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2.
BMJ Open ; 10(1): e033230, 2020 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900273

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Stair ascent and descent require complex integration between sensory and motor systems; individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) have an elevated risk for falls and fall injuries, which may be in part due to poor dynamic postural control during locomotion. Tai chi exercise has been shown to reduce fall risks in the ageing population and is recommended as one of the non-pharmocological therapies for people with KOA. However, neuromuscular mechanisms underlying the benefits of tai chi for persons with KOA are not clearly understood. Postural control deficits in performing a primary motor task may be more pronounced when required to simultaneously attend to a cognitive task. This single-blind, parallel design randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the effects of a 12-week tai chi programme versus balance and postural control training on neuromechanical characteristics during dual-task stair negotiation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Sixty-six participants with KOA will be randomised into either tai chi or balance and postural control training, each at 60 min per session, twice weekly for 12 weeks. Assessed at baseline and 12 weeks (ie, postintervention), the primary outcomes are attention cost and dynamic postural stability during dual-task stair negotiation. Secondary outcomes include balance and proprioception, foot clearances, self-reported symptoms and function. A telephone follow-up to assess symptoms and function will be conducted at 20 weeks. The findings will help determine whether tai chi is beneficial on dynamic stability and in reducing fall risks in older adults with KOA patients in community. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Affiliated Rehabilitation Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (#2018KY-006-1). Study findings will be disseminated through presentations at scientific conferences or publications in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR1800018028.

3.
Tissue Eng Regen Med ; 16(6): 653-665, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31824827

RESUMO

Background: With the popularity of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, common bile duct injury has been reported more frequently. There is no perfect method for repairing porcine biliary segmental defects. Methods: After the decellularization of human arterial blood vessels, the cells were cultured with GFP+ (carry green fluorescent protein) porcine bile duct epithelial cells. The growth and proliferation of porcine bile duct epithelial cells on the human acellular arterial matrix (HAAM) were observed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Then, the recellularized human acellular arterial matrix (RHAAM) was used to repair biliary segmental defects in the pig. The feasibility of it was detected by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, liver function and blood routine changes, HE staining, immunofluorescence, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), and western blot. Results: After 4 weeks (w) of co-culture of HAAM and GFP+ porcine bile duct epithelial cells, GFP+ porcine bile duct epithelial cells grew stably, proliferated, and fused on HAAM. Bile was successfully drained into the duodenum without bile leakage or biliary obstruction. Immunofluorescence detection showed that GFP-positive bile duct cells could still be detected after GFP-containing bile duct cells were implanted into the acellular arterial matrix for 8 w. The implanted bile duct cells can successfully resist bile invasion and protect the acellular arterial matrix until the newborn bile duct is formed. Conclusion: The RHAAM can be used to repair biliary segmental defects in pigs, which provides a new idea for the clinical treatment of common bile duct injury.

4.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 9439-9448, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31807073

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to develop and validate a nomogram for predicting the malignancy of small (8-20 mm) solid indeterminate solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) in a Chinese population by using routine clinical and computed tomography data. Methods: The prediction model was developed using a retrospective cohort that comprised 493 consecutive patients with small indeterminate SPNs who were treated between December 2012 and December 2016. The model was independently validated using a second retrospective cohort comprising 216 consecutive patients treated between January 2017 and May 2018. The investigated variables included patient characteristics (e.g., age and smoking history), nodule parameters (e.g., marginal spiculation and significant enhancement), and tumor biomarker levels (e.g., carcinoembryonic antigen). A prediction model was developed by using multivariable logistic regression analysis, and the model's performance was presented as a nomogram. The model was evaluated based on its discriminative ability, calibration, and clinical usefulness. Results: The developed nomogram was ultimately based on age, marginal spiculation, significant enhancement, and pleural indentation. The Harrell concordance index values were 0.869 in the training cohort (95% confidence interval: 0.837-0.901) and 0.847 in the validation cohort (95% confidence interval: 0.792-0.902). The Hosmer-Lemeshow test revealed good calibration in each of the training and validation cohorts. Decision curve analysis confirmed that the nomogram was clinically useful (risk threshold from 0.10 to 0.85). Conclusion: Patient age, marginal spiculation, significant enhancement, and pleural indentation are independent predictors of malignancy in small indeterminate solid SPNs. The developed nomogram is easy-to-use and may allow the accurate prediction of malignancy in small indeterminate solid SPNs among Chinese patients.

