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1.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-13, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34797201

RESUMO

The controlled release of guest molecules from cyclodextrin (CD) inclusion complexes is very important for specific industrial applications in foods, medicine, cosmetics, textiles, agriculture, environmental protection, and chemical materials. The term "controlled release" encompasses several related methods, including those referred to as immediate release, sustained release and targeted release. Many different CD-based controlled release systems are currently used in practical applications. CD inclusion complexes, CD coupling, supramolecular hydrogels, and supramolecular micelles are among the most common. This review systematically introduces the principles and applications of CD-based controlled release systems, providing a theoretical basis for improving the bioavailability of effective substances and broadening their range of application.

2.
Food Funct ; 12(22): 11290-11302, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34635904

RESUMO

Butyrate has recently emerged as a promising substance for the therapy of colitis. To overcome the shortcomings implicated in the existing delivery systems of butyrate, we utilized butyrylated starch to specifically deliver butyrate to the colon. Herein, we describe the stable loading of butyrate via chemical bonds with a heterogeneous distribution throughout the particle. Butyrylated starch supply increased butyrate as well as total short-chain fatty acid contents at the end of the intervention period. Moreover, butyrylated starch showed multiple effects on the suppression of DSS-induced colitis. From the observation of the gut-liver axis, reduced hepatic inflammation and hepatocyte damage further confirmed alleviated colonic inflammation. Given that butyrylated starch has the combined effects of specific release of butyrate in the colon and extra supply of fermentable substrates for gut microbiota, this work provides an effective strategy for the assistant therapy of colitis.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5373, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508078

RESUMO

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of rheumatic disease characterized by chronic inflammation and pathological osteogenesis in the entheses. Previously, we demonstrated that enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MSC from AS patients (AS-MSC) resulted in pathological osteogenesis, and that during the enhanced osteogenic differentiation course, AS-MSC induced TNF-α-mediated local inflammation. However, whether TNF-α in turn affects AS-MSC remains unknown. Herein, we further demonstrate that a high-concentration TNF-α treatment triggers enhanced directional migration of AS-MSC in vitro and in vivo, which enforces AS pathogenesis. Mechanistically, TNF-α leads to increased expression of ELMO1 in AS-MSC, which is mediated by a METTL14 dependent m6A modification in ELMO1 3'UTR. Higher ELMO1 expression of AS-MSC is found in vivo in AS patients, and inhibiting ELMO1 in SKG mice produces therapeutic effects in this spondyloarthritis model. This study may provide insight into not only the pathogenesis but also clinical therapy for AS.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Osteogênese/genética , Espondilite Anquilosante/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Biópsia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Cultura Primária de Células , Espondilite Anquilosante/induzido quimicamente , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico , Espondilite Anquilosante/genética , Microtomografia por Raio-X , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/efeitos adversos
4.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 708480, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335544

RESUMO

Marine extremophiles produce cold-adapted and/or salt-tolerant enzymes to survive in harsh conditions. These enzymes are naturally evolved with unique structural features that confer a high level of flexibility, solubility and substrate-binding ability compared to mesophilic and thermostable homologs. Here, we identified and characterized an amylase, SdG5A, from the marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40 T . We expressed the protein in Bacillus subtilis and found that the purified SdG5A enabled highly specific production of maltopentaose, an important health-promoting food and nutrition component. Notably, SdG5A exhibited outstanding cold adaptation and salt tolerance, retaining approximately 30 and 70% of its maximum activity at 4°C and in 3 M NaCl, respectively. It converted 68 and 83% of starch into maltooligosaccharides at 4 and 25°C, respectively, within 24 h, with 79% of the yield being the maltopentaose. By analyzing the structure of SdG5A, we found that the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) coupled with an extended linker, displayed a relatively high negative charge density and superior conformational flexibility compared to the whole protein and the catalytic domain. Consistent with our bioinformatics analysis, truncation of the linker-CBM region resulted in a significant loss in activities at low temperature and high salt concentration. This highlights the linker-CBM acting as the critical component for the protein to carry out its activity in biologically unfavorable condition. Together, our study indicated that these unique properties of SdG5A have great potential for both basic research and industrial applications in food, biology, and medical and pharmaceutical fields.

