s for whole-volume ROI (ICC = 0.967), 0.00 [- 0.26-0.26] × 10- 3 mm2/s for single-slice ROI (ICC = 0.932) and - 0.02 [- 0.38-0.41] × 10- 3 mm2/s for small solid-sample ROI (ICC = 0.823). For the mean ADCs of cancerous thyroid nodules, average differences and LOAs between readers were - 0.05 [- 0.23-0.13] × 10- 3 mm2/s (ICC = 0.885), 0.01 [- 0.23-0.25] × 10- 3 mm2/s (ICC = 0.839) and - 0.07 [- 0.52-0.39] × 10- 3 mm2/s (ICC = 0.579) for the three ROI methods, respectively. The mean ADC values were more scattered in the small solid-sample ROI group in comparison with the whole-volume and single-slice groups, in noncancerous and cancerous specimens. Of all three ROI techniques, whole-volume ROI-determined ADC had the highest combined sensitivity (80.0%), specificity (88.3%) and Youden index (0.683), with a cut-off of 1.84 × 10- 3 mm2/s. CONCLUSIONS: The ROI method overtly affects ADC measurements in benign and cancerous thyroid nodules. Small solid-sample ROI yielded the worst interobserver variability of average ADC measurements.


Assuntos
Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
11.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 121: 106579, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319161

RESUMO

Foam cell formation and monocytes adhesion are key events in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are an important origin of foam cells besides macrophages. Fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5) is a protein, which induces browning of fat and attenuates glucose/lipid metabolic derangements in obese mice. The present study was designed to determine the roles of FNDC5 in inhibiting foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in VSMCs and its underlying mechanisms. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) was used to induce foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in human aortic VSMCs. Foam cell formation was evaluated by intracellular lipid droplets, cholesterol contents, and mRNA levels of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT-1) and ATP binding cassette transporter A-1 (ABCA-1). Monocyte adhesion was evaluated by the number of monocytes adhered to VSMCs and mRNA levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). FNDC5 inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation, monocyte adhesion, ABCA-1 mRNA downregulation, and ACAT-1, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA upregulation in VSMCs. It inhibited oxLDL-induced p65-NFκB nuclear translocation, NLRP3 upregulation, caspase-1 and IL-1ß production. Inhibition of NFκB with BMS-345541 or inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome with MCC950 showed similar effects to FNDC5 in attenuating the oxLDL-induced foam cell formation, monocyte adhesion, and caspase-1 and IL-1ß production. The oxLDL-induced NLRP3 upregulation was prevented by BMS-345541 rather than MCC950. These results indicate that FNDC5 inhibits oxLDL-induced foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in VSMCs via suppressing NFκB-mediated NLRP3 upregulation and IL-1ß production.

12.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 365-376, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325881

RESUMO

Enormous research interest is devoted to fabricating three-dimensional graphene-based gels (3D GBGs) toward improved conversion of solar energy by virtue of the intrinsic properties of single graphene and 3D porous structure characteristics. Here, this concise minireview is primarily focused on the recent progress on applications of 3D GBGs, including aerogels and hydrogels, in photocatalytic degradation of pollutants from water and air, such as organic pollutants, heavy metal ions, bacteria and gaseous pollutants. In particular, the preponderances of 3D GBG photocatalysts for environmental pollutants degradation have been elaborated. Furthermore, in addition to discussing opportunities offered by 3D GBG composite photocatalysts, we also describe the existing problems and the future direction of 3D GBG materials in this burgeoning research area. It is hoped that this review could spur multidisciplinary research interest for advancing the rational utilization of 3D GBGs for practical applications in environmental remediation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/química , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Grafite/química , Gases , Géis , Metais Pesados , Energia Solar , Luz Solar , Água/química
13.
Front Neurol ; 10: 426, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118918

