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1.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(6): 391, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564717

RESUMO

Psychosocial stress is a critical inducing factor of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), while autophagy is a novel central issue of IBD development. The present study investigated the potential role of autophagy in stress-related IBD in patients and animal model. The correlation between psychosocial stress and intestinal autophagy was determined in 23 patients with IBD. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a well-established inducer of psychosocial stress, was administrated in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced IBD mice and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). In IBD patients, the autophagy markers beclin-1, LC3-II/I ratio, Atg16L1, and Atg4B were significantly enhanced. The psychosocial stress score was positively associated with the levels of beclin-1 and the LC3II/I ratio in intestinal biopsy specimens. In IBD mouse model, CRH significantly aggravated intestinal inflammation, increased Paneth cell metaplasia, and enhanced intestinal autophagy (beclin-1, Atg16L1, PIK3R4, and Atg4B upregulation; GAA, CTSD, and PPKAA1 downregulation). Additionally, the CRH-induced gut microbial dysbiosis was evidenced by a marked increase in the number of detrimental bacteria. In LPS-stimulated BMDM, CRH substantially increased M1/M2 polarization and thus promoted inflammation. In both IBD mice and LPS-treated BMDM, blockade of autophagy by chloroquine abrogated the unbeneficial effects of CRH, whereas autophagy inducer rapamycin resulted in a pronounced protective effect against IBD lesion. Our data demonstrate that psychosocial stress may link the enhanced intestinal autophagy by modulating gut microbiota and inflammation to aggravate IBD. These data indicate autophagy as a promising therapeutic target for psychosocial stress-related IBD.

3.
Dig Liver Dis ; 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31401021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The SPINK1 c.194 + 2T > C variant has been increasingly recognized as an important risk factor for chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, there is no clear agreement on its contribution to different ethnicities and CP etiologies. To address this issue, a meta-analysis of literature was performed. METHODS: Studies addressing the presence of the SPINK1 c.194 + 2T > C variant in CP patients and controls were retrieved from the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Initial analysis included all CP patients, followed by subgroup analyses for East Asian and non-East Asian patients, and for idiopathic CP (ICP) and non-ICP. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies were retrieved for analysis, comprising 2097 cases and 4019 controls. There were 126 cases (10.01%) carrying the SPINK1 c.194 + 2T > C variant in cases, while only two controls were carriers (0.05%). Overall, the variant was significantly associated with an increased risk of CP (OR = 25.73). In the subgroup, the variant was significantly associated with increased risk of CP in East Asians (OR = 73.16), and in non-East Asians (OR = 10.21). Further, the contribution of the variant in ICP (OR = 35.31) was found to be higher than in non-ICP (25.75). CONCLUSIONS: The SPINK1 c.194 + 2T > C variant is a strong risk factor for CP, especially in East Asian patients with ICP.

5.
Surg Endosc ; 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for extraction of common bile duct (CBD) stones in Billroth II anatomy patients is still a technical challenge and factors affecting stone extraction have not yet been clarified. This study aimed to analyze our experience and evaluate potential factors affecting CBD stone extraction. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of CBD stones patients with a history of Billroth II gastrectomy, who underwent therapeutic ERCP for stone extraction at our center from August 1999 to December 2017, was conducted. The outcomes of ERCP and potential factors affecting stone extraction were examined. RESULTS: A total of 227 patients were enrolled, and 176 patients (77.5%) achieved technical success. The success rate of duodenal ampullary access and selective biliary cannulation was 84.1% (191/227) and 92.1% (176/191), respectively. The mean CBD diameter was 15 mm (range 6-35 mm), and the largest stone size was 13 mm (range 4-36 mm). CBD stones were ultimately removed in 137 patients (77.8%), and 105 patients (59.7%) for the first session. Mechanical lithotripsy was used in 17 patients (9.7%). The overall ERCP-related complication rate was 6.3% (11/176), including bleeding in 3 patients (1.7%) and mild pancreatitis in 6 patients (3.4%). The multivariate analysis indicated that CBD stone number ≥ 2 (OR 2.171; 95% CI 1.095-4.306; p = 0.027), and the largest CBD stone size ≥ 12 mm (OR 3.646; 95% CI 1.833-7.251; p < 0.001) were patient-related risk factors for failed stone removal; while the use of endoscopic papillary (large) balloon dilation (EPBD/EPLBD) (OR 0.291; 95% CI 0.147-0.576; p < 0.001) was a procedure-related protective factor for successful stone extraction. CONCLUSIONS: ERCP is safe and effective for extraction of CBD stones in Billroth II anatomy patients. The number and the largest size of CBD stones, and the use of EPBD/EPLBD are predictive factors for CBD stone extraction.

