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2.
Bioengineered ; 13(1): 1612-1625, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030972

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is the main cause of ischemia/reperfusion injury. Propofol is a commonly used intravenous hypnotic anesthetic agent with antioxidant properties. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the protective effects of propofol on H2O2-induced cardiomyocyte injury and myocardial ischemic/reperfusion injury (MIRI) in rats. Cardiomyocyte injury was evaluated by determining cardiac troponin-1 (cTn-1) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels. Antioxidative stress was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and catalase (CAT) levels. Apoptosis was evaluated using flow cytometry and TUNEL assays. Bax and Bcl-2 expression levels were determined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting. The levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway-related factors were measured using Western blotting. Myocardial infarction in rats was analyzed using an Evans blue staining assay. The results showed that propofol reduced the levels of CK-MB, cTn-1, LDH, MDA, and ROS, and increased the levels of GSH, SOD, and CAT in H2O2-treated H9c2 cells. Additionally, propofol inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis by downregulating Bax and upregulating Bcl-2. Moreover, propofol decreased the area of myocardial infarction in rats with MIRI. The GSK3ß-Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway was activated by propofol. Rescue experiments showed that Nrf2 knockdown alleviated the effects of propofol on oxidative stress and apoptosis in H9c2 cells. In conclusion, propofol attenuated H2O2-induced myocardial cell injury by regulating the GSK3ß/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway and alleviating MIRI, suggesting that propofol is a promising therapeutic option for ischemic heart disease.

3.
Chemosphere ; 286(Pt 1): 131617, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303906

RESUMO

In petroleum refineries, the electric desalting, distillation, and stripping processes could generate large amounts of wastewaters that contain toxic substances. In this study, eight wastewater samples were collected from the three typical refining processes for comprehensive chemical characterization of the dissolved organic matter (DOM) using excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Results showed that protein-like components and benzene were ubiquitous in all these wastewaters. Oxygen-containing volatile organic compounds had higher contents in crude distillation and stripping wastewater than those in electric desalting wastewater. Among the three refinery processes, molecular composition of DOM in the stripping wastewater had the highest complexity. The Ox and OxSy class species assigned from the negative-ion electrospray ionization FT-ICR MS were dominant in all wastewaters. The OxS2 class species which were effectively removed during stripping treatment had highest relative abundance in stripping influent. These results are instructive to guide the development of "divide and conquer" and would improve the treatment and management of refinery wastewater streams.


Assuntos
Petróleo , Águas Residuárias , Espectrometria de Massas , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Águas Residuárias/análise
4.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126799, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396958

RESUMO

Stack aerosols are generated within vertical building drainage stacks during the discharge of wastewater containing feces and exhaled mucus from toilets and washbasins. Fifteen stack aerosol-related outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in high-rise buildings have been observed in Hong Kong and Guangzhou. Currently, we investigated two such outbreaks of COVID-19 in Hong Kong, identified the probable role of chimney effect-induced airflow in a building drainage system in the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We injected tracer gas (SF6) into the drainage stacks via the water closet of the index case and monitored tracer gas concentrations in the bathrooms and along the facades of infected and non-infected flats and in roof vents. The air temperature, humidity, and pressure in vertical stacks were also monitored. The measured tracer gas distribution agreed with the observed distribution of the infected cases. Phylogenetic analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences demonstrated clonal spread from a point source in cases along the same vertical column. The stack air pressure and temperature distributions suggested that stack aerosols can spread to indoors through pipe leaks which provide direct evidence for the long-range aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through drainage pipes via the chimney effect.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , Microbiologia do Ar , COVID-19 , Habitação , COVID-19/transmissão , Hong Kong , Humanos , Filogenia , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Hazard Mater ; 422: 126837, 2022 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399209

