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1.
J Affect Disord ; 267: 144-152, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32063566

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We compared male and female American veterans with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder regarding clinical characteristics associated with lifetime suicidal ideation and behavior. Subsequent mortality, including death by suicide, was also assessed. METHODS: Data from questionnaires and face-to-face evaluations were collected during 2011-2014 from 8,049 male and 1,290 female veterans with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. In addition to comparing male-female characteristics, Cox regression models-adjusted for demographic information, medical-psychiatric comorbidities, and self-reported suicidal ideation and behavior-were used to examine gender differences in associations of putative risk factors with suicide-specific and all-cause mortality during up to six years of follow-up. RESULTS: Women overall were younger, more likely to report a history of suicidal behavior, less likely to be substance abusers, and had lower overall mortality during follow-up. Among women only, psychiatric comorbidity was paradoxically associated with lower all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=0.53, 95% CI, 0.29-0.96, p = 0.037 for 1 disorder vs. none; HR=0.44, 95% CI, 0.25-0.77, p = 0.004 for ≥2 disorders vs. none). Suicide-specific mortality involved relatively few events, but crude rates were an order of magnitude higher than in the U.S. general and overall veteran populations. LIMITATIONS: Incomplete cause-of-death information and low statistical power for male-female comparisons regarding mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Female veterans with SMI differed from females in the general population by having a higher risk of suicide attempts. They also had more lifetime suicide attempts than male veterans with same diagnoses. These differences should inform public policy and clinical planning.

2.
Tree Physiol ; 2019 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860707

RESUMO

WRKY transcription factors, one of the largest transcription factor families, play important roles in regulating the synthesis of secondary metabolites. In sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans), the monoterpenes have been demonstrated as the most important volatile compounds, and the W-box, which is the cognate binding site of WRKY transcription factors could be identified in most of terpene synthesis related genes' promoters. However, the role of the WRKY family in terpene synthesis in sweet osmanthus has rarely been examined. In this study, 154 WRKY genes with conserved WRKY domain were identified and classified into three groups. The group II was further divided into five subgroups and almost all members of IId contained a plant zinc cluster domain. Eight OfWRKYs (OfWRKY7/19/36/38/42/84/95/139) were screened from 20 OfWRKYs for their flower-specific expression patterns in different tissues. Simultaneously, the expression patterns of OfWRKYs and emission patterns of volatile compounds during the flowering process were determined and GC-MS results showed that monoterpenes, such as linalool and ocimene, accounted for the highest proportion, contributing to the floral scent of sweet osmanthus in two cultivars. In addition, correlation analysis revealed the expression patterns of OfWRKYs (OfWRKY7/19/36/139) were each correlated with distinct monoterpenes (linalool, linalool derivatives, ocimene, and ocimene derivatives). Subcellular localization analysis showed that p35S::GFP-OfWRKY7/38/95/139 were localized in the nucleus and OfWRKY139 had very strong transactivation activity. Collectively, the results indicated potential roles of OfWRKY139 and OfWRKYs with plant zinc cluster domain in regulating synthesis of aromatic compounds in sweet osmanthus, laying the foundation for use of OfWRKYs to improve aroma of ornamental plants.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31872970

RESUMO

Cognitive impairment is a frequent and serious problem in patients with various forms of severe mental illnesses (SMI), including schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP). Recent research suggests genetic links to several cognitive phenotypes in both SMI and in the general population. Our goal in this study was to identify potential genomic signatures of cognitive functioning in veterans with severe mental illness and compare them to previous findings for cognition across different populations. Veterans Affairs (VA) Cooperative Studies Program (CSP) Study #572 evaluated cognitive and functional capacity measures among SZ and BP patients. In conjunction with the VA Million Veteran Program, 3,959 European American (1,095 SZ, 2,864 BP) and 2,601 African American (1,095 SZ, 2,864 BP) patients were genotyped using a custom Affymetrix Axiom Biobank array. We performed a genome-wide association study of global cognitive functioning, constructed polygenic scores for SZ and cognition in the general population, and examined genetic correlations with 2,626 UK Biobank traits. Although no single locus attained genome-wide significance, observed allelic effects were strongly consistent with previous studies. We observed robust associations between global cognitive functioning and polygenic scores for cognitive performance, intelligence, and SZ risk. We also identified significant genetic correlations with several cognition-related traits in UK Biobank. In a diverse cohort of U.S. veterans with SZ or BP, we demonstrate broad overlap of common genetic effects on cognition in the general population, and find that greater polygenic loading for SZ risk is associated with poorer cognitive performance.