5.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 8(4): 476-488, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555520

RESUMO

Background: Inherited susceptibility and environmental carcinogens are crucial players in lung cancer etiology, and both exhibit population heterogeneity. MUC16 is overexpressed in various cancers and often associated with poor prognosis. Present work was to investigate the clinical significance of MUC16 in non-small cell lung cancer patients affected by familial lung cancer (FLC) and indoor air pollution caused by coal use. Methods: Clinicopathologic characteristics and MUC16 expression were analyzed and evaluated in our subject population. Vectors were constructed for MUC16 gene knockout and overexpression, then we examined how MUC16 affected lung cancer cell behaviors, including proliferation, migration, invasion and chemoresistance. Results: FLC showed significant association with early-onset (P<0.01) and later stage (P<0.01). Indoor air pollution was associated with younger age (P<0.01), later stage (P<0.05) and AD histology type (P<0.05). Interestingly, two age peaks were observed in our FLC and sporadic group respectively, possibly suggesting multiple major contributors to lung cancer in our subject population. MUC16 overexpression was significantly associated with FLC (P<0.05), indoor air pollution (P<0.01) and later stage (P<0.01), additionally more metastasis cases were observed in patients with up-regulated MUC16 (18.1% vs. 10.3%). Taken together, elevated MUC16 may potentially be one molecular character of FLC in local residents. Intriguingly, patients with more MUC16 up-regulation seemed to have a lower number of white blood cells, especially neutrophils, this reflected MUC16's role in immune regulation. In cell behavior experiments, high MUC16 level could contribute to lung cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and chemoresistance, but there were variations among cell lines. Conclusions: MUC16 plays crucial roles in lung cancer pathogenesis, progression and chemoresistance. Interestingly, its association with FLC and indoor air pollution highlights the complexity of lung cancer etiology. Our findings provide useful information to study the intricate interaction between environmental carcinogens and population genetic background.

6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 53(15): 9317-9327, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299147

RESUMO

Methane (CH4) enters waters in hydrocarbon-rich basins because of natural processes and problems related to oil and gas wells. As a redox-active greenhouse gas, CH4 degrades water or emits to the atmosphere and contributes to climate change. To detect if methane migrated from hydrocarbon wells (i.e., anomalous methane), we examined 20 751 methane-containing groundwaters from the Upper Appalachian Basin (AB). We looked for concentrations (mg/L) that indicated AB brine salts (chloride concentrations ([Cl]) > 30; [Ca]/[Na] < 0.52) to detect natural methane, and we looked for concentrations of redox-active species ([SO4] ≥ 6; [Fe] ≥ 0.3) to detect anomalous methane. These indicators highlight natural contamination by methane-containing brines or recent onset of microbial oxidation of methane coupled to iron- or sulfate-reduction. We hypothesized that only waters recently contaminated by methane still exhibit high iron and sulfate concentrations. Of the AB samples, 17 (0.08%) from 12 sites indicated potential contamination. All were located in areas with high densities of shale-gas or conventional oil/gas wells. In contrast, in southwestern Pennsylvania where brines are shallow and coal, oil, and gas all have been extracted extensively, no sites of recent methane migration were detectable. Such indicators may help screen for contamination in some areas even without predrill measurements.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Região dos Apalaches , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metano , Gás Natural , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Pennsylvania
7.
IEEE Trans Big Data ; 5(2): 180-194, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172020

