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3.
Pancreatology ; 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Carboxyl ester lipase is a pancreatic enzyme encoded by CEL, an extremely polymorphic human gene. Pathogenic variants of CEL either increases the risk for chronic pancreatitis (CP) or cause MODY8, a syndrome of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine dysfunction. Here, we aimed to characterize a novel duplication allele of CEL (CEL-DUP2) and to investigate whether it associates with CP or pancreatic cancer. METHODS: The structure of CEL-DUP2 was determined by a combination of Sanger sequencing, DNA fragment analysis, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and whole-genome sequencing. We developed assays for screening of CEL-DUP2 and analyzed cohorts of idiopathic CP, alcoholic CP and pancreatic cancer. CEL protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: CEL-DUP2 consists of an extra copy of the complete CEL gene. The allele has probably arisen from non-allelic, homologous recombination involving the adjacent pseudogene of CEL. We found no association between CEL-DUP2 carrier frequency and CP in cohorts from France (cases/controls: 2.5%/2.4%; P = 1.0), China (10.3%/8.1%; P = 0.08) or Germany (1.6%/2.3%; P = 0.62). Similarly, no association with disease was observed in alcohol-induced pancreatitis (Germany: 3.2%/2.3%; P = 0.51) or pancreatic cancer (Norway; 2.5%/3.2%; P = 0.77). Notably, the carrier frequency of CEL-DUP2 was more than three-fold higher in Chinese compared with Europeans. CEL protein expression was similar in tissues from CEL-DUP2 carriers and controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the contention that the number of CEL alleles does not influence the risk of pancreatic exocrine disease. Rather, the pathogenic CEL variants identified so far involve exon 11 sequence changes that substantially alter the protein's tail region.

5.
Gastrointest Endosc ; 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Compared with conventional endoscopy, magnetically controlled capsule gastroscopy (MCCG) can be further optimized in gastric examination time and complete visualization of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) mucosa. The second-generation MCCG (MCCG-2) was developed with higher image resolution and adaptive frame rate, and we aimed to evaluate its clinical availability for UGI examination in this study. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing MCCG examination between May to June 2019 were prospectively enrolled and randomized to swallow the first-generation MCCG (MCCG-1) or MCCG-2 in a 1:1 ratio. The main outcomes included visualization of the esophagus and duodenum, operation related parameters, image quality, maneuverability, detection of lesions, as well as safety evaluation. RESULTS: Eighty patients were enrolled. In MCCG-2 group, frames captured for esophageal mucosa and Z-line were 171.00 and 2.00, significantly increased from those in MCCG-1 group with 97.00 and 0.00 (P=0.002 and 0.028). The gastric examination time was shortened from 7.78±0.97 min to 5.27±0.74 min (P<0.001), with the total running time of capsule extended from 702.83 min to 1001.99 min (P<0.001). MCCG-2 also greatly improved the image quality (P<0.001) and maneuverability (P<0.01). No statistical difference existed in the detection of lesions between the 2 groups, and no adverse events occurred. CONCLUSIONS: MCCG-2 showed better performance in mucosal visualization, examination duration and maneuverability, making better diagnosis of UGI diseases a possibility.

7.
J Dig Dis ; 21(2): 88-97, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31895484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether Chinese endoscopists without narrow-band imaging (NBI) experiences could achieve high accuracy in the real-time diagnosis of colorectal polyps using NBI International Colorectal Endoscopic (NICE) classification after web-based training. METHODS: Altogether 15 endoscopists from five centers with no NBI experiences followed a short, web-based training program on the NICE classification and took web-based test. Their performances were compared with 15 matched experienced endoscopists with no NBI experience who received no NBI training. These 15 trained endoscopists then made real-time diagnoses of colorectal neoplasia. A logistic regression was used to assess potential predictors of diagnostic performance. RESULTS: Compared with those who received no training, trained endoscopists achieved comparable overall accuracy (85.3% vs 83.1%, P = 0.408) and accuracy at a high-confidence level (87.0% vs 86.0%, P = 0.670), but had a higher confidence rate (86.1% vs 83.7%, P = 0.004) for the diagnosis of neoplasia. Real-time diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were 94.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 91.5%-96.2%), 96.2% (95% CI 93.4%-97.9%) and 85.3% (95% CI 74.8%-92.1%) at high-confidence level. The high-confidence level was the strongest predictor of real-time diagnostic accuracy (odds ratio 12.66, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Web-based training can improve the confidence level of endoscopists in accurately diagnosing colorectal polyps using the NICE classification. Chinese endoscopists can achieve high accuracy in diagnosing colorectal neoplasia at a high confidence level (ClinicalTrials ID: NCT02033980).

