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1.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 139-154, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475028

RESUMO

Ligamentum flavum (LF) hypertrophy (LFH) has been recognised as one of the key contributors to lumbar spinal stenosis. Currently, no effective methods are available to ameliorate this hypertrophy. In this study, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles (hUCMSC-EVs) were introduced for the first time as promising vehicles for drug delivery to treat LFH. The downregulation of miR-146a-5p and miR-221-3p expressions in human LF tissues negatively correlated with increased LF thickness. The hUCMSC-EVs enriched with these two miRNAs significantly suppressed LFH in vivo and notably ameliorated the progression of transforming growth factor ß1(TGF-ß1)-induced fibrosis in vitro after delivering these two miRNAs to mouse LF cells. The results further demonstrated that miR-146a-5p and miR-221-3p directly bonded to the 3'-UTR regions of SMAD4 mRNA, thereby inhibiting the TGF-ß/SMAD4 signalling pathway. Therefore, this translational study determined the effectiveness of a hUCMSC-EVs-based approach for the treatment of LFH and revealed the critical target of miR-146a-5p and miR-221-3p. Our findings provide new insights into promising therapeutics using a hUCMSC-EVs-based delivery system for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.

2.
J Immunol Res ; 2022: 4126273, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35345778

RESUMO

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) is an herbal medicine with polysaccharides as its important active ingredient. The purpose of this research was to identify the effects of the polysaccharides of P. quinquefolius (WQP) on rats with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) induced by lincomycin hydrochloride. WQP was primarily composed of galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and arabinose. The yield, total sugar content, uronic acid content, and protein content were 6.71%, 85.2%, 31.9%, and 2.1%, respectively. WQP reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the ileum and colon, reduced the IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α levels, increased the levels of IL-4 and IL-10 in colon tissues, improved the production of acetate and propionate, regulated the gut microbiota diversity and composition, improved the relative richness of Lactobacillus and Bacteroides, and reduced the relative richness of Blautia and Coprococcus. The results indicated that WQP can enhance the recovery of the intestinal structure in rats, reduce inflammatory cytokine levels, improve short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels, promote recovery of the gut microbiota and intestinal mucosal barrier, and alleviate antibiotic-related side effects such as diarrhoea and microbiota dysbiosis caused by lincomycin hydrochloride. We found that WQP can protect the intestinal barrier by increasing Occludin and Claudin-1 expression. In addition, WQP inhibited the MAPK inflammatory signaling pathway to improve the inflammatory status. This study provides a foundation for the treatment of natural polysaccharides to reduce antibiotic-related side effects.


Assuntos
Panax , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/metabolismo , Lincomicina/farmacologia , Lincomicina/uso terapêutico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Panax/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Ratos
3.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 860101, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371184

RESUMO

Akebia trifoliata is a perennial climbing woody liana plant with a high potential for commercial exploitation and theoretical research. Similarly, microsatellites (simple sequence repeats, SSRs) also have dual roles: as critical markers and as essential elements of the eukaryotic genome. To characterize the profile of SSRs and develop molecular markers, the high-quality assembled genome of A. trifoliata was used. Additionally, to determine the potential transferability of SSR loci, the genomes of Amborella trichopoda, Oryza sativa, Vitis vinifera, Arabidopsis thaliana, Papaver somniferum, and Aquilegia coerulea were also used. We identified 434,293 SSRs with abundant short repeats, such as 290,868 (66.98%) single-nucleotide repeats (SNRs) and 113,299 (26.09%) dinucleotide repeats (DNRs) in the A. trifoliata genome. 398,728 (91.81%) SSRs on 344,283 loci were physically mapped on the chromosomes, and a positive correlation (r = 0.98) was found between the number of SSRs and chromosomal length. Additionally, 342,916 (99.60%) potential SSR markers could be designed from the 344,283 physically mapped loci, while only 36,160 could be viewed as high-polymorphism-potential (HPP) markers, findings that were validated by PCR. Finally, SSR loci exhibited broad potential transferability, particularly DNRs such as the "AT/AT" and "AG/CT" loci, among all angiosperms, a finding that was not related to the genetic divergence distance. Practically, we developed a whole set of effective, polymorphic, and physically anchored molecular markers and found that, evolutionarily, DNRs could be responsible for microsatellite origin and protecting gene function.