RESUMO

Debate and scientific inquiries regarding airborne transmission of respiratory infections such as COVID-19 and influenza continue. Health authorities including the WHO and the US CDC have recognized the airborne transmission of COVID-19 in specific settings, although the ventilation requirements remain to be determined. In this work we consider the long-range airborne transmission as an extended short-range airborne route, which reconciles the link between short- and long-range airborne routes. The effective short-range distance is defined as the distance in short range at which long-range route has the same volumetric exposure value as that due to short-range route. Our data show that a decrease in ventilation rate or room volume per person, or an increase in the ratio of the number of infected to susceptible people reduces the effective short-range distance. In a normal breathing scenario with one out of five people infected and a room volume of 12 m3 per person to ensure an effective short-range distance of 1.5 m, a ventilation rate of 10 L/s per person is needed for a duration of 2 h. Our results suggest that effective environmental prevention strategies for respiratory infections require appropriate increases in the ventilation rate while maintaining a sufficiently low occupancy. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Demonstration of the long-range airborne route as an extended short-range airborne route suggests the significant role played by building ventilation in respiratory infection exposure. The reconciliation of short- and long-range airborne transmission suggests that the commonly observed dominance of close-contact transmission is a probable evidence of short-range airborne transmission, following a separate earlier study that revealed the relative insignificance of large droplet transmission in comparison with the short-range airborne-route. Existing ventilation standards do not account for respiratory infection control, and this study presents a possible approach to account for infection under new ventilation standards.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Infecções Respiratórias , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilação
6.
Build Environ ; 207: 108414, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629689

RESUMO

Uncertainty remains on the threshold of ventilation rate in airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We analyzed a COVID-19 outbreak in January 2020 in Hunan Province, China, involving an infected 24-year-old man, Mr. X, taking two subsequent buses, B1 and B2, in the same afternoon. We investigated the possibility of airborne transmission and the ventilation conditions for its occurrence. The ventilation rates on the buses were measured using a tracer-concentration decay method with the original driver on the original route. We measured and calculated the spread of the exhaled virus-laden droplet tracer from the suspected index case. Ten additional passengers were found to be infected, with seven of them (including one asymptomatic) on B1 and two on B2 when Mr. X was present, and one passenger infected on the subsequent B1 trip. B1 and B2 had time-averaged ventilation rates of approximately 1.7 and 3.2 L/s per person, respectively. The difference in ventilation rates and exposure time could explain why B1 had a higher attack rate than B2. Airborne transmission due to poor ventilation below 3.2 L/s played a role in this two-bus outbreak of COVID-19.

7.
J Hazard Mater ; 424(Pt B): 127511, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688007

RESUMO

Contaminants, such as pathogens or non-living substances, can spread through the interaction of their carriers (e.g., air and surfaces), which constitute a network. The structure of such networks plays an important role in the contaminant spread. We measured the contaminant spreading efficiency in different networks using a newly defined parameter. We analyzed basic networks to identify the effect of the network structure on the contaminant spread. The spreading efficiency was highly related to some network parameters, such as the source node's average path length and degree, and considerably varied with the transfer rate per inter-node interaction. We compared the contaminant spreading efficiencies in some complex networks, namely scale-free, random, regular-lattice, and bipartite networks, with centralized, linear, and fractal networks. The contaminant spreading was particularly efficient in the fractal network when the transfer rate was ~0.5. Two categories of experiments were performed to validate the effect of the network structure on contaminant spreading in practical cases: (I) gas diffusion in multi-compartment cabins (II) bacteria transfer in multi-finger networks. The gas diffusion could be well estimated based on the diffusion between two compartments, and it was considerably affected by the network structure. Meanwhile, the bacteria spread was generally less efficient than expected.

8.
J Hazard Mater ; 425: 128051, 2022 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34910996

RESUMO

The number of people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to increase worldwide, but despite extensive research, there remains significant uncertainty about the predominant routes of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We conducted a mechanistic modeling and calculated the exposure dose and infection risk of each passenger in a two-bus COVID-19 outbreak in Hunan province, China. This outbreak originated from a single pre-symptomatic index case. Some human behavioral data related to exposure including boarding and alighting time of some passengers and seating position and mask wearing of all passengers were obtained from the available closed-circuit television images/clips and/or questionnaire survey. Least-squares fitting was performed to explore the effect of effective viral load on transmission risk, and the most likely quanta generation rate was also estimated. This study reveals the leading role of airborne SARS-CoV-2 transmission and negligible role of fomite transmission in a poorly ventilated indoor environment, highlighting the need for more targeted interventions in such environments. The quanta generation rate of the index case differed by a factor of 1.8 on the two buses and transmission occurred in the afternoon of the same day, indicating a time-varying effective viral load within a short period of five hours.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , COVID-19 , Fômites/virologia , Veículos Automotores , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos
9.
Environ Res ; : 112451, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848209