8.
Pancreatology ; 20(1): 16-24, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gut microbiota alterations in chronic pancreatitis (CP) are seldomly described systematically. It is unknown whether pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) and different etiologies in patients with CP are associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis. METHODS: The fecal microbiota of 69 healthy controls (HCs) and 71 patients with CP were compared to investigate gut microbiome alterations in CP and the relationship among gut microbiome dysbiosis, PEI and different etiologies. Fecal microbiomes were analyzed through 16S ribosomal RNA gene profiling, based on next-generation sequencing. Pancreatic exocrine function was evaluated by determining fecal elastase 1 activity. RESULTS: Patients with CP showed gut microbiota dysbiosis with decreased diversity and richness, and taxa-composition changes. On the phylum level, the gut microbiome of the CP group showed lower Firmicutes and Actinobacteria abundances than the HC group and higher Proteobacteria abundances. The abundances of Escherichia-Shigella and other genera were high in gut microbiomes in the CP group, whereas that of Faecalibacterium was low. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways (lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and bacterial invasion of epithelial cells) were predicted to be enriched in the CP group. Among the top 5 phyla and 8 genera (in terms of abundance), only Fusobacteria and Eubacterium rectale group showed significant differences between CP patients, with or without PEI. Correlation analysis showed that Bifidobacterium and Lachnoclostridium correlated positively with fecal elastase 1 (r = 0.2616 and 0.2486, respectively, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The current findings indicate that patients with CP have gut microbiota dysbiosis that is partly affected by pancreatic exocrine function.

10.
J Gastroenterol ; 55(1): 127-128, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559487
11.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 35(2): 343-352, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common complication of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP), which impairs the quality of life for patients. This study aimed to identify risk factors and develop nomogram for DM in ICP to help early diagnosis. METHODS: Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis patients admitted to our center from January 2000 to December 2013 were included. Cumulative rates of DM were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to the training and validation cohort. Based on training cohort, risk factors for DM were identified through Cox proportional hazards regression model, and nomogram was developed. Internal and external validations were performed based on the training and validation cohort, respectively. RESULTS: Totally, 1633 patients with ICP were finally enrolled. The median follow-up duration was 9.8 years. DM was found in 26.3% (430/1633) of patients after the onset of CP. Adult at onset of ICP, biliary stricture at/before diagnosis of CP, steatorrhea at/before diagnosis of CP, and complex pathologic changes in main pancreatic duct were identified risk factors for DM development. The nomogram achieved good concordance indexes in the training and validation cohorts, respectively, with well-fitted calibration curves. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors were identified, and nomogram was developed to determine the risk of DM in ICP patients. Patients with one or more of the risk factors including adult at onset of ICP, biliary stricture at/before diagnosis of CP, steatorrhea at/before diagnosis of CP, and complex pathologic changes in main pancreatic duct have higher incidence of DM.

12.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(2): 143-148, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The SPINK1 c.194 + 2T > C variant has been increasingly recognized as an important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, there is no clear agreement on its contribution to different ethnicities and CP etiologies. To address this issue, a meta-analysis of literature was performed. METHODS: Studies addressing the presence of the SPINK1 c.194 + 2T > C variant in CP patients and controls were retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Initial analysis included all CP patients, followed by subgroup analyses for East Asian and non-East Asian patients, and for idiopathic CP (ICP) and non-ICP. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies were retrieved for analysis, comprising 2097 cases and 4019 controls. There were 126 cases (10.01%) carrying the SPINK1 c.194 + 2T > C variant in cases, while only two controls were carriers (0.05%). Overall, the variant was significantly associated with an increased risk of CP (OR = 25.73). In the subgroup, the variant was significantly associated with increased risk of CP in East Asians (OR = 73.16), and in non-East Asians (OR = 10.21). Further, the contribution of the variant in ICP (OR = 35.31) was found to be higher than in non-ICP (25.75). CONCLUSIONS: The SPINK1 c.194 + 2T > C variant is a strong risk factor for CP, especially in East Asian patients with ICP.