4.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 6(4): 406-413, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31728393

RESUMO

Objectives: To examine a conceptual model of posttraumatic growth (PTG) with the inclusion of family resilience as a mediator, and social support, individual resilience, maternal care, and family members' intimacy after trauma as protective factors. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was carried out in a sample of 134 college nursing students who had a parent with a non-congenital disability. The Socio-demographic Information Questionnaire, the Chinese version of Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS), 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC10), Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI), Family Resilience Assessment Scale (FRAS) and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were used to collect data. Results: Results showed that social support, individual resilience, maternal care, and family members' intimacy after trauma positively predicted family resilience (ß = 0.41, 0.20, 0.20, 0.22, all P<0.01), respectively, and indirectly predicted PTG through family resilience. Family resilience positively predicted PTG (ß = 0.25, P<0.01). Moreover, individual resilience directly positively predicted PTG (ß = 0.25, P<0.001). Conclusions: Family resilience could facilitate PTG in nursing students in the face of parental disability. Interventions to promote PTG among college nursing students who have experienced parental disability should consider individual or family resilience-based intervention.

5.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(9): 1394-1401, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358989

RESUMO

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major problem among military veterans and civilians alike, yet its pathophysiology remains poorly understood. We performed a genome-wide association study and bioinformatic analyses, which included 146,660 European Americans and 19,983 African Americans in the US Million Veteran Program, to identify genetic risk factors relevant to intrusive reexperiencing of trauma, which is the most characteristic symptom cluster of PTSD. In European Americans, eight distinct significant regions were identified. Three regions had values of P < 5 × 10-10: CAMKV; chromosome 17 closest to KANSL1, but within a large high linkage disequilibrium region that also includes CRHR1; and TCF4. Associations were enriched with respect to the transcriptomic profiles of striatal medium spiny neurons. No significant associations were observed in the African American cohort of the sample. Results in European Americans were replicated in the UK Biobank data. These results provide new insights into the biology of PTSD in a well-powered genome-wide association study.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos , Veteranos , Saúde dos Veteranos
6.
Biol Psychiatry ; 86(5): 365-376, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Habitual alcohol use can be an indicator of alcohol dependence, which is associated with a wide range of serious health problems. METHODS: We completed a genome-wide association study in 126,936 European American and 17,029 African American subjects in the Veterans Affairs Million Veteran Program for a quantitative phenotype based on maximum habitual alcohol consumption. RESULTS: ADH1B, on chromosome 4, was the lead locus for both populations: for the European American sample, rs1229984 (p = 4.9 × 10-47); for African American, rs2066702 (p = 2.3 × 10-12). In the European American sample, we identified three additional genome-wide-significant maximum habitual alcohol consumption loci: on chromosome 17, rs77804065 (p = 1.5 × 10-12), at CRHR1 (corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1); the protein product of this gene is involved in stress and immune responses; and on chromosomes 8 and 10. European American and African American samples were then meta-analyzed; the associated region at CRHR1 increased in significance to 1.02 × 10-13, and we identified two additional genome-wide significant loci, FGF14 (p = 9.86 × 10-9) (chromosome 13) and a locus on chromosome 11. Besides ADH1B, none of the five loci have prior genome-wide significant support. Post-genome-wide association study analysis identified genetic correlation to other alcohol-related traits, smoking-related traits, and many others. Replications were observed in UK Biobank data. Genetic correlation between maximum habitual alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence was 0.87 (p = 4.78 × 10-9). Enrichment for cell types included dopaminergic and gamma-aminobutyric acidergic neurons in midbrain, and pancreatic delta cells. CONCLUSIONS: The present study supports five novel alcohol-use risk loci, with particularly strong statistical support for CRHR1. Additionally, we provide novel insight regarding the biology of harmful alcohol use.