6.
Pharmacol Res ; 147: 104357, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31356863

RESUMO

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by persistent inflammation and fibrosis of the pancreas. To date, no clinical therapy is available to reverse the inflammatory damage or pancreatic fibrosis associated with CP. This study systematically investigated the effect of Dasatinib, a multiple tyrosine kinases (TKs) inhibitor, on pancreatic fibrosis and inflammation in vivo and in vitro. We found that Dasatinib notably ameliorated pancreatic fibrosis and infiltration of macrophages in a model of caerulein-induced murine CP. Further RNA-seq and phosphoproteomic analysis and in vitro validation assays indicated that Dasatinib exerted a marked inhibition on the proliferation and activation of PSCs, which may be resulted from increased GSK3ß-mediated ß-catenin cytosol retention by inhibiting upstream multiple TKs (such as PDGFR and Src) and MAPK cascades (including ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK). In addition, Dasatinib significantly restrained both the M1 and M2 polarization of macrophages, and impeded its recruitment and crosstalk with PSCs. Our findings indicated that Dasatinib is a potential anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic therapeutic strategy for CP.

8.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 111(8): 639-640, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317755

RESUMO

The case was a 47-year-old male with a long history of alcohol abuse but he had stopped drinking alcohol after the first attack of acute pancreatitis. He was referred due to recurrent pancreatitis complicated by pancreatic pseudocysts. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) imaging was suggestive of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatolithiasis, with multiple large pseudocysts in the head and tail of pancreas.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318990

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: An endoscopic clip device was newly designed to accomplish the closure of large gastrointestinal defects. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of this device in an ex vivo experimental setting. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in porcine colons (n = 5). A large (3-4 cm) linear full-thickness incision was created using a scalpel externally. The device was used for endoscopic closure. The procedure time, number of clips, and success rate of closure were determined. RESULTS: Ten defects were created in five porcine colons (two incisions in each specimen). Successful closure was achieved in all defects. The mean procedure time was 24.30 ± 4.42 min, the mean leak pressure is 28.30 ± 9.49 mmHg, and the mean number of additional conventional hemostatic clips used was 5.10 ± 0.99. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that this clip achieved the convenient and reliable closure of large defects in the colon wall in an ex vivo porcine model and seems to be a promising option for closing large gastrointestinal perforations.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common complication of idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP), which impairs the quality of life for patients. This study aimed to identify risk factors and develop nomogram for DM in ICP to help early diagnosis. METHODS: Idiopathic chronic pancreatitis patients admitted to our center from January 2000 to December 2013 were included. Cumulative rates of DM were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to the training and validation cohort. Based on training cohort, risk factors for DM were identified through Cox proportional hazards regression model, and nomogram was developed. Internal and external validations were performed based on the training and validation cohort, respectively. RESULTS: Totally, 1633 patients with ICP were finally enrolled. The median follow-up duration was 9.8 years. DM was found in 26.3% (430/1633) of patients after the onset of CP. Adult at onset of ICP, biliary stricture at/before diagnosis of CP, steatorrhea at/before diagnosis of CP, and complex pathologic changes in main pancreatic duct were identified risk factors for DM development. The nomogram achieved good concordance indexes in the training and validation cohorts, respectively, with well-fitted calibration curves. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors were identified, and nomogram was developed to determine the risk of DM in ICP patients. Patients with one or more of the risk factors including adult at onset of ICP, biliary stricture at/before diagnosis of CP, steatorrhea at/before diagnosis of CP, and complex pathologic changes in main pancreatic duct have higher incidence of DM.

