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1.
Gene ; 752: 144782, 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442577

RESUMO

The branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) play an important role in muscle energy metabolism, and Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is an essential regulator of BCAA metabolism in muscle under nutritional deficiency. In this study, we analyzed the effect of normal feeding (starvation for 0 day), starvation for 3, 7, 10, 15 days, and refeeding for 7 days after 15 days of starvation on the expression of KLF15 and BCAA metabolism in muscle of Chinese soft-shelled turtles by a fasting-refeeding trial. The results showed that the level of KLF15 transcription was increased first and then decreased in muscle during short-term starvation, and the protein level was gradually increased. Both the mRNA and protein level of the KLF15 returned to normal feeding level after refeeding for 7 days. The changing trend of the activities of branched-chain aminotransferase (BCAT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was consistent to that of KLF15 mRNA, but at the transcription level, the expression of BCAT mRNA was consistent with the change of enzyme activity as well as ALT continued to increase in muscle under starvation. In addition, BCAA content showed a trend that decreased first and then increased under starvation, while the alanine (Ala) was the contrary. The above results indicated that the regulatory role of KLF15 in BCAA catabolism of muscle in Chinese soft-shelled turtles under nutritional deficiency, which might be activated the catabolism of BCAA in muscle to provide energy and maintain the homeostasis by KLF15-BACC signaling axis.

2.
Nano Lett ; 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396366

RESUMO

How neuromodulatory transmitters diffuse into the extracellular space remains an unsolved fundamental biological question, despite wide acceptance of the volume transmission model. Here, we report development of a method combining genetically encoded fluorescent sensors with high-resolution imaging and analysis algorithms which permits the first direct visualization of neuromodulatory transmitter diffusion at various neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Our analysis reveals that acetylcholine and monoamines diffuse at individual release sites with a spread length constant of ∼0.75 µm. These transmitters employ varied numbers of release sites, and when spatially close-packed release sites coactivate they can spillover into larger subcellular areas. Our data indicate spatially restricted (i.e., nonvolume) neuromodulatory transmission to be a prominent intercellular communication mode, reshaping current thinking of control and precision of neuromodulation crucial for understanding behaviors and diseases.

3.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387604

RESUMO

As an immune-regulator, Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) could effectively modulate the activity of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway, and induce anti-inflammatory response in intestinal. Our research before indicated that toll/interleukin 1 receptor-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-b (TRIF) might be a critical regulator for APS. So, in this experiment, we analyzed the effects of APS on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infected Caco2 cells in the circumstances of TRIF knockout. By using qRT-PCR and flow cytometry method, we analyzed the genes expression at transcriptional and translational level, respectively. The results of genes expression at both transcription and translation level showed that LPS could activate the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)-TNF receptor associated factor (TRAF) pathway downstream from TLR4, and induce the high expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. However, APS could effectively suppress the LPS induced inflammatory response. While, in the context of TRIF knockout, APS couldn't effectively attenuate the LPS activated MyD88-TRAF6 pathway, as well as the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Above all, we concluded that APS could antagonize the LPS induced inflammatory response by a TRIF-dependent manner.

4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(4)2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32350052

RESUMO

A 40-year-old man, with a history of metastatic parathyroid carcinoma, status post primary tumour resection and lung metastasectomy, was hospitalised for persistent severe hypercalcaemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels despite conventional management and escalating doses of cinacalcet. A single dose (120 mg) of denosumab was given and his calcium level plummeted from 14.8 mg/dL to 5.5 mg/dL. After second lung metastasectomy, he developed prolonged hypocalcaemia that required calcium and vitamin D supplements for more than 3 years. In patients with severe hypercalcaemia refractory to conventional therapies, denosumab has been used off-label with some success. A known side effect of denosumab is hypocalcaemia, which is often short-lived. The risk of prolonged hypocalcaemia should be fully evaluated before using denosumab preoperatively, especially in patients with renal insufficiency, prolonged hyperparathyroidism or anticipated tumour debulking surgery.