RESUMO

Measurements of CO2 and counting of occupants were carried out in 37 public bus trips during commuting rush hours in Barcelona (NE Spain) with the aim of evaluating parameters governing ventilation inside the vehicles and proposing actions to improve it. The results show that CO2 concentrations (1039 and 934 ± 386 ppm, as average and median, during rush hours but with average reduced occupancy due to the fair to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the measurement period, and measured in the middle of the busses) are in the lower range of values recorded in the literature for public buses, however an improvement in ventilation is required in a significant proportion of the journeys. Thus, we found better ventilation in the older Euro 3+ (retrofitted with filter traps and selective catalytic reduction) and Euro 5 buses (average 918 ± 257 ppm) than in the hermetically closed new Euro 6 ones (1111 ± 432 ppm). The opening of the windows in the older buses yielded higher ventilation rates (778 ± 432 ppm). The opening of all doors at all stops increases the ventilation by causing a fall in concentrations of 200-350 ppm below inter-stop concentrations, with this effect typically lasting 40-50 s in the hermetically closed new Euro 6 hybrid buses. Based on these results a number of recommendations are offered in order to improve ventilation, including measurement of CO2 and occupancy, and installation of ventilation fans on the top of the hermetically closed new buses, introducing outdoor air when a given concentration threshold is exceeded. In these cases, a CO2 sensor installed in the outdoor air intake is also recommended to take into account external CO2 contributions.

10.
Magn Reson Med ; 2021 Dec 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34958518

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A non-invasive magnetization transfer indirect spin labeling (MISL) MRI method is developed to quantify the water exchange between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and other tissues in the brain and to examine the age-dependence of water exchange. METHOD: In the pulsed MISL, we implemented a short selective pulse followed by a post-labeling delay before an MRI acquisition with a long echo time; in the continuous MISL, a train of saturation pulses was applied. MISL signal (∆Z) was obtained by the subtraction of the label MRI at -3.5 ppm from the control MRI at 200 ppm. CSF was extracted from the mouse ventricles for the MISL optimization and validation. Comparison between wild type (WT) and aquaporin-4 knockout (AQP4-/- ) mice was performed to examine the contributions of CSF water exchange, whereas its age-dependence was investigated by comparing the adult and young WT mice. RESULTS: The pulsed MISL method observed that the MISL signal reached the maximum at 1.5 s. The continuous MISL method showed the highest MISL signal in the fourth ventricle (∆Z = 13.5% ± 1.4%), whereas the third ventricle and the lateral ventricles had similar MISL ∆Z values (∆Z = 12.0% ± 1.8%). Additionally, significantly lower ∆Z (9.3%-18.7% reduction) was found in all ventricles for the adult mice than those of the young mice (p < 0.02). For the AQP4-/- mice, the ∆Z values were 5.9%-8.3% smaller than those of the age-matched WT mice in the lateral and fourth ventricles, but were not significant. CONCLUSION: The MISL method has a great potential to study CSF water exchange with the surrounding tissues in brain.

11.
BMJ ; 375: n2895, 2021 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836876
12.
Indoor Air ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34704625

RESUMO

To explain the observed phenomenon that most SARS-CoV-2 transmission occurs indoors whereas its outdoor transmission is rare, a simple macroscopic aerosol balance model is developed to link short- and long-range airborne transmission. The model considers the involvement of exhaled droplets with initial diameter ≤50 µm in the short-range airborne route, whereas only a fraction of these droplets with an initial diameter within 15 µm or equivalently a final diameter within 5 µm considered in the long-range airborne route. One surprising finding is that the room ventilation rate significantly affects the short-range airborne route, in contrast to traditional belief. When the ventilation rate in a room is insufficient, the airborne infection risks due to both short- and long-range transmission are high. A ventilation rate of 10 L/s per person provides a similar concentration vs distance decay profile to that in outdoor settings, which provides additional justification for the widely adopted ventilation standard of 10 L/s per person. The newly obtained data do not support the basic assumption in the existing ventilation standard ASHRAE 62.1 (2019) that the required people outdoor air rate is constant if the standard is used directly for respiratory infection control. Instead, it is necessary to increase the ventilation rate when the physical distance between people is less than approximately 2 m.