7.
J Adv Nurs ; 75(12): 3495-3503, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241193

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate relationships among psychological capital, creative tendency, and job burnout among Chinese nurses. BACKGROUND: Nurses are particularly susceptible to job burnout and kinds of factors related to their burnout. However, limited studies focus on the relationships among nurses' psychological capital, creative tendency, and job burnout in China. DESIGN: A cross-sectional design. METHODS: A convenience sample of 200 female nurses was recruited from a grade A tertiary hospital in Shandong province from December 2016-January 2017. Data were collected using self-reported questionnaires, including the Chinese version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, Creativity Assessment Packet, Psychological Capital Questionnaire, and the socio-demographic questionnaire. RESULTS: Nurses' psychological capital and creative tendency was negatively related to job burnout and psychological capital was positively related to creative tendency. Moreover, creative tendency partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions aimed at strengthening nurses' creative tendencies and psychological capital could reduce the occurrence of job burnout. IMPACT: This study identified the psychological capital and creative tendency affecting job burnout among Chinese nurses. The psychological capital and creative tendency was negatively related to job burnout; creative tendency partially mediated the relationship between psychological capital and job burnout among Chinese nurses. Nurses should pay attention to their own creative personality and take the advantage of it to release job burnout. Nurse managers are called on to strengthen nurses' psychological capital and creativity in this study by designing effective strategies for preventing job burnout among nurses.

8.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 3315-3326, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114367

RESUMO

Purpose: The rapidly rising incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), which is usually diagnosed late with a poor prognosis, has become a growing problem. This study investigated the potential transcription factor (TF)-related molecular mechanisms of EAC by using bioinformatics analysis and qRT-PCR validation. Methods: Expression profile datasets for mRNAs (GSE92396, GSE13898, GSE26886 and GSE1420) and miRNAs (GSE16456) were downloaded from the GEO database. Overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified through integrative analysis. Then, a TF-miRNA-mRNA network was constructed based on bioinformatics data from the TRRUST, TRED and miRTarBase database. Furthermore, overall survival analysis for the mRNAs and miRNAs in the TF-miRNA-mRNA network was performed with data from TCGA, and qRT-PCR was used to validate the results. Results: A total of 294 overlapping DEGs were identified in EAC tissues compared to normal tissues, including 181 downregulated and 113 upregulated genes. Then, 16 TFs that could target the DEGs and were related to cancer were predicted based on public databases, and 41 DEGs that could be targeted were identified as key genes. Additionally, 12 DEMs were predicted through miRTarBase to be associated with the key genes, and TP53-(miR-125b)-ID2 and JUN-(miR-30a)-IL1A from the TF-miRNA-mRNA network were identified to potentially play significant roles in EAC. Furthermore, CCL20, IL1A, ABCC3, hsa-miR-23b, and hsa-miR-191, which are involved in the TF-miRNA-mRNA network, were found to be significantly associated with patient survival in EAC. Finally, the expression of a miRNA-mRNA pair (hsa-miR-30a-5p and IL1A) was revealed to be correlated with prognosis. Conclusion: In this study, a TF-miRNA-mRNA network was constructed to analyze the potential molecular mechanisms of EAC. Key genes and miRNAs associated with patient survival were identified, which may reveal promising approaches for EAC diagnosis and therapy.