5.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315505

RESUMO

Identification of sex determination system and sex-determining genes have important implications in conservation, ecology and evolution. However, much remains to be discovered about the evolution of different sexual determination systems in teleost fishes, of which the mechanisms of sex determination are remarkably variable. In the present study, the whole genomes of 20 males and 20 females of a Salangid fish, Protosalanx hyalocranius, were sequenced and genome wide association analyses were conducted to uncover its sex determination system and putative sex-determining genes. A total of 150 SNPs were significantly associated with sex, which showed high differentiation between sexes (FST ranged from 0.245 to 0.556). Of the 150 sex-associated SNPs, 76 SNPs displayed sex specificity with even coverage of depth and were female heterogametic, which suggested a ZZ/ZW sex determination system. Interestingly, one scaffold containing sex-specific SNPs displayed synteny to the sex chromosome of medaka. Annotations of sex-associated loci suggested that both transcriptional regulators (e.g., FOX genes) and secreted hormones and their receptors might be involved in the sex determination/differentiation of P. hyalocranius. More strikingly, we found a nonsense mutation in one copy of GALNT homology gene of all females, which suggested that "Z dosage" effect might play a vital role in the processes of sex determination/differentiation. These sex-specific loci could be a valuable resource for further research on sex determination of Salangid fishes and the results could contribute to the understanding of sex determination mechanisms and the evolution of sex chromosome in teleost fishes.

6.
Gigascience ; 9(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Jellyfish belong to the phylum Cnidaria, which occupies an important phylogenetic location in the early-branching Metazoa lineages. The jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum is an important fishery resource in China. However, the genome resource of R. esculentum has not been reported to date. FINDINGS: In this study, we constructed a chromosome-level genome assembly of R. esculentum using Pacific Biosciences, Illumina, and Hi-C sequencing technologies. The final genome assembly was ∼275.42 Mb, with a contig N50 length of 1.13 Mb. Using Hi-C technology to identify the contacts among contigs, 260.17 Mb (94.46%) of the assembled genome were anchored onto 21 pseudochromosomes with a scaffold N50 of 12.97 Mb. We identified 17,219 protein-coding genes, with an average CDS length of 1,575 bp. The genome-wide phylogenetic analysis indicated that R. esculentum might have evolved more slowly than the other scyphozoan species used in this study. In addition, 127 toxin-like genes were identified, and 1 toxin-related "hub" was found by a genomic survey. CONCLUSIONS: We have generated a chromosome-level genome assembly of R. esculentum that could provide a valuable genomic background for studying the biology and pharmacology of jellyfish, as well as the evolutionary history of Cnidaria.

8.
Genet Mol Biol ; 43(1): e20190305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32154828

RESUMO

Rapeseed is one of important oil crops in China. Better understanding of the regulation network of main agronomic traits of rapeseed could improve the yielding of rapeseed. In this study, we obtained an influrescence mutant that showed a fusion phenotype, similar with the Arabidopsis clavata-like phenotype, so we named the mutant as Bnclavata-like (Bnclv-like). Phenotype analysis illustrated that abnormal development of the inflorescence meristem (IM) led to the fused-inflorescence phenotype. At the stage of protein abundance, major regulators in metabolic processes, ROS metabolism, and cytoskeleton formation were seen to be altered in this mutant. These results not only revealed the relationship between biological processes and inflorescence meristem development, but also suggest bioengineering strategies for the improved breeding and production of Brassica napus.

9.
Plant Cell Rep ; 39(6): 709-722, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32140767

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: The BnaNPR1-like gene family was identified in B. napus, and it was revealed that repression of BnaNPR1 significantly reduces resistance toS. sclerotiorum, intensifies ROS accumulation, and changes the expression of genes associated with SA and JA/ET signaling in response to this pathogen. The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) and related NPR1-like genes play an important role in regulating plant defense. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is an important oilseed crop; however, little is known about the B. napus (Bna) NPR1-like gene family. Here, a total of 19 BnaNPR1-like genes were identified in the B. napus genome, and then named according to their respective best match in Arabidopsis thaliana (At), which led to the determination of B. napus homologs of every AtNPR1-like gene. Analysis of important protein domains and functional motifs indicated the conservation and variation among these homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of these BnaNPR1-like proteins and their Arabidopsis homologs revealed six distinct sub-clades, consequently indicating that their name classification totally conformed to their phylogenetic relationships. Further, B. napus transcriptomic data showed that the expression of three BnaNPR1s was significantly down-regulated in response to infection with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the most important pathogen of this crop, whereas BnaNPR2/3/4/5/6s did not show the expression differences in general. Further, we generated B. napus BnaNPR1-RNAi lines to interpret the effect of the down-regulated expression of BnaNPR1s on resistance to S. sclerotiorum. The results showed that BnaNPR1-RNAi significantly decreased this resistance. Further experiments revealed that BnaNPR1-RNAi intensified ROS production and changed defense responses in the interaction of plants with this pathogen. These results indicated that S. sclerotiorum might use BnaNPR1 to regulate specific physiological processes of B. napus, such as ROS production and SA defense response, for the infection.