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: Vascular calcification is part of the atherosclerotic process. Intracranial artery calcification is closely associated with cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). The present study aimed to investigate the distribution pattern of intracranial arterial calcification and its association with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers of SVD in patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods: Two hundred and seventy six consecutive patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or acute ischemic stroke who underwent both computed tomography (CT) angiography and MRI were enrolled in this study. Intracranial arterial calcium scores were evaluated using Agatston method. MRI was performed to assess cerebral infarction, white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), lacunes, cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), and enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVSs). Results: Intracranial artery calcification was present in 200 (72.46%) patients, with the highest prevalence in the internal carotid arteries (ICA) (64.8%). The severity of intracranial arterial calcification was associated with the presence of WMHs (P = 0.0001), lacunes (P = 0.0001), and CMBs (P = 0.0001); however, there was no association between calcifications and the presence of EPVSs (P = 0.058). The correlation coefficients (rs) were 0.350, 0.142, 0.285, and 0.251 for WMHs, EPVSs, lacunes, and CMBs, respectively. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of intracranial arterial calcification were: 2.747 for WMH (grade 1-2), 3.422 for WMH (grade 3), 2.902 for lacunes, 2.449 for CMB, 0.88 for EPVS (grade 1), and 0.295 for EPVS (grade 2-4). Conclusion: Intracranial artery calcification is common in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease and the intracranial carotid artery is most frequently affected. Intracranial arterial calcifications might be associated with imaging markers of SVD and are highly correlated with WMHs, lacunes, and CMBs. Quantification of calcification on CT provides additional information on the pathophysiology of SVD. Intracranial arterial calcification could act as a potential marker of SVD.

14.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 213(3): 667-671, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063420

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) without specific causes in young clinical outpatients. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A total of 1249 young clinical outpatients who underwent an unenhanced head MRI examination between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016, were included in the study. The chi-square test was used to analyze differences in the prevalence and characteristics of WMH by sex, age, and history of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The prevalence of WMH among clinical patients with neurologic symptoms was also compared with that among participants without neurologic symptoms. Logistic regression was used to identify the patient characteristics that were the best predictors of WMH. RESULTS. The overall prevalence of WMH was 25.94% (324/1249). Most patients with WMH (85.49% [277/324]) had mild WMH, mainly in frontal and parietal subcortical white matter. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of WMH by sex (p > 0.05), but the prevalence of WMH was higher among older patients (p < 0.001) and patients with a history of CVD (p < 0.001). Compared with participants without neurologic symptoms, clinical patients with dizziness (p = 0.029) and light-headedness (p = 0.001) were more likely to have WMH, which was attributed to older age and CVD. Logistic regression analysis showed that age and CVD were the best predictors of WMH. CONCLUSION. WMH is frequently found in young clinical patients. Most WMH is the mild type and mainly located in frontal and parietal subcortical white matter. Older age and CVD are risk factors for WMH.


Assuntos
Leucoaraiose/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucoaraiose/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 5018410, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30805081