5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 271: 118431, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364571

RESUMO

The unique mechanical properties of hydrated bacterial cellulose make it suitable for biomedical applications. This study evaluates the effect of concentrated sodium hydroxide treatment on the structural and mechanical properties of bacterial cellulose hydrogels using rheological, tensile, and compression tests combined with mathematical modelling. Bacterial cellulose hydrogels show a concentration-dependent and irreversible reduction in shear moduli, compression, and tensile strength after alkaline treatment. Applying a poroelastic biphasic model to through-thickness compressive stress-relaxation tests showed the alkaline treatment to induce no significant change in axial compression, an effect was observed in the radial direction, potentially due to the escape of water from within the hydrogel. Scanning electron microscopy showed a more porous structure of bacterial cellulose. These results show how concentration-dependent alkaline treatment induces selective weakening of intramolecular interactions between cellulose fibres, allowing the opportunity to precisely tune the mechanical properties for specific biomedical application, e.g., faster-degradable materials.

6.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-12, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423705

RESUMO

Wheat flour can form dough with a three-dimensional viscoelastic structure that is responsible for gas holding during fermentation and oven-rise, creating a typical fixed, open-cell foam structure of bread after baking. As the major components of dough, the continuous reticular skeleton formed by gluten proteins and the concentrated starch granules entrapped in gluten matrix predominantly determine dough rheological behaviors and bread qualities. This review surveys the latest literatures and draws out a conclusion from a plethora of information related to the filling effects of starch granules on gluten matrix and the cross-linking mechanisms between gluten proteins and starch granules, which is of great significance to provide sufficient scientific knowledge for development of bread with satisfactory attributes and quality control of end products.

7.
J Pathol ; 255(2): 212-223, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228359

RESUMO

Periostin is a critical extracellular regulator in the pathogenesis of liver disorders such as hepatosteatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Periostin is also involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms of periostin in hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation and tumor cell proliferation in the pathogenesis of HCC remain largely unknown. We demonstrate that periostin is markedly upregulated in diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced mouse HCC tissues and that periostin knockout impairs DEN-induced HCC development. Periostin is predominantly derived from activated HSCs and periostin deficiency in HSCs impairs HSC activation and inhibits HSC-promoted HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, periostin promotes HSC activation through the integrin-FAK-STAT3-periostin pathway and augments HCC cell proliferation by activating ERK. There are positive correlations between periostin and HSC activation and cell proliferation in HCC clinical samples. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that HSC-derived periostin promotes HCC development by enhancing HSC activation through an autocrine periostin-integrin-FAK-STAT3-periostin circuit and by augmenting HCC cell proliferation via the ERK pathway in a paracrine manner. Thus, periostin is a multifaceted extracellular regulator in the development of HCC. © 2021 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

8.
Food Chem ; 362: 130240, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119950

RESUMO

The alleviating role of starch derivatives on the quality deterioration of frozen steamed bread dough was investigated in terms of derivative structure, the bread characteristics and dough properties including freezable water contents, yeast activity as well as dough viscoelasticity. The addition of starch derivatives including short-clustered maltodextrin (SCMD), DE2 maltodextrin (MD) and pregelatinized starch (PGS) significantly increased the specific volume and decreased the hardness of steamed bread compared with Control bread after 8-week frozen storage. Lower freezable water content was found in PGS dough than SCMD dough, which was consistent with the results of water absorption index of starch derivatives. The analysis of dough gassing rate and yeast survival ratio demonstrated SCMD could provide more cryoprotection for yeast cells. Meanwhile, a higher elastic module and a more continuous gluten-network structure of SCMD dough were found after 8-week frozen storage. These results indicated starch derivatives especially SCMD were promising to be used as the alternative improvers in frozen dough production.