RESUMO

Crime is one of the most important social problems in the country, affecting public safety, children development, and adult socioeconomic status. Understanding what factors cause higher crime rate is critical for policy makers in their efforts to reduce crime and increase citizens' life quality. We tackle a fundamental problem in our paper: crime rate inference at the neighborhood level. Traditional approaches have used demographics and geographical influences to estimate crime rates in a region. With the fast development of positioning technology and prevalence of mobile devices, a large amount of modern urban data have been collected and such big data can provide new perspectives for understanding crime. In this paper, we use large-scale Point-Of-Interest data and taxi flow data in the city of Chicago, IL in the USA. We observe significantly improved performance in crime rate inference compared to using traditional features. Such an improvement is consistent over multiple years. We also show that these new features are significant in the feature importance analysis. The correlations between crime and various observed features are not constant over the whole city. In order to address this geospatial non-stationary property, we further employ the geographically weighted regression on top of negative binomial model (GWNBR). Experiments have shown that GWNBR outperforms the negative binomial model.

8.
Cancer Imaging ; 19(1): 24, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To discuss the diagnostic value of multislice spiral tomography (CT) combined with CT angiography (CTA) technology in intra-abdominal undescended testis secondary seminoma cases. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the CT and CTA imaging features of CT and CTA findings of nine patients with an intra-abdominal undescended testis secondary seminoma. RESULTS: The tumors in all nine patients were mainly solid, and the average CT value was 38.4 ± 3.4 HU. Low-density areas of various sizes were visible in the tumors, and calcifications were detected in two patients. The tumors in eight patients had a complete capsule, which pressed on the surrounding structures. In one patient, the tumor had an incomplete capsule, which invaded the surrounding structures. Some of the solid tumors showed progressive and slight enhancement on the CT-enhanced scans. The values in the arterial phase, venous phase, and delayed phase were 46.3 ± 5.1 (40-55 HU), 57.3 ± 7.3HU (48-68 HU), and 65.1 ± 7.2HU (56-77 HU), respectively, with an average increase rate of 27.0 ± 7.2 HU. No enhancement was found in low-density areas on the CTA scans, and the supply arteries of the tumors in the nine patients all originated from the abdominal aortic wall 2-3 cm below the renal ostia. These arteries became thickened and tortuous when near the tumors, and there were no branching vessels. In eight patients, the supply arteries of the tumors originated from the posterior tumor and ended inside the tumor, and they originated from anterior of the tumor in one patient. Testicular venous drainage was detected in three patients, and lymph node metastasis in the abdominal aorta detected in two cases. CONCLUSION: An intra-abdominal undescended testis secondary seminoma exhibits a characteristic appearance on CT. CTA shows a three-dimensional testicular vascular pedicle sign of a seminoma. A combination of CT and CTA can improve the diagnostic accuracy of an intra-abdominal undescended testis secondary seminoma.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Criptorquidismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Seminoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Testiculares/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral/normas , Adulto , Idoso , Criptorquidismo/complicações , Humanos , Metástase Linfática , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Seminoma/etiologia , Seminoma/patologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/etiologia , Neoplasias Testiculares/patologia
9.
Cancer Manag Res ; 11: 2471-2483, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114319