RESUMO

Proliferation and oxidative stress of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) contribute to vascular remodeling in hypertension and several major vascular diseases. B-cell lymphoma 6 (BCL6) functions as a transcriptional repressor. The present study is designed to determine the roles of BCL6 in VSMC proliferation and oxidative stress and underlying mechanism. Angiotensin (Ang) II was used to induce VSMC proliferation and oxidative stress in human VSMCs. Effects of BCL6 overexpression and knockdown were, respectively, investigated in Ang II-treated human VSMCs. Therapeutical effects of BCL6 overexpression on vascular remodeling, oxidative stress, and proliferation were determined in the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Ang II reduced BCL6 expression in human VSMCs. BCL6 overexpression attenuated while BCL6 knockdown enhanced the Ang II-induced upregulation of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and proliferation of VSMCs. BCL6 expression was downregulated in SHR. BCL6 overexpression in SHR reduced NOX4 expression, ROS production, and proliferation of the aortic media of SHR. Moreover, BCL6 overexpression attenuated vascular remodeling and hypertension in SHR. However, BCL6 overexpression had no significant effects on NOX2 expression in human VSMCs or in SHR. We conclude that BCL6 attenuates proliferation and oxidative stress of VSMCs in hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-6/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/patologia , Aorta/fisiopatologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 49(1): 164-175, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30160331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are rare quantitative fiber density measurement techniques based on voxel measure changes of each corpus callosum (CC) subsegment with age. PURPOSE: To observe the regularity of corpus callosum development in normal aging from subvoxel to macroscopic volume. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. SUBJECTS: In all, 131 healthy volunteers divided into six age groups. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3T MR with 32-channel head coil T1 -3D and diffusion-weighted imaging with six b-values in a 30 directions sequence. ASSESSMENT: Track-density imaging (TDI) was used to visualize the complexity and the differences occurring in corpus callosum (CC) with age. TDI were reconstructed with a higher spatial voxel resolution of 0.1 mm subvoxel; TDI values are recognized as a subvoxel metric of real tract density. We reconstructed track density maps by using probabilistic streamline tractography combined with constrained spherical deconvolution. The CC was segmented into five subregions, and TDI, volume, and fractional anisotropy (FA) of each subregion in all the groups were measured using T1 W-3D images and compared. STATISTICAL TEST: Polynomial regression was done to between age and (CC1, CC2, CC3, CC4, CC5) of TDI/volume/FA. Multiple comparisons test two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare the differences between different age groups and sex groups in each subregion. Fisher's least significant difference test was used for the correction of the multiple comparisons. RESULTS: From the 20-70 age groups, TDI values of CC2, CC3, and CC4 increased until 40 years, when they were highest, and then decreased. CC2 (7.35556, 7.56587, 8.06036, 7.53841, 6.6956, 6.56494), CC3 (7.75372, 8.41447, 9.13178, 8.72605, 7.50106, 5.69513), CC4 (8.63414, 9.1518, 9.22451, 9.03154, 8.11556, 7.1967). There was a significant difference in the CC3 TDI between the 50/60 years groups and the 60/70 years groups (P = 0.03853 and 0.00285, respectively). The volumes of CC2, CC3, and CC4 increased between 30 and 50 years and decreased between 50 and 60 years, CC2 (0.06557, 0.07244, 0.08062, 0.07353, 0.08576, 0.06294), CC3 (0.03421, 0.03867, 0.03891, 0.03916, 0.03058, 0.03658), CC4 (0.0242, 0.01948, 0.02445, 0.02887, 0.01938, 0.01956). FA of CC2, CC3, and CC4 decreased between years 40 and 60.CC2 (0.45981, 0.47392, 0.45654, 0.45702, 0.39982, 0.35767), CC3 (0.4628, 0.49056, 0.49701, 0.46667, 0.44795, 0.36799), CC4 (0.46599, 0.52887, 0.4971, 0.53257, 0.42861, 0.43158). DATA CONCLUSION: TDI had high sensitivity for the detection of age-related CC differences. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;49:164-175.

17.
Hypertension ; 72(4): 881-888, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354715

RESUMO

Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is pivotal for vascular remodeling in hypertension. Vascular adventitial fibroblasts (AFs) are important in the homeostasis of vascular structure. This study is designed to investigate the roles of AF exosomes (AFE) in VSMC migration and underling mechanism. Primary VSMCs and AFs were obtained from the aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. VSMC migration was evaluated with Boyden chamber assay and wound healing assay. AFE from WKY rats and SHR were isolated and identified. AFE from SHR promoted but AFE from WKY rats had no significant effect on VSMC migration. The effects of AFE on VSMC migration were prevented by an exosome inhibitor GW4869, an AT1R (Ang II [angiotensin II] type 1 receptor) antagonist losartan, or an inhibitor of ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) captopril. ACE contents and activity were much higher in AFE from SHR than those from WKY rats. There were no significant difference in Ang II and AT1R mRNA and protein levels between AFE from SHR and AFE from WKY rats. AFE from SHR increased Ang II and ACE contents and ACE activity in VSMCs of WKY rats and SHR. The changes of Ang II contents and ACE activity were prevented by captopril. ACE knockdown in AFs reduced ACE contents and activity in AFE from SHR and inhibited AFE-induced migration of VSMCs of WKY rats and those of SHR. These results indicate that exosomes from AFs of SHR transfer ACE to VSMCs, which increases Ang II levels and activates AT1R in VSMCs and thereby promotes VSMC migration.