9.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 28(2): e12984, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30628124

RESUMO

Walsh's family resilience theory indicated that families could foster resilient outcomes among their members when they are facing changes or crises. However, little is known about family resilience and psychological well-being among Chinese breast cancer survivors and their caregivers. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the direct and indirect relationships between family resilience, breast cancer survivors' post-traumatic growth (PTG), quality of life (QOL), and their principal caregivers' caregiver burden. A total of 108 breast cancer survivors/principal caregivers pairs completed a cross-sectional questionnaire survey in a comprehensive cancer of a public hospital in Shandong Province, China. The structural equation modelling (SEM) results showed that family resilience had direct and indirect effects on QOL and caregiver burden, and it was positively related to the PTG of the survivors. The survivors' PTG was positively related to their QOL, and their QOL was negatively associated with caregiver burden. Therefore, a better understanding of how family resilience contributes to PTG and QOL of the survivors and caregiver burden could help clinicians tailor interventions to enhance interventions aimed at improving both survivors' and caregivers' well-being.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , China/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida
10.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 88: 79-84, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caregivers of breast cancer survivors experience various types of burden, which in turn is linked to patients' physical and psychological status. Family resilience might be able to decrease caregiver burden and facilitate survivors' individual resilience, and individual resilience might be related to caregiver burden. Nevertheless, these relationships have not yet been confirmed. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationships between family resilience, breast cancer survivors' resilience, and principal caregivers' caregiver burden, as well as determine whether breast cancer survivors' individual resilience plays a mediating role in the relationship between family resilience and caregiver burden. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study design. SETTING: The comprehensive cancer center of a public hospital in Shandong Province, China. PARTICIPANTS: The sample comprised 108 dyads of early-stage breast cancer survivors and their principal caregivers. METHODS: The principal caregivers completed the Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale and the Chinese Version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, while the breast cancer survivors completed the 10-item Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale and provided their sociodemographic information. The mediating effect of individual resilience was estimated using the bootstrap method via IBM SPSS Amos 21.0. RESULTS: Caregiver burden was significantly negatively associated with both family resilience and breast cancer survivors' individual resilience (both p < .01). Furthermore, individual resilience mediated the relationship between family resilience and caregiver burden (b = -0.052; 95% confidence interval: -.412, -.036). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that both family resilience and breast cancer survivors' individual resilience may ease caregiver burden among the principal caregivers of breast cancer survivors, and family resilience tends to promote the survivors' individual resilience. Therefore, family resilience and survivors' individual resilience should be enhanced for breast cancer survivors and their family to ease the principal caregivers' caregiver burden.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Institutos de Câncer , China , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cell Discov ; 4: 29, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29951224

RESUMO

Echinoderms exhibit several fascinating evolutionary innovations that are rarely seen in the animal kingdom, but how these animals attained such features is not well understood. Here we report the sequencing and analysis of the genome and extensive transcriptomes of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus, a species from a special echinoderm group with extraordinary potential for saponin synthesis, aestivation and organ regeneration. The sea cucumber does not possess a reorganized Hox cluster as previously assumed for all echinoderms, and the spatial expression of Hox7 and Hox11/13b potentially guides the embryo-to-larva axial transformation. Contrary to the typical production of lanosterol in animal cholesterol synthesis, the oxidosqualene cyclase of sea cucumber produces parkeol for saponin synthesis and has "plant-like" motifs suggestive of convergent evolution. The transcriptional factors Klf2 and Egr1 are identified as key regulators of aestivation, probably exerting their effects through a clock gene-controlled process. Intestinal hypometabolism during aestivation is driven by the DNA hypermethylation of various metabolic gene pathways, whereas the transcriptional network of intestine regeneration involves diverse signaling pathways, including Wnt, Hippo and FGF. Decoding the sea cucumber genome provides a new avenue for an in-depth understanding of the extraordinary features of sea cucumbers and other echinoderms.