RESUMO

Purpose: This study aimed to develop and validate a nomogram for predicting 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) among a multicenter cohort of Chinese patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) who underwent preoperative therapy followed by surgery. This nomogram might help identify patients who would benefit from postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy and close follow-up. Materials and methods: All data from 228 patients in two independent Chinese cohorts (118 patients and 110 patients) were pooled and subjected to survival analysis. One cohort's data were used to develop multivariate nomograms based on Cox regression, and the second cohort was used for external validation. The variables were sex, age, clinical tumor stage, tumor location, preoperative therapy protocol, adjuvant chemotherapy, surgical procedure, surgical approach, pTNM stage, tumor deposit, tumor regression grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, pretreatment serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, preoperative CEA level, and postoperative CEA level. The model's performance was evaluated based on its discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness. Results: The nomogram was based on ypT stage and ypN stage, and the C-index values for 3-year DFS were 0.70 in the training cohort (95% confidence interval: 0.62-0.78) and 0.78 in the validation cohort (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.89). The Hosmer-Lemeshow calibration test revealed good calibration for predicting 3-year DFS in the training and validation cohorts, and decision curve analysis demonstrated that the nomogram was clinically useful. Conclusion: This nomogram including the ypT stage and ypN stage could predict DFS at 3 years after surgery, which may help better identify Chinese patients who would benefit from additional postoperative adjuvant systemic treatment.

10.
Cells ; 8(4)2019 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999686

RESUMO

As key post-transcriptional regulators, microRNAs (miRNAs) play an indispensable role in skeletal muscle development. Our previous study suggested that miR-34b-5p and IGFBP2 could have a potential role in skeletal muscle growth. Our goal in this study is to explore the function and regulatory mechanism of miR-34b-5p and IGFBP2 in myogenesis. In this study, the dual-luciferase reporter assay and Western blot analysis showed that IGFBP2 is a direct target of miR-34b-5p. Flow cytometric analysis and EdU assay showed that miR-34b-5p could repress the cell cycle progression of myoblasts, and miR-34b-5p could promote the formation of myotubes by promoting the expression of MyHC. On the contrary, the overexpression of IGFBP2 significantly facilitated the proliferation of myoblasts and hampered the formation of myotubes. Together, our results indicate that miR-34b-5p could mediate the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts by targeting IGFBP2.


Assuntos
Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/genética , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas , Feminino , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , MicroRNAs/biossíntese , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(6)2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30893799

RESUMO

Time synchronization is an important middleware function that supports the Quality of Service (QoS) of systems in wireless sensor array networks. Instead of providing high synchronization accuracy for all application scenarios, we argue that synchronization protocols should be application specific. In this paper, we exploit the synchronization requirements of target-tracking systems in wireless sensor array networks and propose an energy-efficient Sensor Array Synchronization Protocol (SASP), which provides the required synchronization accuracy to guarantee the QoS. Specifically, when no target appears, to guarantee system lifetime, coarse synchronization is achieved with little overhead by piggybacking time information onto periodical network maintenance packets. Once targets appear, SASP achieves high inter-array and relatively higher intra-array synchronization accuracy rather than the traditional network-wide high accuracy on average. In this way, it guarantees reliable communication and accurate data fusion, while reducing energy consumption. Theoretical analysis and extensive evaluations show the effectiveness of the proposed protocol.

12.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 43(3): 386-391, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920424