Assuntos
Túnica Adventícia , Exossomos , Fibroblastos , Hipertensão , Peptidil Dipeptidase A , Remodelação Vascular , Túnica Adventícia/efeitos dos fármacos , Túnica Adventícia/fisiologia , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/farmacologia , Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Animais , Compostos de Benzilideno/farmacologia , Captopril/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Exossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Exossomos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes/métodos , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Hipertensão/patologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Losartan/farmacologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/genética , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Ratos Endogâmicos WKY , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Vascular/fisiologia
18.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 48: 127-135, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30080535

RESUMO

Two new Ag(I) coordination polymers (CPs), namely, Ag(L)(Htp) (1) and [Ag(L)]·(Htp)·2H2O (2) were synthesized from the long flexible ligand of 1,6-bis(2-methylbenzimidazolyl)hexane (L), terephthalic acid (H2tp) and different silver(I) salts using hydrothermal and sonochemical methods, These CPs were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra, scanning electron microscopy, single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. 1 features a uninodal 3-connected 2D hcb layered structure, while 2 exhibits an infinite 1D linear chain and ultimately extended into 3D supramolecular framework via O-H⋯O and Ag⋯O interactions. In addition, the effect of various sonication concentrations of the initial reagents, ultrasonic time and power of ultrasound irradiation on the size and morphology of nanostructured 1 and 2 were evaluated. Nano-sized 1 and 2 exhibit relatively high performance as UV light driven photocatalysts for the degradation of methylene blue.

19.
Aesthetic Plast Surg ; 42(5): 1364-1369, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30019241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linear hypertrophic scar is a common surgical problem that can be difficult to manage, especially for the median sternotomy scar. Botulinum toxin type A (BTA) is widely used in cosmetic surgery and has been shown to improve scar quality recently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of BTA injected in the early postoperative of median sternotomy on preventing scar formation. METHODS: In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 19 consecutive patients who underwent median sternotomy were enrolled. The median sternotomy wound in each patient was divided into the upper half and the lower half. Both halves of the wound were randomized to receive the treatment with either BTA or normal saline. At 6-month follow-up, scars were assessed using the Vancouver Scar Scale, scar widths were measured, and patients were asked to evaluate their overall satisfaction. RESULTS: Seventeen patients with median sternotomy wounds completed the entire study. At 6-month follow-up, the mean Vancouver Scar Scale score for the BTA-treated group was 3.44 ± 1.68 and for the normal saline control group was 6.29 ± 2.39, and there was a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). There were also significant improvements in scar width and patient satisfaction for the BTA-treated halves of the wounds (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that early postoperative BTA injection can decrease scar formation and reduce scar width in median sternotomy wounds, and the overall appearance is more satisfactory. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE I: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .


Assuntos
Toxinas Botulínicas Tipo A/administração & dosagem , Cicatriz/prevenção & controle , Esternotomia/métodos , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , China , Método Duplo-Cego , Estética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Injeções Intralesionais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Esternotomia/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 48(1): 227-236, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30007970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fibronectin type III domain-containing 5 (FNDC5) protein is involved in the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism. FNDC5 attenuates hepatic steatosis induced by high fat diet (HFD). Here, we examined the effects of FNDC5 on liver fibrosis and underline mechanisms. METHODS: Experiments were carried out on wild-type and FNDC5-/- mice, primary mouse hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and human hepatic stellate cell line (LX-2). The mice were fed with HFD for 6 months to induce liver fibrosis. Oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) were used to induce the activation of hepatic stellate cells and fibrosis in mouse HSCs and human LX-2 cells. H&E, Masson's trichrome staining and Sirius red staining were used for liver sections. Protein and mRNA expressions were evaluated with Western blot and RT-PCR, respectively. RESULTS: FNDC5 deficiency aggravated the HFD-induced liver fibrosis and HSCs activation in mice. It exacerbated the HFD-induced inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation, upregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) in liver of mice. Administration of FNDC5 attenuated oxLDL-induced AMPK deactivation, HSCs activation, CTGF and TGF-ß upregulation and ECM deposition in mouse HSCs. The beneficial effects of FNDC5 on oxLDL-induced AMPK dephosphorylation, HSCs activation and ECM deposition were prevented by the inhibition of AMPK with compound C in human LX-2 cells. However, the effects of FNDC5 on hepatic fibrosis in vivo in this study cannot be distinguished from its effects on adiposity and hepatic steatosis. CONCLUSIONS: FNDC5 deficiency aggravates HFD-induced liver fibrosis in mice. FNDC5 plays beneficial roles in attenuating liver fibrosis via AMPK phosphorylation-mediated inhibition of HSCs activation.


Assuntos
Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por AMP/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Colágeno Tipo III/genética , Colágeno Tipo III/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento do Tecido Conjuntivo/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fibronectinas/genética , Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
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