13.
NMR Biomed ; : e4626, 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668251

RESUMO

Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging has shown promise for classifying tumors based on their aggressiveness, but CEST contrast is complicated by multiple signal sources and thus prolonged acquisition times are often required to extract the signal of interest. We investigated whether deep learning could help identify pertinent Z-spectral features for distinguishing tumor aggressiveness as well as the possibility of acquiring only the pertinent spectral regions for more efficient CEST acquisition. Human breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, were used to establish bi-lateral tumor xenografts in mice to represent higher and lower aggressive tumors, respectively. A convolutional neural network (CNN)-based classification model, trained on simulated data, utilized Z-spectral features as input to predict labels of different tissue types, including MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, and muscle tissue. Saliency maps reported the influence of Z-spectral regions on classifying tissue types. The model was robust to noise with an accuracy of more than 91.5% for low and moderate noise levels in simulated testing data (SD of noise less than 2.0%). For in vivo CEST data acquired with a saturation pulse amplitude of 2.0 µT, the model had a superior ability to delineate tissue types compared with Lorentzian difference (LD) and magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry (MTRasym ) analysis, classifying tissues to the correct types with a mean accuracy of 85.7%, sensitivity of 81.1%, and specificity of 94.0%. The model's performance did not improve substantially when using data acquired at multiple saturation pulse amplitudes or when adding LD or MTRasym spectral features, and did not change when using saliency map-based partial or downsampled Z-spectra. This study demonstrates the potential of CNN-based classification to distinguish between different tumor types and muscle tissue, and speed up CEST acquisition protocols.

15.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20356, 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645918

RESUMO

The association between the footwear microclimate and microbial community on the foot plantar skin was investigated by experiments with three participants. Novel methods were developed for measuring in-shoe temperature and humidity at five footwear regions, as well as the overall ventilation rate inside the footwear. Three types of footwear were tested including casual shoes, running shoes, and perforated shoes for pairwise comparison of footwear microclimate and corresponding microbial community on the skin. The major findings are as follows: (1) footwear types make a significant difference to in-shoe temperature at the instep region with the casual shoes sustaining the warmest of all types; (2) significant differences were observed in local internal absolute humidity between footwear types, with the casual shoes sustaining the highest level of humidity at most regions; (3) the perforated shoes provided the highest ventilation rate, followed by running and casual shoes, and the faster the gait, the larger the discrepancy in ventilation rate between footwear types; (4) the casual shoes seemed to provide the most favorable internal environment for bacterial growth at the distal plantar skin; and (5) the bacterial growth at the distal plantar skin showed a positive linear correlation with the in-shoe temperature and absolute humidity, and a negative linear correlation with the ventilation rate. The ventilation rate seemed to be a more reliable indicator of the bacterial growth. Above all, we can conclude that footwear microclimate varies in footwear types, which makes contributions to the bacterial growth on the foot plantar skin.

16.
Build Environ ; 206: 108367, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34566244

RESUMO

Personal protective behaviors and their dynamic change are known to play a major role in the community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal pathogen of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this study, a total of 3229 students in Chinese universities completed an online survey about their knowledge on transmission and personal protective behavior before and after COVID-19 vaccination. Of the respondents, 87.6% had been vaccinated. Most students believed that the large droplet (97.0%) and short-range airborne (89.3%) routes were the two most likely SARS-CoV-2 transmission routes, whereas only 24.1% considered long-range airborne transmission to be possible. Students who would be expected to possess better knowledge about virus transmission (e.g., students of medicine) reported better personal protective behaviors. Female students reported relatively better personal hygiene practices than male students, so did the confident students than their diffident peers. Students washed their hands on average of 5.76 times per day during the pandemic. Students at universities in southern regions washed their hands more frequently but paid less attention to indoor ventilation than did their northern counterparts. Interestingly, students who are fear of being infected had the bad personal hygiene. University students wore 22% less masks in public indoor environments after vaccination. Chinese university students weakened their personal protective behavior after vaccination and it may increase the potential risk of infection in the new waves of variant virus (e.g. delta).

17.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126137, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492926

RESUMO

Fomites are known to spread infectious diseases, but their role in determining transmission risk remains unclear. The association of surface touch networks (STNs), proposed to explain this risk, with real-life surface contamination has not yet been demonstrated. To construct STNs, we collected surface touch data from 23 to 26 scholars through 2 independent experiments conducted in office spaces for 13 h each. In parallel, a tracer bacterium (Lactobacillus bulgaricus) was spread by a designated carrier in each experiment during normal activities; the subsequent extent of surface contamination was assessed using qPCR. The touch data were also analyzed using an agent-based model that predicted the observed contamination. Touching public (door handles) and hidden public (desks, chair seatbacks) surfaces that connected occupants, sparse hand-to-hand contact, and active carriers contributed significantly to contamination spread, which was also correlated with the size of the social group containing carriers. The natural and unsupervised experiments reflected realistic exposure levels of mouths (1-10 ppm of total contamination spread by one root carrier), nostrils (~1 ppm), and eyes (~0.1 ppm). We conclude that the contamination degree of known and hidden public surfaces can indicate fomite exposure risk. The social group effect could trigger superspreading events through fomite transmission.