12.
Inflammation ; 42(5): 1666-1679, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236857

RESUMO

Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) has been reported to be protective in several kinds of disorders through inflammatory suppression. Here, we investigated the role of α7nAChR in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) on α7nAChR deficient mice (α7nAChR-/-) and the wild-type mice (α7nAChR+/+). Three percent dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was used for the creation of IBD mice model and lipopolysaccharides (LPS)/DSS as an inflammatory stressor in murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs). The severity of IBD was determined and HE staining as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and real-time PCR were used to detect the level of inflammatory activation. Western blot was used to determine the levels of autophagy-related proteins. Transmission electron microscopy and mRFP-GFP-LC3 plasmid were applied to determine the levels of autophagy. We demonstrated that deficiency in α7nAChR produced a detrimental effect on IBD severity and inflammatory reaction in DSS-induced colitis models. Those effects were led to via autophagy dysfunction. α7nAChR deficiency attenuated the protective and anti-inflammatory effect of autophagy inducer in IBD mice and BMDMs challenged with LPS/DSS. The alleviative effect of activating α7nAChR was attenuated through inhibiting adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-mediated signaling. In conclusion, α7nAChR contributes to alleviate IBD through the induction of AMPK-mammalian target of rapamycin rabbit (mTOR)-p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K)-mediated autophagy, thus providing a novel target for the treatment of IBD.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187782

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in Billroth II gastrectomy patients is technically demanding and factors affecting its technical difficulty have not yet been clarified. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of ERCP in Billroth II gastrectomy patients and identify potential factors affecting its technical failure. Patients and Methods: A large retrospective study of 308 consecutive patients (391 procedures) with Billroth II gastrectomy-who underwent ERCP from January 2002 to December 2016-was conducted. The outcomes of ERCP and potential factors affecting its technical failure were analyzed. Results: The success rate of duodenal ampullary access, selective duct cannulation and the accomplishment of expected procedures was 81.3% (318/391), 86.5% (275/318) and 97.3% (256/263), respectively, and the technical success rate was 70.3% (275/391). The overall ERCP-related complication rate was 15.3% (60/391). The multivariate analysis indicated that first-time ERCP attempt [odds ratio (OR) 4.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.34-7.85, P < 0.001], Braun anastomosis (OR 3.65, 95% CI 1.38-9.64, P < 0.009), and no cap-assisted gastroscope (OR 3.05, 95% CI 1.69-5.51, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with technical failure. Conclusions: ERCP is safe, effective and feasible for Billroth II gastrectomy patients. Previous ERCP history, absence of Braun anastomosis and the use of a cap-assisted gastroscope are the predictive factors for its technical success.

14.
Digestion ; : 1-11, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238312

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic stones are pathognomonic of chronic pancreatitis (CP). This study aimed to determine the incidence, identify risk factors, and develop a nomogram for pancreatic stones in CP patients. METHODS: Patients with CP admitted to our center from January 2000 to December 2013 were enrolled. Cumulative rates of pancreatic stones after the onset of CP and after the diagnosis of CP were calculated. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to the training and validation cohort. Based on the training cohort, risk factors were identified through Cox proportional hazards regression model, and nomogram was developed. Internal and external validations were performed based on the training and validation cohort, respectively. RESULTS: With a total of 2,153 CP patients, pancreatic stones were detected in 1,626 (75.5%) patients, with a median follow-up of 7.8 years. Age at the onset of CP, body mass index, smoking, diabetes mellitus, pancreatic pseudocyst, biliary stricture, severe acute pancreatitis, and type of pain were identified risk factors for pancreatic stones development. The nomogram with these 8 factors achieved good accuracy. CONCLUSIONS: The nomogram achieved an individualized prediction of pancreatic stones development in CP. It may help the management of pancreatic stones.