4.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221121511, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36062304

RESUMO

The implications of population aging for economic growth is not only the shrinking working-age population, but also the increasing health care burden of the elderly population. It is difficult to explain clearly the relationship between a country's aging population and its economy without considering health effects. Based on the Solow economic growth model, the aims of this study are to estimate the economic effects of the health care burden for elderly population, and to access whether reducing effective labor input for economic production. The analysis employs a set of econometric approaches including fixed effects, generalized method of moments, instrumental variable, and mediation regression analyses using a multinational multi-database covering the years 2000-2019. The empirical evidence indicates that the health care burden was negatively correlated with economic growth during the study period, with every 1% increase in the health care burden leading to a 0.083% decrease in the GDP growth rate. The results of heterogeneity analysis and mediating analysis further confirmed that worsening health in the elderly population could be associated with the deceleration in economic development through the indirect pathway that lowering the employment rate of working-age population. This study provides new empirical evidence on the economic impact of population aging that the poor health of elderly population can be one critical factor of limiting economic growth, for the reason the labor inputs in household production are likely crowded out by family caregiving.


Assuntos
Fardo do Cuidador , Países em Desenvolvimento , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Emprego , Humanos , Dinâmica Populacional , Fatores Socioeconômicos
5.
World J Psychiatry ; 12(7): 999-1001, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051604

RESUMO

The article not only successfully evaluated regular physical activities can improve mental well-being during self-isolation and social distancing policies related to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but also concluded that the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to augmented levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2. By reading the article of Walid Kamal Abdelbasset, we have some questions and put forward some suggestions on the content of the article.

6.
World J Psychiatry ; 12(7): 904-914, 2022 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex disease which can be affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Prenatal famine exposure may cause changes in DNA methylation levels of genes. Meanwhile, maternal nutrition during pregnancy is a pivotal environmental factor in the development of SCZ. DNA methylation may be an intermediate factor mediating exposure to famine during pregnancy and SCZ, and DNA methylation quantitative trait loci might serve as a promising tool for linking SCZ and prenatal famine. AIM: To analyze the association between prenatal famine exposure and SCZ risk in Northeast Han Chinese through analysis of DNA methylation related loci. METHODS: A total of 954 Han Chinese from Northeast China were recruited, including 443 patients with SCZ and 511 healthy controls. The participants were further divided into famine (born in 1960-1962) and non-famine (born in 1963-1965) groups to investigate the effect of prenatal famine exposure. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected according to the relevant literature were genotyped, namely, rs11917047 in PTPRG, rs2239681 in IGF2, rs3842756 in INSIGF, and rs61955196 in ABCB9. DNA were extracted from peripheral blood samples, and the genotypes of these SNP loci were detected using the improved Multiple Ligase Detection Reaction multiple SNP typing technique. The associations of the DNA methylation related SNPs with SCZ risk and prenatal famine, and their interactions were analyzed using logistic regression analysis and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) software. RESULTS: Based on the sequencing data, genotype distributions and allele frequencies of the four selected SNPs were determined. All genotype frequencies of the four SNPs in the healthy control group were tested for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that rs61955196 was significantly associated with SCZ risk in the log-additive model [odds ratio (OR): 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.48; P = 0.040]. We also found that the rs61955196 allele was related with an enhanced risk of SCZ (G>C, OR: 1.22; 95%CI: 1.01-1.47; P = 0.042). However, no associations were observed between rs11917047, rs2239681, or rs3842756 and SCZ risk. Under the optimal genetic model, no significant association of famine with the four SNPs was seen. Though the gene-gene interactions between rs2239681 and rs61955196 were found in GMDR analysis, none of the gene-gene interactions and gene-famine interactions were associated with the risk of SCZ. CONCLUSION: Our study suggested that rs61955196 in ABCB9 is associated with SCZ susceptibility in Northeast Han Chinese, providing insight into genetic effects on SCZ.