Assuntos
Fômites , Tato , Mãos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(33): 39458-39469, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433254

RESUMO

It is necessary to correctly research and synthesize efficient and inexpensive catalysts to achieve reversible oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which is also a prerequisite for zinc-air batteries (ZABs). However, it is still a huge challenge to manufacture electrocatalysts with durable and high electrocatalytic performance from biomass. Here, a convenient method of delignification was used to transform natural balsa wood into a layered porous carbon material, FeCo alloy supported on a N, S-doped wood-based carbon aerogel (FeCo@NS-CA) as the cathode in rechargeable flow ZAB. The obtained FeCo@NS-CA with the porous lamellar architecture exhibits superior bifunctional electrocatalysis, including excellent electrochemical activities and superior stabilities. For ORR, relative to the reversible hydrogen electrode, the onset potential of FeCo@NS-CA is 0.97 V, and the half-wave potential is 0.85 V, which is consistent with the potential of commercial Pt/C. For OER, FeCo@NS-CA obtained an overpotential of 450 mV, which is very similar to the overpotential of the benchmark RuO2. The superior performance could be owing to the alloy carrier interaction between the FeCo alloy and the wood-based carbon aerogel co-doped with N and S. Moreover, the bifunctional air cathode in a flow ZAB assembled with the FeCo@NS-CA catalyst at a current density of 10 mA cm-2; the power density is 140 mW cm-2, and the specific capacitance is 760 mA h gZn-1, with a remarkable long-term stability of 400 h better than ZAB of benchmark Pt/C + RuO2. This research lays the foundation for transforming abundant biomass resources into high environmental protection materials for energy-related applications.

19.
J Infect ; 83(2): 207-216, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory disease that has become a global pandemic. Close contact plays an important role in infection spread, while fomite may also be a possible transmission route. Research during the COVID-19 pandemic has identified long-range airborne transmission as one of the important transmission routes although lack solid evidence. METHODS: We examined video data related to a restaurant associated COVID-19 outbreak in Guangzhou. We observed more than 40,000 surface touches and 13,000 episodes of close contacts in the restaurant during the entire lunch duration. These data allowed us to analyse infection risk via both the fomite and close contact routes. RESULTS: There is no significant correlation between the infection risk via both fomite and close contact routes among those who were not family members of the index case. We can thus rule out virus transmission via fomite contact and interpersonal close contact routes in the Guangzhou restaurant outbreak. The absence of a fomite route agrees with the COVID-19 literature. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide indirect evidence for the long-range airborne route dominating SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the restaurant. We note that the restaurant was poorly ventilated, allowing for increasing airborne SARS-CoV-2 concentration.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Restaurantes , SARS-CoV-2 , Tato
20.
Indoor Air ; 31(6): 2281-2295, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34138487

RESUMO

The incidence of several respiratory viral infections has been shown to be related to climate. Because humans spend most of their time indoors, measures of indoor climate, rather than outdoor climate, may be better predictors of disease incidence and transmission. Therefore, understanding the relationship between indoor and outdoor climate will help illuminate their influence on the seasonality of diseases caused by respiratory viruses. Indoor-outdoor relationships between temperature and humidity have been documented in temperate regions, but little information is available for tropical regions, where seasonal patterns of respiratory viral diseases differ. We have examined indoor-outdoor correlations of temperature, relative humidity (RH), and absolute humidity (AH) over a 1-year period in each of seven tropical cities. Across all cities, the average monthly indoor temperature was 25 ± 3°C (mean ± standard deviation) with a range of 20-30°C. The average monthly indoor RH was 66 ± 9% with a range of 50-78%, and the average monthly indoor AH was 15 ± 3 g/m3 with a range of 10-23 g/m3 . Indoor AH and RH were linearly correlated with outdoor AH when the air conditioning (AC) was off, suggesting that outdoor AH may be a good proxy of indoor humidity in the absence of AC. All indoor measurements were more strongly correlated with outdoor measurements as distance from the equator increased. Such correlations were weaker during the wet season, especially when AC was in operation. These correlations will provide insight for assessing the seasonality of respiratory viral infections using outdoor climate data, which is more widely available than indoor data, even though transmission of these diseases mainly occurs indoors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Umidade , Temperatura , Clima Tropical , Estações do Ano
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