10.
Neuron ; 106(3): 498-514.e8, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145184

RESUMO

The brain dopamine (DA) system participates in forming and expressing memory. Despite a well-established role of DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area in memory formation, the exact DA circuits that control memory expression remain unclear. Here, we show that DA neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and their medulla input control the expression of incentive memory. DRN DA neurons are activated by both rewarding and aversive stimuli in a learning-dependent manner and exhibit elevated activity during memory recall. Disrupting their physiological activity or DA synthesis blocks the expression of natural appetitive and aversive memories as well as drug memories associated with opioids. Moreover, a glutamatergic pathway from the lateral parabrachial nucleus to the DRN selectively regulates the expression of reward memories associated with opioids or foods. Our study reveals a specialized DA subsystem important for memory expression and suggests new targets for interventions against opioid addiction.

11.
J Org Chem ; 85(8): 5724-5732, 2020 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212620

RESUMO

The nominal enantiomer of chlorabietol B was regio- and stereoselectively synthesized from (-)-abietic acid in 13 steps. Key features of the synthesis involved an oxidative [3+2] cycloaddition to install the dihydrobenzofuran moiety and an Aldol reaction, followed by elimination and reduction steps to introduce the long chain with three cis double bonds. However, obvious differences in the NMR spectra of the synthetic and natural samples suggested that the proposed structure of chlorabietol B should be revised carefully.

12.
Zool Res ; 41(2): 105-122, 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202089

RESUMO

The genus-level recognition of monophyletic short-legged toads ( Brachytarsophrys) has been recently implicated in the taxonomic debate of Megophrys sensu lato. In the present study, Brachytarsophrys is reasonably regarded as a distinct genus based on significant morphological differentiations and recent molecular analyses. Furthermore, a comprehensive review of this genus is performed, with two species groups proposed based on morphological differences and phylogenetic relationships. Particularly, Brachytarsophrys platyparietus is removed as a synonym of Brachytarsophrys carinense and considered a valid species due to significant genetic divergence and distinct morphological differences. In addition, a new species, Brachytarsophrys orientalis sp. nov., is described based on a series of specimens collected from southeastern China. This work takes the member species of the genus Brachytarsophrys to seven, suggesting that the diversity of Brachytarsophrys is underestimated. In addition, the genus levels of other monophyletic groups within the subfamily Megophryinae are discussed.

13.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109942

RESUMO

Gap-graded soils from mountain areas are often used as subgrade filling materials, but problems associated with the gap-graded soils such as large permeability, poor uniformity, and poor seepage stability have to be solved. This article proposes a new terminology "void filling ratio" to study the seepage internal stability of gap-graded soils as subgrade filling materials. Laboratory seepage tests were performed to investigate the effects of compaction degrees of coarse grains, void filling ratios, and clay contents on the internal stability. Laboratory model tests were also performed to verify the findings from the laboratory seepage tests. It was found that the internal stability increased with increase of the void filling ratios, confirmed by both laboratory seepage tests and slope model tests. The increases of both void filling ratio and the clay content were able to change the type of internal instability from piping to the transitional type of internal instability. In laboratory model tests, surface areas lost more fine particles than the deeper area did in the models, but when the void filling ratio was increased, the amount of lost fine particles was significantly reduced. Finally, it was confirmed that void filling ratio was able to effectively describe the internal stability of gap-graded soils subject to different levels of hydraulic gradient.


Assuntos
Solo , Movimentos da Água , Permeabilidade
14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 233: 115803, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059877

RESUMO

In this study, an injectable and self-healing hydrogel based on the boronic ester dynamic covalent bond between phenylboronic acid modified hyaluronic acid (HA-PBA) and the commercially available poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is prepared and should have multi-functions for biomedical applications. The hydrogels were rapidly formed under mild conditions, and the rheological properties and in vitro degradation were systematically characterized. The HA-based hydrogels possessed good injectability and self-healing properties because of the dynamic bond. Moreover, due to the sensitivity of boronic ester to the biologically relevant concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a major reactive oxygen species (ROS), the injectable hydrogel could be used as a H2O2/ROS responsive drug delivery system. The hydrogels supported good viability of encapsulated neural progenitor cells (NPC) and protected NPC from ROS induced damage in vitro when H2O2 was present in the media. The dynamic hydrogels were further applied as bio-inks for 3D printing/bioprinting. Overall, this facilely prepared dynamic hydrogel based on HA-PBA and PVA may have many potential biomedical applications, including drug delivery, 3D culture of cells, and 3D bioprinting.