8.
Parasit Vectors ; 15(1): 318, 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptocaryon irritans is a fatal parasite for marine teleosts and causes severe economic loss for aquaculture. Galvanized materials have shown efficacy in controlling this parasite infestation through the release of zinc ions to induce oxidative stress. METHODS: In this study, the resistance mechanism in C. irritans against oxidative stress induced by zinc ions was investigated. Untargeted metabolomics analysis was used to determine metabolic regulation in C. irritans in response to zinc ion treatment by the immersion of protomonts in ZnSO4 solution at a sublethal dose (20 µmol). Eight differential metabolites were selected to assess the efficacy of defense against zinc ion stimulation in protomonts of C. irritans. Furthermore, the mRNA relative levels of glutathione metabolism-associated enzymes were measured in protomonts following treatment with ZnSO4 solution at sublethal dose. RESULTS: The results showed that zinc ion exposure disrupted amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, and nucleotide metabolism in C. irritans. Four antioxidants, namely ascorbate, S-hexyl-glutathione, syringic acid, and ubiquinone-1, were significantly increased in the Zn group (P < 0.01), while the glutathione metabolism pathway was enhanced. The encystment rate of C. irritans was significantly higher in the ascorbate and methionine treatment (P < 0.05) groups. Additionally, at 24 h post-zinc ion exposure, the relative mRNA level of glutathione reductase (GR) was increased significantly (P < 0.01). On the contrary, the relative mRNA levels of glutathione S-transferase (GT) and phospholipid-hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), thus indicating that the generation of reduced glutathione was enhanced. CONCLUSIONS: These results revealed that glutathione metabolism in C. irritans contributes to oxidative stress resistance from zinc ions, and could be a potential drug target for controlling C. irritans infection.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Zinco , Glutationa/metabolismo , Íons , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
9.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 628(Pt B): 1031-1040, 2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36049279

RESUMO

Benefiting from the extra contribution of O redox, Co-free Li-rich layered oxides (LRNMO) can satisfy the requirement of high specific capacities. However, during the high-voltage charging process, lattice oxygen being oxidized to O- or O2 leads to a gradual transition of the structure from layered to spinel phase, capacity and voltage decline, hindering the practical application of LRNMO in the lithium-ion battery. Here, a surface modification strategy of Li1.2Ni0.32Mn0.48O2-δ doped with Ta5+ ions is proposed, in which the Ta5+ ions occupy the lithium sites of the lattice structure on the surface layer of LRNMO and form a Ta2O5 coating layer. The modified electrode exhibits excellent rate performance and cycling stability, with 94.9% and 85.5% capacity retention rate and voltage retention rate, respectively, after 200 cycles at 1C. Moreover, the initial coulomb efficiency and ionic conductivity of the modified electrode are also apparently enhanced. Simultaneously, the decreased Li/Ni mixing degree of the modified electrode reflects the improvement of the structural stability. Therefore, the modification strategy through strong metal-oxygen bonding to integrate the surface structure to regulate the oxygen activity provides a new direction for the design of high energy density Co-free Li-rich cathode materials.

10.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 992016, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36061779

RESUMO

Stripe rust and powdery mildew are devastating diseases that have severe effects on wheat production. Introducing resistant genes/loci from wheat-related species into the wheat genome is an important method to improve wheat resistance. Rye (Secale cereale L.) is a cross-pollinating plant and is the most important related species for wheat genetic improvement. In this study, we developed three 6RS ditelosomic addition lines, three 6RL ditelosomic addition lines, and two 6R disomic addition lines by crossing common wheat cultivar Chuannong 25 and rye inbred line QL2. The chromosome composition of all new lines was confirmed by non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH) and molecular marker analyses. Disease responses to different Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) races and Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) isolates and cytogenetic analysis showed that the resistance of the new lines was derived from the rye chromosome 6R of QL2, and both arms (6RS and 6RL) may harbor resistance genes against Pst and Bgt. These new lines could be used as a promising bridging parent and valuable genetic resource for wheat disease resistance improvement.