12.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 5: 2333794X18756465, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511708

RESUMO

Objective. Consequences of mild head injury for behavioral adjustment have not been well researched, and little is known about the long-term effects of mild head injury for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods. In this longitudinal study of 418 children in Jintan City, China, parents reported children's history of head injury at age 6 years, and the Child Behavior Checklist was used to measure child iDSM-IV-oriented ADHD at ages 6 (Wave I) and 12 years (Wave II). Regression models were used to calculate the long-term (Wave II) effect of mild head injury on diagnosed ADHD, while controlling for diagnosed ADHD in Wave I. Results. Fifty-seven children (13.6%) had a single injury and 42 (10.0%) had multiple injuries before the age of 6 years. The long-term effect of multiple mild injury on ADHD at age 12 years was significant (R2 = 0.103, P < .05), even after controlling for ADHD at age 6 years. Conclusions. Multiple, but not single, mild head injuries before the age of 6 years had a significant long-term effect on ADHD. Thus, injuries traditionally overlooked and underreported still pose significant risks to children's long-term behavioral development.

13.
Psychooncology ; 27(4): 1284-1290, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29441696

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between family resilience and posttraumatic growth (PTG) of breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden among principal caregivers in China. METHODS: Participants in this cross-sectional study comprised 108 women aged 26 to 74 years (M = 49, SD = 9) with early-stage breast cancer and 108 principal caregivers. Participants were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center of a public hospital in Shandong Province, China. The principal caregivers completed the Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale and the Chinese Version of the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview; patients completed the Short Form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and questions designed to obtain sociodemographic information. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted to assess the adjusted association between family resilience and PTG and caregiver burden, while controlling for sociodemographics. RESULTS: Families showed a slightly elevated level of family resilience since the cancer experience, and patients showed a moderate degree of PTG. Principal caregivers reported moderate burden. The Shortened Chinese Version of the Family Resilience Assessment Scale total score was positively related to the Short Form of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory total score (ß = .28, P < .01) and was negatively related to Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview total score (ß = -.28, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: Family resilience impacts PTG of breast cancer survivors and caregiver burden. Our findings indicated the necessity of interventions to facilitate family resilience, promote PTG among breast cancer survivors, and decrease family members' caregiver burden.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/psicologia , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Saúde da Família , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Resiliência Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Psychol Health Med ; 23(6): 661-667, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29250994

RESUMO

Positive parent-child relationships are associated with positive youth development, but little is known about the relationships between parental bonding, resilience, and posttraumatic growth, which is positive change resulting from the struggle with trauma. This study examined a mediation model among 119 female young adults with disabled parents. The model included resilience as a mediator of the relationship between the paternal Care and posttraumatic growth. The results revealed that resilience did mediate the relationship between the paternal Care and posttraumatic growth. The findings indicate that paternal Care helps to foster female young adults' resilience, which benefits their growth after suffering adversities.


Assuntos
Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Apego ao Objeto , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Crescimento Psicológico Pós-Traumático , Resiliência Psicológica , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 1721, 2017 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167427

RESUMO

Bivalve molluscs are descendants of an early-Cambrian lineage superbly adapted to benthic filter feeding. Adaptations in form and behavior are well recognized, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we investigate the genome, various transcriptomes, and proteomes of the scallop Chlamys farreri, a semi-sessile bivalve with well-developed adductor muscle, sophisticated eyes, and remarkable neurotoxin resistance. The scallop's large striated muscle is energy-dynamic but not fully differentiated from smooth muscle. Its eyes are supported by highly diverse, intronless opsins expanded by retroposition for broadened spectral sensitivity. Rapid byssal secretion is enabled by a specialized foot and multiple proteins including expanded tyrosinases. The scallop uses hepatopancreas to accumulate neurotoxins and kidney to transform to high-toxicity forms through expanded sulfotransferases, probably as deterrence against predation, while it achieves neurotoxin resistance through point mutations in sodium channels. These findings suggest that expansion and mutation of those genes may have profound effects on scallop's phenotype and adaptation.