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the value of cinematic rendering (CR) from volumetric computed tomography data in evaluating the relationship between deep soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) of the extremities and the adjacent major vessels. METHODS: Preoperative contrast-enhanced axial imaging (CEAI) in the arterial phase with three-dimensional volume rendering (VR) and CR of contrast-enhanced computed tomography were used to assess adjacent vascular invasion in 43 cases of deep STSs of the extremities. The imaging assessments were compared with surgical findings and interpreted as negative (no vascular invasion) or positive (vascular invasion was present). Intrareader and interreader agreement were assessed using Cohen κ statistics. The diagnostic performance of CEAI, VR, and CR was evaluated by receiver operating curve analysis and compared using the DeLong test. RESULTS: Thirty-four and nine cases were classified as negative and positive, respectively, in surgery. Intrareader agreement values for the CEAI, VR, and CR assessments were all excellent (0.984, 0.934, and 0.914, respectively), whereas the interreader agreement for CEAI assessments was greater than that for VR and CR (0.969 vs 0.804 and 0.761). Cinematic rendering showed lower accuracy (0.698), sensitivity (0.778), specificity (0.676), positive predictive values (0.389), and negative predictive values (0.920) for vascular invasion diagnosis than CEAI or VR; the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values increased to 0.767, 0.889, 0.735, 0.471, and 0.962 for both CEAI and VR. The results were not statistically significant (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Cinematic rendering has the potential to be used to evaluate vascular invasion in cases of deep STSs of the extremities, but it should be used alongside the traditional methods such as CEAI.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico/métodos , Extremidades/patologia , Sarcoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Sarcoma/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Extremidades/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle ; 10(2): 391-410, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30701698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate important roles for long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the regulation of gene expression by acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs). However, the specific role of lncRNAs in skeletal muscle atrophy is still unclear. Our study aimed to identify the function of lncRNAs that control skeletal muscle myogenesis and atrophy. METHODS: RNA sequencing was performed to identify the skeletal muscle transcriptome (lncRNA and messenger RNA) between hypertrophic broilers and leaner broilers. To study the 'sponge' function of lncRNA, we constructed a lncRNA-microRNA (miRNA)-gene interaction network by integrated our previous submitted skeletal muscle miRNA sequencing data. The primary myoblast cells and animal model were used to assess the biological function of the lncIRS1 in vitro or in vivo. RESULTS: We constructed a myogenesis-associated lncRNA-miRNA-gene network and identified a novel ceRNA lncRNA named lncIRS1 that is specifically enriched in skeletal muscle. LncIRS1 could regulate myoblast proliferation and differentiation in vitro, and muscle mass and mean muscle fibre in vivo. LncIRS1 increases gradually during myogenic differentiation. Mechanistically, lncIRS1 acts as a ceRNA for miR-15a, miR-15b-5p, and miR-15c-5p to regulate IRS1 expression, which is the downstream of the IGF1 receptor. Overexpression of lncIRS1 not only increased the protein abundance of IRS1 but also promoted phosphorylation level of AKT (p-AKT) a central component of insulin-like growth factor-1 pathway. Furthermore, lncIRS1 regulates the expression of atrophy-related genes and can rescue muscle atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: The newly identified lncIRS1 acts as a sponge for miR-15 family to regulate IRS1 expression, resulting in promoting skeletal muscle myogenesis and controlling atrophy.

14.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 21(2): 384-396, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30608109

RESUMO

With recent improvements in high-volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF, known to the public as fracking), vast new reservoirs of natural gas and oil are now being tapped. As HVHF has expanded into the populous northeastern USA, some residents have become concerned about impacts on water quality. Scientists have addressed this concern by investigating individual case studies or by statistically assessing the rate of problems. In general, however, lack of access to new or historical water quality data hinders the latter assessments. We introduce a new statistical approach to assess water quality datasets - especially sets that differ in data volume and variance - and apply the technique to one region of intense shale gas development in northeastern Pennsylvania (PA) and one with fewer shale gas wells in northwestern PA. The new analysis for the intensely developed region corroborates an earlier analysis based on a different statistical test: in that area, changes in groundwater chemistry show no degradation despite that area's dense development of shale gas. In contrast, in the region with fewer shale gas wells, we observe slight but statistically significant increases in concentrations in some solutes in groundwaters. One potential explanation for the slight changes in groundwater chemistry in that area (northwestern PA) is that it is the regional focus of the earliest commercial development of conventional oil and gas (O&G) in the USA. Alternate explanations include the use of brines from conventional O&G wells as well as other salt mixtures on roads in that area for dust abatement or de-icing, respectively.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea/química , Fraturamento Hidráulico , Gás Natural/análise , Petróleo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Água/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Pennsylvania , Qualidade da Água
15.
Cells ; 7(12)2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30518151

RESUMO

Emerging studies indicate important roles for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) as essential regulators in myogenesis, but relatively less is known about their function. In our previous study, we found that lncRNA-Six1 can regulate Six1 in cis to participate in myogenesis. Here, we studied a microRNA (miRNA) that is specifically expressed in chickens (miR-1611). Interestingly, miR-1611 was found to contain potential binding sites for both lncRNA-Six1 and Six1, and it can interact with lncRNA-Six1 to regulate Six1 expression. Overexpression of miR-1611 represses the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. Moreover, miR-1611 is highly expressed in slow-twitch fibers, and it drives the transformation of fast-twitch muscle fibers to slow-twitch muscle fibers. Together, these data demonstrate that miR-1611 can mediate the regulation of Six1 by lncRNA-Six1, thereby affecting proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts and transformation of muscle fiber types.