13.
Scand J Gastroenterol ; 55(1): 105-113, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865808

RESUMO

Background and aim: Capsule retention is the most common adverse event associated with video capsule endoscopy. The use of double-balloon enteroscopy-assisted capsule endoscope retrieval has been increasingly reported in recent years. However, evidence is limited regarding its success rate, associated factors, and subsequent clinical outcomes.Methods: A systematic review of relevant studies published before January 2019 was performed. Successful retrieval rate and associated factors, rate of endoscopic balloon dilation, and outcomes after double-balloon enteroscopy were summarized and pooled.Results: Within 154 associated original articles, 12 including 150 cases of capsule retrieval by double-balloon enteroscopy were included. The estimated pooled successful retrieval rate was 86.5% (95% confidence interval, 75.6-95.1%). Anterograde approach and capsules retained in the jejunum or trapped by malignant strictures were associated with a higher successful retrieval rate than the retrograde approach (62/83 [74.7%] vs. 10/38 [26.3%], p < .001) and capsules retained in the ileum (41/41 [100.0%] vs. 43/58 [74.1%], p < .001) or trapped by benign strictures (21/21 [100.0%] vs. 65/83 [78.3%], p = .043). Endoscopic balloon dilation was performed in 38.8% (95% confidence interval, 22.3-56.3%) of patients with benign strictures. Two perforations (1.3%) were reported as severe adverse events after double-balloon enteroscopy. A significantly lower surgery rate was found among cases with successful video capsule removal compared with unsuccessful cases (7.2% vs. 38.5%, p = .002).Conclusions: Double-balloon enteroscopy is feasible and safe for removing retained video capsule endoscopes, and its use could decrease the need for surgery in patients with benign strictures and facilitate subsequent surgery in patients with malignant strictures.

14.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 19(1): 208, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801483

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite pancreatic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (P-ESWL) is a minimally invasive treatment for pancreatic stones, complications exist. CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old male was diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis and admitted to our hospital for recurrent acute pancreatitis. After the first P-ESWL session, the patient complained of a new type of pain different from the previous pain pattern. Computerized tomography and colonoscopy were arranged and colonic hematoma was found. Since the patient had stable vital signs, no special treatment was given focusing on the colonic hematoma. Five days later, P-ESWL treatment was repeatedly performed for four consecutive days. Two days after the last P-ESWL session, the patient underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. At the three-month follow up visit, the colonic hematoma disappeared and pancreatic stones decreased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, colonic hematoma after P-ESWL for pancreatic stones has never been reported. Here, we present the only case of colonic hematoma after P-ESWL, which was coincidentally found in more than 6000 P-ESWL sessions in our hospital. As the symptoms of colonic hematoma are mild, we believe the incidence of colonic hematoma has been underestimated. Many people with colonic hematoma after P-ESWL may be undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. Treatment for colonic hematoma depends on whether there is severe clinical state. Exploration of more precise location method for pancreatic stones may reduce the probability of P-ESWL complication.

15.
Pancreatology ; 2019 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fibromodulin (FMOD) expression in chronic pancreatitis (CP) tissues and its effect on PSC was unknown. Our aim was to investigate the role of FMOD in regulating PSC profibrogenic phenotype and the molecular mechanism of CP. METHODS: Rat CP models were induced by dibutyltin dichloride. Pancreatic fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius Red staining. The expression of FMOD and α-SMA was measured, the correlation between FMOD expression and fibrosis was investigated in CP models and CP patients. The effects of FMOD on PSCs were examined by CCK-8 and migration assays. We investigated the mechanisms underlying FMOD expression using MND and a MAPK pathway inhibitor. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were used to investigate the effects of AP-1 on FMOD expression. RESULTS: Sirius Red staining revealed high collagen deposition in model rats. Higher expression of FMOD and α-SMA was observed in fibrotic tissues, and the expression of FMOD was correlated with that of α-SMA and the areas of Sirius Red staining. Upregulation of FMOD increased the expression of collagen I and α-SMA and the proliferation and migration of PSCs. MND induced FMOD and α-SMA expression, and knockdown of FMOD abated α-SMA expression. ERK and JNK inhibitors attenuated FMOD expression as induced by MND. AP-1 upregulated the expression of FMOD. AP-1 binds to the FMOD promoter and transcriptionally regulates FMOD expression. CONCLUSION: FMOD levels are upregulated in fibrosis tissues in CP and it is a critical downstream mediator of oxidative stress. FMOD induces PSC activation and maintains the fibrosis phenotype of PSCs.