11.
Theor Appl Genet ; 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36068440

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A major and stable QTL cQSGR.sau.3D, which can explain 33.25% of the phenotypic variation in SGR, was mapped and validated, and cQSGR.sau.3D was found to be independent of GI. In this study, a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population containing 304 lines derived from the cross of Chuan-nong17 (CN17) and Chuan-nong11 (CN11) was genotyped using the Wheat55K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. A high-density genetic map consisting of 8329 markers spanning 4131.54 cM and distributed across 21 wheat chromosomes was constructed. QTLs for whole spike germination rate (SGR) were identified in multiple years. Six and fourteen QTLs were identified using the Inclusive Composite Interval Mapping-Biparental Populations and Multi-Environment Trial methods, respectively. A total of 106 digenic epistatic QTLs were also detected in this study. One of the additive QTLs, cQSGR.sau.3D, which was mapped in the region from 3.5 to 4.5 cM from linkage group 3D-2 on chromosome 3D, can explain 33.25% of the phenotypic variation in SGR and be considered a major and stable QTL for SGR. This QTL was independent of the seeds' germination traits, such as germination index. One Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASP) marker, KASP-AX-110772653, which is tightly linked to cQSGR.sau.3D, was developed. The genetic effect of cQSGR.sau.3D on SGR in the RIL and natural populations was successfully confirmed. Furthermore, within the interval in which cQSGR.sau.3D is located in Chinese Spring reference genomes, thirty-seven genes were found. cQSGR.sau.3D may provide new resources for pre-harvest sprouting resistance breeding of wheat in the future.

12.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 2022 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36069369

RESUMO

To suit the urgency of a new strategy for hydrogen (H2) evolution, a metal-organic framework (MIL-100(Fe)) is applied in the piezoelectric-driven process for catalytic H2 generation. Herein, the piezoelectric property of MIL-100(Fe) was firstly reported and the material exhibited a high yield of H2 (2.80 mmol g-1 h-1) under mechanical vibration without cocatalysts.

13.
Mol Biol Evol ; 39(9)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36056821

RESUMO

Unisexual animals are commonly found in some polyploid species complexes, and most of these species have had a long evolutionary history. However, their method for avoiding genomic decay remains unclear. The polyploid Carassius complex naturally comprises the sexual amphidiploid C. auratus (crucian carp or goldfish) (AABB) and the gynogenetic amphitriploid C. gibelio (gibel carp) (AAABBB). Recently, we developed a fertile synthetic amphitetraploid (AAAABBBB) male from C. gibelio by incorporating a C. auratus genome. In this study, we generated novel amphitriploids (AAABBB) by backcrossing the amphitetraploid male with the amphidiploid C. auratus. Whole-genome resequencing revealed the genomic changes, including recombination and independent assortment between homologs of C. gibelio and C. auratus. The fertility, sex determination system, oocyte development, and fertilization behaviors of the novel amphitriploids were investigated. Approximately 80% of the novel amphitriploid females recovered the unisexual gynogenesis ability. Intriguingly, two types of primary oocyte (with and without homolog synapsis) were discovered, and their distinct development fates were observed. Type I oocytes entered apoptosis due to improper synaptonemal complex assembly and incomplete double-strand break repair, whereas subsequent type II oocytes bypassed meiosis through an alternative ameiotic pathway to develop into mature eggs. Moreover, gynogenesis was stabilized in their offspring, and a new array of diverse gynogenetic amphitriploid clones was produced. These revealed genomic changes and detailed cytological data provide comprehensive evidence that changes in ploidy drive unisexual and sexual reproduction transition, thereby resulting in genomic diversity and allowing C. gibelio avoid genomic decay.

14.
Chemosphere ; 308(Pt 2): 136268, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36058370

RESUMO

Nitrogen and sulfur element co-decorated carbon nanodots (N,S-CDs) were synthesized by solid state hydrothermal method utilizing mercaptoacetic acid and melamine as the precursors. The obtained N,S-CDs had wonderful optical and chemical stability. The experimental results demonstrated that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could noticeably quench the fluorescence of N,S-CDs. The quenching of fluorescence signal from the presence of AgNPs may be attributed to inner filter effect. The crafted nanoprobe for sensing AgNPs was endowed with some specialties such as simplicity, excellent selectivity and sensitivity, environmental friendliness and low cost. The probe exhibited specific linearity from 0.024 to 1.77 nM, and was endowed a good limit of detection down to 0.022 nM. The experimental results demonstrated that the built probe could be an efficient tool for AgNPs detection and had a prospective application, and also provided a new direction for establishing innovative method for determining and monitoring pollutants from nanoparticles.