16.
Case Rep Gastrointest Med ; 2018: 3954260, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30425863

RESUMO

Gastric cancer is a malignant tumor with a high degree of malignancy. Multiple liver metastases from gastric cancer (LMGCs) are common. However, the treatment of LMGCs is very difficult. It is rare to achieve complete remission (CR) and long-term survival after treatment. We present the case of a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and multiple liver metastases who showed CR for more than 33 months after perioperative EOX (epirubicin, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine) combination chemotherapy with radical distal gastrectomy and resection of liver metastases. The patient is still in follow-up without tumor recurrence. These findings suggest that LMGC does not necessarily mean a poor prognosis; preoperative chemotherapy combined with surgery may be a good treatment option for LMGC in selected patients. Further studies are needed to support this treatment approach.

17.
Front Physiol ; 9: 1270, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333755

RESUMO

DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3a (Dnmt3a) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of methyl groups to specific CpG forms in DNA. In mammals, two variant transcripts of Dnmt3a have been successfully identified. To the best of our knowledge, no Dnmt3a transcripts in an avian have been successfully identified. This study was performed to detect different transcripts of Dnmt3a in chickens and to examine whether a novel Dnmt3a transcript named Dnmt3a1 may regulate adipogenesis. In addition to cloning, sequencing, transcript detection, and expression studies, a novel Dnmt3a1 transcript overexpression and knockdown were conducted to explore the potential role of Dnmt3a1 in preadipocyte proliferation and the early stage of adipocyte differentiation. In chicken abdominal fat tissue, we detected a novel Dnmt3a1 transcript that differs from Dnmt3a by lacking 23 amino acids at the exon-1/exon-2 border. Dnmt3a1 mRNA was ubiquitously expressed in a variety of tissues or cells and highly expressed in chicken adipose tissue/cells. The expression of Dnmt3a1 was regulated under different physiological conditions including aging, fasting, and high-fat diet. In addition, overexpression of Dnmt3a1 significantly decreased preadipocyte proliferation and induced cell-cycle arrest while its inhibition increased cell proliferation and S-phase cells. Furthermore, the overexpression of Dnmt3a1 significantly upregulated the mRNA level of cell-cycle-related genes, such as CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CCNB3, CCND2, CCNG2, CDKN2B, and CDK9, or the protein level of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, and CCNG2. Conversely, the knockdown of Dnmt3a1 by siRNA had the opposite effects. Moreover, during early adipocyte differentiation, the overexpression of Dnmt3a1 significantly decreased the mRNA and the protein levels of PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, ADIPOR1, and STAT3, and the mRNA levels of FAS, LEPR, LPL, PRKAB2, and ATGL. In contrast, their expression was significantly increased after the knockdown of Dnmt3a1. Taken together, we identified a novel transcript of Dnmt3a, and it played a potential role in adipogenesis.