Assuntos
Pão/análise , Pão/normas , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Congelamento , Amido/farmacologia , Tecnologia de Alimentos , Glutens/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/química , Vapor , Viscosidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Água/química , Fermento Seco/análise
9.
Cell Death Dis ; 12(6): 578, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088896

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is widespread in messenger RNAs and increasing evidence suggests the crucial roles of m6A in cell differentiation and tissue development. However, whether m6A modulates the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has not been fully elucidated. Here we show that conditional knockout of the demethylase Alkbh5 in bone marrow MSCs strengthened bone mass in mice. Loss- and gain-of-function studies demonstrated that ALKBH5 negatively regulates the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vitro. At a mechanistic level, meRIP-seq and RNA-seq in MSCs following knockdown of ALKBH5 revealed changes in transcripts of PRMT6 containing consensus m6A motifs required for demethylation by ALKBH5. Furthermore, we found that ALKBH5 accelerates the degradation rate of PRMT6 mRNA in an m6A-dependent manner, and that the ALKBH5-PRMT6 axis regulates the osteogenesis of MSCs, mainly through activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. Thus, our work reveals a different facet of the novel ALKBH5-PRMT6 axis that modulates the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, which can serve as a target to improve the clinical use of MSCs.


Assuntos
Homólogo AlkB 5 da RNA Desmetilase/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Proteína-Arginina N-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Osteócitos/citologia , Osteogênese
10.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(6): e429, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34185419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the major source of osteoblasts. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are abundantly expressed RNAs that lack protein-coding potential and play an extensive regulatory role in cellular biological activities. However, the regulatory network of lncRNAs in MSC osteogenesis needs further investigation. METHODS: QRT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry assays were used to determine the levels of relevant genes. The osteogenic differentiation capability was evaluated by using Alizarin Red S (ARS) staining, alkaline phosphatase activity assays, hematoxylin & eosin staining or micro-CT. RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and RNAscope were used to detect HHAS1 expression in cells and bone tissue. A microarray assay was performed to identify differentially expressed microRNAs. RNA immunoprecipitation and RNA pull-down were used to explore the interactions between related proteins and nucleic acids. RESULTS: The level of lncRNA HHAS1 increased during bone marrow-derived MSC (BMSC) osteogenesis and was positively related to the levels of osteogenic genes and ARS intensity. HHAS1 was located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus and was expressed in human bone tissue. HHAS1 facilitated BMSC osteogenic differentiation by downregulating miR-204-5p expression and enhancing the level of RUNX family transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). In addition, interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) was increased during BMSC osteogenic differentiation and interacted with the promoter of HHAS1, which resulted in the transcriptional activation of HHAS1. Furthermore, IRF2 and HHAS1 helped improve bone defect repair in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: Our study identified a novel lncRNA, HHAS1, that facilitates BMSC osteogenic differentiation and proposed a role for the IRF2/HHAS1/miR-204-5p/RUNX2 axis in BMSC osteogenesis regulation. These findings help elucidate the regulatory network of BMSC osteogenesis and provide potential targets for clinical application.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(20): 5755-5763, 2021 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988022

RESUMO

The 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE, EC 2.4.1.18) catalyzes the formation of α-1,6 branching points in starch and plays a key role in synthesis. To obtain mechanistic insights into the catalytic action of the enzyme, we first determined the crystal structure of GBE from Rhodothermus obamensis STB05 (RoGBE) to a resolution of 2.39 Å (PDB ID: 6JOY). The structure consists of three domains: domain A, domain C, and the carbohydrate-binding module 48 (CBM48). An engineered truncated mutant lacking the CBM48 domain (ΔCBM48) showed significantly reduced ligand binding affinity and enzyme activity. Comparison of the structures of RoGBE with other GBEs showed that CBM48 of RoGBE had a longer flexible loop. Truncation of the flexible loops resulted in reduced binding affinity and activity, thereby substantiating the importance of the optimum loop structure for catalysis. In essence, our study shows that CBM48, especially the flexible loop, plays an important role in substrate binding and enzymatic activity of RoGBE. Further, based on the structural analysis, kinetics, and activity assays on wild type and mutants, as well as homology modeling, we proposed a mechanistic model (called the "lid model") to illustrate how the flexible loop triggers substrate binding, ultimately leading to catalysis.