15.
Plant Sci ; 291: 110362, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928657

RESUMO

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes a devastating disease in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), resulting in major economic losses. Resistance response of B. napus against S. sclerotiorum exhibits a typical quantitative disease resistance (QDR) characteristic, but the molecular determinants of this QDR are largely unknown. In this study, we isolated a B. napus mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, BnaMPK6, and found that BnaMPK6 expression is highly responsive to infection by S. sclerotiorum and treatment with salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA). Moreover, overexpression (OE) of BnaMPK6 significantly enhances resistance to S. sclerotiorum, whereas RNAi in BnaMPK6 significantly reduces this resistance. These results showed that BnaMPK6 plays an important role in defense to S. sclerotiorum. Furthermore, expression of defense genes associated with SA-, JA- and ethylene (ET)-mediated signaling was investigated in BnaMPK6-RNAi, WT and BnaMPK6-OE plants after S. sclerotiorum infection, and consequently, it was indicated that the activation of ET signaling by BnaMPK6 may play a role in the defense. Further, four BnaMPK6-encoding homologous loci were mapped in the B. napus genome. Using the allele analysis and expression analysis on the four loci, we demonstrated that the locus BnaA03.MPK6 makes an important contribution to QDR against S. sclerotiorum. Our data indicated that BnaMPK6 is a previously unknown determinant of QDR against S. sclerotiorum in B. napus.

16.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995173

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac sympathetic overactivation is an important trigger of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Our previous study demonstrated that N-type calcium (Cav2.2) currents in cardiac sympathetic postganglionic (CSP) neurons were increased in CHF. This study investigated the contribution of Cav2.2 channels in cardiac sympathetic overactivation and ventricular arrhythmogenesis in CHF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rat CHF was induced by surgical ligation of the left coronary artery. Lentiviral Cav2.2-α shRNA or scrambled shRNA was transfected in vivo into stellate ganglia (SG) in CHF rats. Final experiments were performed at 14 weeks after coronary artery ligation. Real-time PCR and Western blot data showed that in vivo transfection of Cav2.2-α shRNA reduced the expression of Cav2.2-α mRNA and protein in the SG in CHF rats. Cav2.2-α shRNA also reduced Cav2.2 currents and cell excitability of CSP neurons and attenuated cardiac sympathetic nerve activities (CSNA) in CHF rats. The power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) further revealed that transfection of Cav2.2-α shRNA in the SG normalized CHF-caused cardiac sympathetic overactivation in conscious rats. Twenty-four-hour continuous telemetry ECG recording revealed that this Cav2.2-α shRNA not only decreased incidence and duration of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF), but also improved CHF-induced heterogeneity of ventricular electrical activity in conscious CHF rats. Cav2.2-α shRNA also decreased susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias in anesthetized CHF rats. However, Cav2.2-α shRNA failed to improve CHF-induced cardiac contractile dysfunction. Scrambled shRNA did not affect Cav2.2 currents and cell excitability of CSP neurons, CSNA, HRV, and ventricular arrhythmogenesis in CHF rats. CONCLUSIONS: Overactivation of Cav2.2 channels in CSP neurons contributes to cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation and ventricular arrhythmogenesis in CHF. This suggests that discovering purely selective and potent small-molecule Cav2.2 channel blockers could be a potential therapeutic strategy to decrease fatal ventricular arrhythmias in CHF. TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVES: Our present study demonstrates that inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels in CSP neurons attenuates CHF-induced cardiac sympathetic overactivation and ventricular arrhythmias. The clinical significance of this study is to open a new avenue in therapeutics working against lethal ventricular arrhythmias in patients with CHF. N-type Ca2+ channels in CSP neurons could be a new therapeutic target for cardiac sympathetic overactivation and ventricular arrhythmias in CHF. Exploring specific, small-molecule N-type Ca2+ channel blockers with local targeting drug delivery system could translate to clinical trials and applications that improve outcomes for patients with CHF.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 858, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965039