16.
J Dig Dis ; 20(8): 391-400, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31069993

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cancer recurrence is a complicated problem for clinicians that contributes to poor prognosis. This study aimed to use advanced gastric carcinoma genes profiles to predict increased risk of cancer recurrence in order to identify patients in need of adjuvant therapy for prognosis improvement. METHODS: Differentially expressed genes were identified for advanced gastric carcinoma by analyzing the GSE2685 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO) using R package. The candidate genes were then obtained by gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, protein-protein interaction analysis and survival analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between candidate genes and the recurrence of gastric carcinoma. RESULTS: Collagen type IV alpha 1 (COL4A1) was overexpressed in gastric carcinoma tissue by analyzing the GSE2685 gene expression profiles from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. COL4A1 was also overexpressed in gastric carcinoma tissue from the Cancer Genome Atlas dataset and further determined that higher COL4A1 expression led to poorer overall survival. A univariate analysis suggested that COL4A1 was strongly correlated with T stage and gastric carcinoma recurrence (P = 0.014 and 0.041, respectively). Moreover, a multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that COL4A1 was significantly associated with gastric carcinoma recurrence (hazard ratio 1.605, 95% confidence interval 1.063-2.677, P = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: COL4A1 may promote gastric carcinoma recurrence and could be used as a therapeutic target for gastric carcinoma recurrence.

17.
J Dig Dis ; 20(8): 415-420, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099986

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the role of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) in treating intestinal polyps in patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). METHODS: All patients diagnosed with PJS who underwent a polypectomy under DBE from October 2006 to December 2018 were enrolled. Their clinical records, including surgical history, the method of DBE insertion, the number of DBE procedures, and the maximum size and number of the resected polyps, were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Altogether 97 patients were enrolled. For both antegrade and retrograde DBE the maximum size of the resected polyps during the second hospitalization was significantly smaller than that during the first hospitalization (antegrade DBE: [2.13 ± 1.51] cm vs [3.63 ± 0.92] cm, P = 0.012; retrograde DBE: [1.20 ± 1.10] cm vs [2.95 ± 1.95] cm, P = 0.03), but was significantly larger than that during the third hospitalization (antegrade DBE: [2.13 ± 1.51] cm vs [0.88 ± 0.70] cm, P = 0.012; retrograde DBE: [1.20 ± 1.10] cm vs [0.46 ± 0.40] cm, P = 0.048). The interval between the second and third hospitalizations was significantly longer than that between the first and second hospitalizations ([899.00 ± 382.12] days vs [537.27 ± 326.28] days, P = 0.027). The success rate of total enteroscopy was 58.3% (28/48), which was not affected by a history of laparotomy (61.5% vs 52.4%, P = 0.528). The complication rate was 4.4%. CONCLUSION: DBE is clinically safe and effective for the diagnosis and treatment of intestinal polyps in patients with PJS.

18.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1856-1873, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131953

RESUMO

It has long been known that canonical 5' splice site (5'SS) GT>GC variants may be compatible with normal splicing. However, to date, the actual scale of canonical 5'SSs capable of generating wild-type transcripts in the case of GT>GC substitutions remains unknown. Herein, combining data derived from a meta-analysis of 45 human disease-causing 5'SS GT>GC variants and a cell culture-based full-length gene splicing assay of 103 5'SS GT>GC substitutions, we estimate that ~15-18% of canonical GT 5'SSs retain their capacity to generate between 1% and 84% normal transcripts when GT is substituted by GC. We further demonstrate that the canonical 5'SSs in which substitution of GT by GC-generated normal transcripts exhibit stronger complementarity to the 5' end of U1 snRNA than those sites whose substitutions of GT by GC did not lead to the generation of normal transcripts. We also observed a correlation between the generation of wild-type transcripts and a milder than expected clinical phenotype but found that none of the available splicing prediction tools were capable of reliably distinguishing 5'SS GT>GC variants that generated wild-type transcripts from those that did not. Our findings imply that 5'SS GT>GC variants in human disease genes may not invariably be pathogenic.

19.
Inflammation ; 42(4): 1147-1159, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937839

RESUMO

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine, comprised of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Among the complicated pathogenic factors of IBD, the overaction of inflammatory and immune reaction serves as an important factor. Inflammasome is a form of innate immunity as well as inflammation. Among all kinds of inflammasomes, the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is the most studied one, and has been revealed to be involved in the pathogenesis and progression of IBD. Here, in this review, the association between the NLRP3 inflammasome and IBD will be discussed. Furthermore, several NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors which have been demonstrated to be effective in the alleviation of IBD will be described in this review.

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