Assuntos
Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana , Rhodothermus , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Glucanos , Rhodothermus/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato
12.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(4): 926-939, 2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798448

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are innate-like unconventional T cells that are abundant in humans and have attracted increasing attention in recent years. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are crucial regulators of immune cells. However, whether MAIT cells are regulated by MSCs is unclear. Here, we explored the effect of MSCs on MAIT cells and revealed the underlying mechanism. We found that MSCs did not influence the proliferation of MAIT cells but strikingly induced an activated phenotype with an increased expression of CD69, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and granzyme B. Moreover, MSCs activated MAIT cells in a TCR-MR1-independent mechanism through MSC-secreted IL-15. We revealed that MSC-derived IL-15 activated MAIT cells by enhancing autophagy activity, which was abolished by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. Based on our findings, MAIT cells are activated by MSCs through IL-15-induced autophagy, which may help elucidate the mechanisms underlying some immune responses and diseases and provide guidance for future research.

13.
Org Biomol Chem ; 19(19): 4364-4368, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908987

RESUMO

Palladium-catalyzed aerobic oxidative cyclizations of substituted 2-(1H-pyrrol-1-yl)phenols with isocyanides via an O-H/C-H insertion cascade have been developed. This strategy provides facile access to pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzoxazine derivatives in good to excellent yields under an O2 atmosphere. The notable features of this protocol include its mild reaction conditions, atom-economy, and broad functional group tolerance.

14.
Carbohydr Polym ; 262: 117968, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838833

RESUMO

Enzymatically rearranging α-1,4 and α-1,6 glycosidic bonds in starch is a green approach to regulating its digestibility. A two-step modification process successively catalyzed by 1,4-α-glucan branching enzymes (GBEs) from Rhodothermus obamensi STB05 (Ro-GBE) and Geobacillus thermoglucosidans STB02 (Gt-GBE) was investigated as a strategy to reduce the digestibility of corn starch. This dual GBE modification process caused a reduction of 25.8 % in rapidly digestible starch fraction in corn starch, which were more effective than single GBE-catalyzed modification with the same duration. Structural analysis indicated that the dual GBE modified product contained higher branching density, more abundant short branches, and shorter external chains than those in single GBE-modified product. These results demonstrated that a moderate Ro-GBE treatment prior to starch gelatinization caused several suitable alterations in starch molecules, which promoted the transglycosylation efficiency of the following Gt-GBE treatment. This dual GBE-catalyzed modification process offered an efficient strategy for regulating starch digestibility.


Assuntos
Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/química , Glicosídeos/química , Amido/química , Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Amilose/química , Amilose/metabolismo , Bacillaceae/enzimologia , Digestão , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estrutura Molecular , Rhodothermus/enzimologia , Amido/metabolismo
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 262: 117926, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838805

RESUMO

Double emulsions are promising carrier systems for foods, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. However, their limited stability hinders their practical applications. We used gelatinized starch to develop stable double emulsions as carrier materials. The oil/water/water (O/W/W) double emulsions were formed by 5 wt% native corn starch, while oil/water/oil (O/W/O) double emulsions were formed by 7 wt% native corn starch and high-amylose starch with 60 % and 75 % amylose contents investigated by optical microscopy. Furthermore, the storage stability of double emulsions was revealed by droplet size distribution, microstructure, backscattering, rheological profiles, and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) imaging. Results confirmed that the O/W/O double emulsions stabilized by 7 wt% native corn starch had a smaller mean droplet size (11.400 ± 0.424 µm) and excellent storage stability (14 days) than O/W/W and O/W/O double emulsions prepared with high-amylose starch. Such unique double emulsions prepared with gelatinized native corn starch are good candidates of carrier materials.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Gelatina/química , Amido/química , Amilose/química , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Reologia , Água/química
16.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 41: 127956, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744439

RESUMO

The production of ß-lactamases represents the main cause of resistance to clinically important ß-lactam antibiotics. Boron containing compounds have been demonstrated as promising broad-spectrum ß-lactamase inhibitors to combat ß-lactam resistance. Here we report a series of 3-aryl substituted benzoxaborole derivatives, which manifested broad-spectrum inhibition to representative serine-ß-lactamases (SBLs) and metallo-ß-lactamases (MBLs). The most potent inhibitor 9f displayed an IC50 value of 86 nM to KPC-2 SBL and micromolar inhibitory activity towards other tested enzymes. Cell-based assays further revealed that 9f was able to significantly reduce the MICs of meropenem in clinically isolated KPC-2-producing bacterial strains and it showed no apparent toxicity in HEK293T cells.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/farmacologia , Inibidores de beta-Lactamases/síntese química , Inibidores de beta-Lactamases/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Compostos de Boro/síntese química , Compostos de Boro/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/metabolismo , Meropeném/farmacologia , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Inibidores de beta-Lactamases/química
17.
Adv Ther (Weinh) ; : 2000224, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786369