Assuntos
Pectinidae/genética , Pectinidae/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Genoma , Hepatopâncreas/fisiologia , Rim/fisiologia , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Mutação , Neurotoxinas/metabolismo , Neurotoxinas/toxicidade , Opsinas/genética , Opsinas/fisiologia , Pectinidae/anatomia & histologia , Células Fotorreceptoras de Invertebrados/fisiologia , Filogenia , Retina/fisiologia
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 284(1863)2017 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28954911

RESUMO

A small number of primate species including snub-nosed monkeys (colobines), geladas (papionins) and humans live in multilevel societies (MLSs), in which multiple one-male polygamous units (OMUs) coexist to form a band, and non-breeding males associate in bachelor groups. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the papionin MLS appears to have evolved through internal fissioning of large mixed-sex groups, whereas the colobine MLS evolved through the aggregation of small, isolated OMUs. However, how agonistic males maintain tolerance under intensive competition over limited breeding opportunities remains unclear. Using a combination of behavioural analysis, satellite telemetry and genetic data, we quantified the social network of males in a bachelor group of golden snub-nosed monkeys. The results show a strong effect of kinship on social bonds among bachelors. Their interactions ranged from cooperation to agonism, and were regulated by access to mating partners. We suggest that an 'arms race' between breeding males' collective defence against usurpation attempts by bachelor males and bachelor males' aggregative offence to obtain reproductive opportunities has selected for larger group size on both sides. The results provide insight into the role that kin selection plays in shaping inter-male cohesion which facilities the evolution of multilevel societies. These findings have implications for understanding human social evolution, as male-male bonds are a hallmark of small- and large-scale human societies.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Colobinae/fisiologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Colobinae/genética , Masculino , Filogenia , Telemetria
17.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 1(5): 120, 2017 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28812685

RESUMO

Reconstructing the genomes of bilaterian ancestors is central to our understanding of animal evolution, where knowledge from ancient and/or slow-evolving bilaterian lineages is critical. Here we report a high-quality, chromosome-anchored reference genome for the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, a bivalve mollusc that has a slow-evolving genome with many ancestral features. Chromosome-based macrosynteny analysis reveals a striking correspondence between the 19 scallop chromosomes and the 17 presumed ancestral bilaterian linkage groups at a level of conservation previously unseen, suggesting that the scallop may have a karyotype close to that of the bilaterian ancestor. Scallop Hox gene expression follows a new mode of subcluster temporal co-linearity that is possibly ancestral and may provide great potential in supporting diverse bilaterian body plans. Transcriptome analysis of scallop mantle eyes finds unexpected diversity in phototransduction cascades and a potentially ancient Pax2/5/8-dependent pathway for noncephalic eyes. The outstanding preservation of ancestral karyotype and developmental control makes the scallop genome a valuable resource for understanding early bilaterian evolution and biology.

18.
Genetics ; 206(3): 1237-1250, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28468906

RESUMO

Assembly of complex genomes using short reads remains a major challenge, which usually yields highly fragmented assemblies. Generation of ultradense linkage maps is promising for anchoring such assemblies, but traditional linkage mapping methods are hindered by the infrequency and unevenness of meiotic recombination that limit attainable map resolution. Here we develop a sequencing-based "in vitro" linkage mapping approach (called RadMap), where chromosome breakage and segregation are realized by generating hundreds of "subhaploid" fosmid/bacterial-artificial-chromosome clone pools, and by restriction site-associated DNA sequencing of these clone pools to produce an ultradense whole-genome restriction map to facilitate genome scaffolding. A bootstrap-based minimum spanning tree algorithm is developed for grouping and ordering of genome-wide markers and is implemented in a user-friendly, integrated software package (AMMO). We perform extensive analyses to validate the power and accuracy of our approach in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and human. We also demonstrate the utility of RadMap for enhancing the contiguity of a variety of whole-genome shotgun assemblies generated using either short Illumina reads (300 bp) or long PacBio reads (6-14 kb), with up to 15-fold improvement of N50 (∼816 kb-3.7 Mb) and high scaffolding accuracy (98.1-98.5%). RadMap outperforms BioNano and Hi-C when input assembly is highly fragmented (contig N50 = 54 kb). RadMap can capture wide-range contiguity information and provide an efficient and flexible tool for high-resolution physical mapping and scaffolding of highly fragmented assemblies.