RESUMO

There is growing concern that Cd in soils can be transferred to plants, resulting in phytotoxicity and threats to human health via the food chain. Biochar has been reported to be a soil amendment capable of reducing the bioavailability of metals in soil by electrostatic interactions, ionic exchange and the specific binding of metal ions by surface ligands. To determine the effects of Cd contamination and nanobiochar on the growth characteristics of plants, the dynamics of Cd in soil were explored in Petri dish and pot experiments (0%, 0.2%, 0.5% and 1% nanobiochar), respectively. The diversity, distribution and composition of the bacterial community in treated soil were monitored by high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the germination potential and height and weight of plants were significantly decreased in Cd-treated soil samples (P < 0.05). The Cd content of Brassica chinensis L. in the treated soil groups was lower than that in the untreated soil groups (P < 0.05) after nanobiochar application. The application of biochar significantly improved the microbial biomass, microorganism abundance and diversity of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes in Cd-contaminated soil and reduced the diversity of Proteobacteria, which was relatively more persistent than in the contaminated sites without biochar application. The results of this study provide theoretical and technical support for understanding the environmental behavior of nanopassivators, thus enhancing the role of biochar in the remediation of soil pollution.

18.
Neurosci Res ; 152: 35-43, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958495

RESUMO

Purinergic transmitters such as adenosine, ADP, ATP, UTP, and UDP-glucose play important roles in a wide range of physiological processes, including the sleep-wake cycle, learning and memory, cardiovascular function, and the immune response. Moreover, impaired purinergic signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as pain, migraine, epilepsy, and drug addiction. Examining the function of purinergic transmission in both health and disease requires direct, sensitive, non-invasive tools for monitoring structurally similar purinergic transmitters; ideally, these tools should have high spatial and temporal resolution in in vivo applications. Here, we review the recent progress with respect to the development and application of new methods for detecting purinergic transmitters, focusing on optical tools; in addition, we provide discussion regarding future perspectives.

19.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e030501, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924632

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the morphine-sparing effects of the sequential treatment versus placebo in subjects undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the effects on pain relief, inflammation control and functional rehabilitation after TKA and safety. DESIGN: Double-blind, pragmatic, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Four tertiary hospitals in China. PARTICIPANTS: 246 consecutive patients who underwent elective unilateral TKA because of osteoarthritis (OA). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised 1:1 to the parecoxib/celecoxib group or the control group. The patients in the parecoxib/celecoxib group were supplied sequential treatment with intravenous parecoxib 40 mg (every 12 hours) for the first 3 days after surgery, followed by oral celecoxib 200 mg (every 12 hours) for up to 6 weeks. The patients in the control group were supplied with the corresponding placebo under the same instructions. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was the cumulative opioid consumption at 2 weeks post operation (intention-to-treat analysis). Secondary endpoints included the Knee Society Score, patient-reported outcomes and the cumulative opioid consumption. RESULTS: The cumulative opioid consumption at 2 weeks was significantly smaller in the parecoxib/celecoxib group than in the control group (median difference, 57.31 (95% CI 34.66 to 110.33)). The parecoxib/celecoxib group achieving superior Knee Society Scores and EQ-5D scores and greater Visual Analogue Scale score reduction during 6 weeks. Interleukin 6, erythrocyte sedation rate and C-reactive protein levels were reduced at 72 hours, 2 weeks and 4 weeks and prostaglandin E2 levels were reduced at 48 hours and 72 hours in the parecoxib/celecoxib group compared with the placebo group. The occurrence of adverse events (AEs) was significantly lower in the parecoxib/celecoxib group. CONCLUSIONS: The sequential intravenous parecoxib followed by oral celecoxib regimen reduces morphine consumption, achieves better pain control and functional recovery and leads to less AEs than placebo after TKA for OA. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT02198924).

20.
SLAS Technol ; 25(1): 82-87, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381466

RESUMO

Typography-like templates for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chips using a fused deposition modeling (FDM) three-dimensional (3D) printer are presented. This rapid and fast proposed scheme did not require complicated photolithographic fabrication facilities and could deliver resolutions of ~100 µm. Polylactic acid (PLA) was adopted as the material to generate the 3D-printed units, which were then carefully assembled on a glass substrate using a heat-melt-curd strategy. This craft of bonding offers a cost-effective way to design and modify the templates of microfluidic channels, thus reducing the processing time of microfluidic chips. Finally, a flexible microfluidic chip to be employed for cell-based drug screening was developed based on the modularized 3D-printed templates. The lithography-free, typography-like, 3D-printed templates create a modularized fabrication process and promote the prevalence of integrated microfluidic systems with minimal requirements and improved efficiency.

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