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 caused the emerging epidemic of coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). To date, there are more than 82.9 million confirmed cases worldwide, there is no clinically effective drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection. The conserved properties of the membrane fusion domain of the spike (S) protein across SARS-CoV-2 make it a promising target to develop pan-CoV therapeutics. Herein, two clinically approved drugs, Itraconazole (ITZ) and Estradiol benzoate (EB), are found to inhibit viral entry by targeting the six-helix (6-HB) fusion core of SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Further studies shed light on the mechanism that ITZ and EB can interact with the heptad repeat 1 (HR1) region of the spike protein, to present anti-SARS-CoV-2 infections in vitro, indicating they are novel potential therapeutic remedies for COVID-19 treatment. Furthermore, ITZ shows broad-spectrum activity targeting 6-HB in the S2 subunit of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV S protein, inspiring that ITZ have the potential for development as a pan-coronavirus fusion inhibitor.

18.
Appl Opt ; 60(3): 662-669, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690435

RESUMO

In this study, we demonstrate a novel, to the best of our knowledge, integrated indium phosphide (InP) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide platform, which is based on interlayer coupling, to achieve heterogeneous integration of a photodetector and waveguide ring resonator firstly. In order to improve the gyro bias stability, the Si3N4 and InP waveguides were designed with a high polarization extinction ratio and ultra-low loss. Three-dimensional finite difference time domain methods are used to optimize the InP taper dimensions to provide efficient optical coupling between the Si3N4 and InP waveguides. The optical coupler with a length of 100 µm is designed to achieve optical coupling between the Si3N4 and InP waveguides while maintaining its state of polarization all the way from the taper waveguides. The coupling efficiency of the optimized interlayer coupler has been improved to about 99.5%.

19.
Food Chem ; 352: 129350, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657481

RESUMO

Fermented cassava products are important starchy food staples in South America. The quality of the products is affected by the baking expansion ability of the dough, which is in turn influenced by the starch fermentation process and drying method employed. We investigated the structural properties of cassava starch after different fermentation and drying treatments, and the effect of starch structure on scalding of dough and baking expansion ability. Fermentation combined with either exposure to sunlight or UV light treatment resulted in high cassava starch baking expansion. Moreover, we observed decreased crystallinity and increased disordered crystalline regions with lower molecular weight in the two types of starch-fermented combined with sunlight or UV light treatment-and both appeared to have a continuous network structure and polarized cross in scalded dough, which are conducive to holding gas and losing water, thus promoting high baking expansibility.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Manihot/química , Amido/química , Dessecação , Fermentação , Manihot/efeitos da radiação , Peso Molecular , Luz Solar , Raios Ultravioleta
20.
Food Chem ; 354: 129475, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33744660

RESUMO

The α-amylases are the most widely used industrial enzymes, and are particularly useful as liquifying enzymes in industrial processes based upon starch. Since starch liquefication is carried out at evaluated temperatures, typically above 60 °C, there is substantial demand for thermostable α -amylases. Most naturally occurring α -amylases exhibit moderate thermostability, so substantial effort has been invested in attempts to increase their thermostability. One structural feature that has the potential to increase protein thermostability is the introduction of salt bridges. However, not every salt bridge contributes to protein thermostability. The salt bridges in amylases have their characteristics in terms of distribution, configuration and location. The summary of these features helps to introduce new salt bridges based on the characteristics. This review focuses on salt bridges of α-amylases, both naturally present and introduced using mutagenesis. Its aim is to provide a bird's eye view of distribution, configuration, location of desirable salt bridges.


Assuntos
Sais/química , alfa-Amilases/metabolismo , Bacillus licheniformis/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Estabilidade Enzimática , Metais/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Temperatura , alfa-Amilases/química
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