Assuntos
Ligação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Mapeamento por Restrição/métodos , Software , Arabidopsis/genética , Mapeamento por Restrição/normas
19.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 75: 646-652, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28415511

RESUMO

Dental pulp vitality is extremely important for the tooth viability, since it provides nutrition and forms the dentin. Bioactive glasses (BGs) may be promising materials for pulp repair due to their excellent abilities of rapidly bonding to bone and stimulating new bone growth. However, the unsatisfied handling property, low plasticity, and poor rapid-setting property of traditional BGs limit its application in vital pulp therapy. Spherical bioactive glasses (SBGs) exhibited higher osteogenesis and odontogenic differentiation than irregular BGs. This study focuses on the application of SBGs with rapid setting property for dental pulp repair. Here, SBGs with various compositions were successfully synthesized by a sol-gel process using dodecylamine (DDA) served as both a catalyst and a template. The maximum content of CaO in SBGs was about 15%. The non-bridge oxygen amounts of the SiO network and the apatite-forming ability increased with the content proportion of CaO and P2O5. Bioactive glass pulp capping materials (BGPCMs) were prepared by mixing the SBGs powders and the phosphate buffer solution (PBS). The K3CaH(PO4)2 and hydroxyapatite (HA) formed between SBGs particles as soon as they were mixed with PBS solution. The compressive strengths of fully set BCPCM-2 molded were measured to be 31.76±1.9577MPa after setting for 24h. The K3CaH(PO4)2 and the low crystallinity HA phases at the initial stage of solidification transformed to crystalline HA for 3days, and the compressive strength was still higher than 10MPa. Additionally, SBG-2 with a designed molar composition of 35% SiO2, 55% CaO and 10% P2O5 more promoted dental pulp cell proliferation, and could be potential pulp capping applications.


Assuntos
Cimentos Dentários/química , Cimentos Dentários/farmacologia , Polpa Dentária/metabolismo , Vidro/química , Teste de Materiais , Aminas/química , Compostos de Cálcio/química , Células Cultivadas , Polpa Dentária/citologia , Humanos , Óxidos/química , Compostos de Fósforo/química
20.
J Biomed Nanotechnol ; 12(5): 863-77, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27305811

RESUMO

Mono-disperse spherical mesoporous nano- and micro- bioactive glass particles (NMBGs) can find potential use in bone tissue engineering. However, their size-dependent interaction with osteoblasts has never been studied. Herein, the proliferation, morphology, cytoskeleton organization and apoptosis of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts are studied in response to the NMBGs with varying sizes (from 61 to 1085 nm) at different concentrations. Generally, smaller NMBGs at a lower dose show weaker cytotoxicity compared to the larger particles and higher doses, arising from a novel size-dependent mechanisrm of intracellular localization of NMBGs observed by electron and confocal microscopy. Specifically, NMBGs pass through perinuclear membrane of the cells to initiate endocytosis. Once internalized, the sizes of NMBGs are found to play a significant role in determining their intracellular localization. When the NMBGs are smaller than 174 nm, they are transported via the lysosomal pathway and phagocytized in lysosomes, resulting in little cytotoxicity at later time points. On the contrary, larger NMBGs (over 174 nm) escape from the lysosomes after endocytosis, and are localized inside the intra-cytoplasmic vacuoles or randomly in the cytoplasm of cells. Their lysosomal escape may damage the lysosomes, inducing cell apoptosis and thus the greater cytotoxicity.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Vidro/química , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células , Forma Celular , Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Imagem Tridimensional , Camundongos , Microscopia Confocal , Modelos Biológicos , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Osteoblastos/citologia , Porosidade
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