18.
Curr Alzheimer Res ; 15(14): 1304-1321, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30182853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Formaldehyde (FA) has been implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology as an age-related factor and as a protein cross-linker known to aggregate Amyloid-Beta (Aß) and tau protein in vitro. Higher levels of FA have also been found in patients with greater cognitive impairment and in AD patient brains. OBJECTIVE: To directly evaluate the effect of chronically elevated FA levels on the primate brain with respect to AD pathological markers. METHOD: Young rhesus macaques (5-8 yrs, without AD related mutations) were given chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of FA or vehicle over a 12-month period. Monkeys were monitored for changes in cognitive ability and evaluated post-mortem for common AD pathological markers. RESULTS: Monkeys injected with FA were found to have significant spatial working memory impairments. Histopathological analysis revealed the presence of amyloid-ß+ neuritic-like plaques, neurofibrillary tangle-like formations, increased tau protein phosphorylation, neuronal loss and reactive gliosis in three memory (and AD) related brain areas (the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and prefrontal cortex (PFC)) of monkeys receiving i.c.v. injections of FA. ELISA assays revealed that the amounts of pT181 and Aß42 were markedly higher in the PFC and hippocampus of FA treated monkeys. CONCLUSION: FA was found to induce major AD-like pathological markers and cognitive impairments in young rhesus monkeys independent of genetic predispositions. This suggests FA may play a significant role in the initiation and progression of the disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos Cognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Formaldeído/toxicidade , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/patologia , Proteína Glial Fibrilar Ácida/metabolismo , Gliose/induzido quimicamente , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Fosfopiruvato Hidratase/metabolismo , Placa Amiloide/induzido quimicamente , Placa Amiloide/patologia , Quinolinas/metabolismo , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Proteínas tau/metabolismo
19.
Chin J Cancer Res ; 30(4): 406-414, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30210220

RESUMO

Objective: The standard treatment for patients with locally advanced gastric cancer has relied on perioperative radio-chemotherapy or chemotherapy and surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the wealth of radiomics for pre-treatment computed tomography (CT) in the prediction of the pathological response of locally advanced gastric cancer with preoperative chemotherapy. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients with CT-staged II/III gastric cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in this study between December 2014 and March 2017. All patients underwent upper abdominal CT during the unenhanced, late arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PP) before the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In total, 19,985 radiomics features were extracted in the AP and PP for each patient. Four methods were adopted during feature selection and eight methods were used in the process of building the classifier model. Thirty-two combinations of feature selection and classification methods were examined. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to evaluate the capability of each combination of feature selection and classification method to predict a non-good response (non-GR) based on tumor regression grade (TRG). Results: The mean area under the curve (AUC) ranged from 0.194 to 0.621 in the AP, and from 0.455 to 0.722 in the PP, according to different combinations of feature selection and the classification methods. There was only one cross-combination machine-learning method indicating a relatively higher AUC (>0.600) in the AP, while 12 cross-combination machine-learning methods presented relatively higher AUCs (all >0.600) in the PP. The feature selection method adopted by a filter based on linear discriminant analysis + classifier of random forest achieved a significantly prognostic performance in the PP (AUC, 0.722±0.108; accuracy, 0.793; sensitivity, 0.636; specificity, 0.889; Z=2.039; P=0.041). Conclusions: It is possible to predict non-GR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced gastric cancers based on the radiomics of CT.

20.
Front Genet ; 9: 172, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868120

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs), expressed abundantly and universally in various eukaryotes, are involved in growth and development of animals. Our previous study on circRNA sequencing revealed that circSVIL, an exonic circular, expressed differentially among skeletal muscle at 11 embryo age (E11), 16 embryo age (E16), and 1 day post-hatch (P1). In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of circSVIL on the development of skeletal muscle. We detected the expression level of circSVIL in embryonic leg muscle during E10 to P1. As a result, we found that circSVIL had a high expression level during late embryonic development of skeletal muscle. Through dual-luciferase assay, RNA immunoprecipitation and biotin-coupled miRNA pull down, we found chicken circSVIL could functions as miR-203 sponges and upregulated the mRNA level of c-JUN and MEF2C. In chicken, circSVIL could promote the proliferation and differentiation of myoblast, and antagonize the functions of miR-203. Altogether our data suggest that circSVIL promotes the embryonic skeletal muscle development by sequestering miR-203 in chicken.

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