18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(48): e17984, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31770208

RESUMO

Pediatric patients suffer from chronic pancreatitis (CP), especially those with diabetes mellitus (DM). This study aimed to identify the incidence of and risk factors for DM in pediatric CP.CP patients admitted to our center from January 2000 to December 2013 were assigned to the pediatric (<18 years old) and adult group according to their age at onset of CP. Cumulative rates of DM and risk factors for both groups were calculated and identified.The median follow-up duration for the whole cohort was 7.6 years. In these 2153 patients, 13.5% of them were pediatrics. The mean age at the onset and the diagnosis of CP in pediatrics were 11.622 and 19.727, respectively. DM was detected in 13.1% patients and 31.0% patients in the pediatric group and adult group, respectively. Age at the onset of CP, smoking history, body mass index (BMI), and etiology of CP were identified risk factors for DM in pediatrics.DM was detected in 13.1% pediatric patients. Age at the onset of CP, smoking history, BMI, and etiology of CP were identified risk factors for the development of DM in pediatric CP patients. The high-risk populations were suggested to be monitored frequently. They could also benefit from a lifestyle modification.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/complicações , Adolescente , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(6): 391, 2019 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564717

RESUMO

Psychosocial stress is a critical inducing factor of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), while autophagy is a novel central issue of IBD development. The present study investigated the potential role of autophagy in stress-related IBD in patients and animal model. The correlation between psychosocial stress and intestinal autophagy was determined in 23 patients with IBD. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a well-established inducer of psychosocial stress, was administrated in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced IBD mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). In IBD patients, the autophagy markers beclin-1, LC3-II/I ratio, Atg16L1, and Atg4B were significantly enhanced. The psychosocial stress score was positively associated with the levels of beclin-1 and the LC3II/I ratio in intestinal biopsy specimens. In IBD mouse model, CRH significantly aggravated intestinal inflammation, increased Paneth cell metaplasia, and enhanced intestinal autophagy (beclin-1, Atg16L1, PIK3R4, and Atg4B upregulation; GAA, CTSD, and PPKAA1 downregulation). Additionally, the CRH-induced gut microbial dysbiosis was evidenced by a marked increase in the number of detrimental bacteria. In LPS-stimulated BMDM, CRH substantially increased M1/M2 polarization and thus promoted inflammation. In both IBD mice and LPS-treated BMDM, blockade of autophagy by chloroquine abrogated the unbeneficial effects of CRH, whereas autophagy inducer rapamycin resulted in a pronounced protective effect against IBD lesion. Our data demonstrate that psychosocial stress may link the enhanced intestinal autophagy by modulating gut microbiota and inflammation to aggravate IBD. These data indicate autophagy as a promising therapeutic target for psychosocial stress-related IBD.

20.
J Dig Dis ; 20(12): 656-662, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a randomized trial aiming at improving patients' informed consent for undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in clinical care by comparing the efficacy of an additional educational video to written informed consent with that of written informed consent alone. METHODS: This was a single-center, randomized controlled trial. Consecutive patients undergoing ERCP were randomized to a video education or a control group. An educational video detailing ERCP procedure plus standard written informed consent was administered to the video education group, while the control group reviewed standard written informed consent only. The primary outcome was the patients' perception of the risk or possibility of ERCP complications. Their perception of the benefits of ERCP, alternative treatments and overall satisfaction with the process of informed consent were also compared. RESULTS: In total 205 patients were included in the study (104 in the control group and 101 in the video education group). Patients' comprehension of ERCP-related complications in the video education group was significantly increased (P < 0.001), and these patients were more likely to correctly identify the incidence of such complications. Significantly more patients in the video education group were very satisfied with informed consent process (87.1% vs 76.0%, P = 0.040) and fewer patients needed additional explanations (31.7% vs 47.1%, P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: A supplementary educational video could greatly improve patient's understanding of ERCP procedure, in particular, its potential risks and complications, as well as their overall satisfaction with the process of informed consent (ClinicalTrials.gov no. NCT02810379).

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