15.
Bioresour Technol ; 363: 127895, 2022 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36067895

RESUMO

Alkaline pretreatment is one promising strategy for promoting anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). This study selected three types of alkalis with monovalent (NaOH and KOH), divalent (Ca(OH)2 and Mg(OH)2), and trivalent (Fe(OH)3 and Al(OH)3) cations to reveal the roles of metal ions on short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production. The enhanced production potentials of SCFAs were reduced by order of alkalis with monovalent, divalent, and trivalent cations. Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ did no contributions on SCFAs production, while Fe3+ and Al3+ performed better than control, especially the latter. The mechanism analysis proved that Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ did no significant effects on solubilization, hydrolysis, acidification and methanogenesis stages, while the first three stages were improved by Fe3+ and Al3+ and the methanogenesis stage was inhibited. The findings may provide some new insights when using alkalis or residual metal ions to improve anaerobic digestion of WAS.

16.
Environ Res ; 215(Pt 2): 114305, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096164

RESUMO

Previous epidemiological studies have reported that prenatal exposure to metals might have influence on fetal growth. Most studies assessed the effect of individual metals, while the investigation on the relationship between multiple metal exposure and fetal growth is sparse. The objective of the present study is to assess the joint impact of metal mixtures on fetal growth during pregnancy. A total of 1275 maternal-infant pairs from the Jiangsu Birth Cohort (JBC) Study were included to investigate the effect of maternal metal exposure on fetal biometry measures at 22-24, 30-32, and 34-36 weeks of gestation. Lead (Pb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), vanadium(V), thallium (Tl) and barium (Ba) were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in maternal urine samples collected in the first trimester. We used general linear models and restricted cubic splines to test dose-response relationships between single metals and fetal growth. The weighted quantile sum (WQS) models were then applied to evaluate the overall effect of all these metals. We observed inverse associations of exposure to Pb, V and Cr with estimated fetal weight (EFW) at 34-36 weeks of gestation. Notably, maternal exposure to metal mixtures was significantly associated with reduced EFW at 34-36 weeks of gestation after adjusting for some covariates and confounders (aß -0.05 [95% CI: 0.09, -0.01], P = 0.023), and this association was mainly driven by Cr (30.41%), Pb (23.92%), and Tl (15.60%). These findings indicated that prenatal exposure to metal mixtures might impose adverse effects on fetal growth.

17.
Environ Pollut ; 313: 120161, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100119

RESUMO

The combined effects of emerging pollutants and ocean acidification (OA) on marine organisms and marine ecosystems have attracted increasing attention. However, the combined effects of tralopyril and OA on marine organisms and marine ecosystems remain unclear. In this study, Crassostrea gigas (C. gigas) were exposed to tralopyril (1 µg/L) and/or OA (PH = 7.7) for 21 days and a 14-day recovery acclimation. To investigate the stress response and potential molecular mechanisms of C. gigas to OA and tralopyril exposure alone or in combination, as well as the effects of OA and/or tralopyril on bivalve biomineralization and marine carbon cycling. The results showed that the combined toxicity was between that of acidification and tralopyril alone. Single or combined exposure activated the general stress defense responses of C. gigas mantle, affected energy metabolism and biomineralization of the organism and the carbon cycle of the marine ecosystem. Moreover, acidification-induced and tralopyril-induced toxicity showed potential recoverability at molecular and biochemical levels. This study provides a new perspective on the molecular mechanisms of tralopyril toxicity to bivalve shellfish and reveals the potential role of tralopyril and OA on marine carbon cycling.

18.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 971927, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092447

RESUMO

Breeders agree that leaf senescence is a favorable process for wheat seed yield improvement due to the remobilization of leaf nutrients. However, several studies have suggested that staying green may be an important strategy for further increasing wheat yields. In this study, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis between wheat cultivars CN17 and CN19 after heading and also measured photosynthetic parameters, chlorophyll (Chl) contents, and antioxidant enzyme activities at various time points after heading. The physiological and biochemical indexes revealed that CN17 exhibited a functionally stay-green phenotype while CN19 did not. We identified a total of 24,585 and 34,410 differential expression genes between genotypes at two time-points and between time-points in two genotypes, respectively, and we also found that 3 (37.5%) genes for leaf senescence, 46 (100%) for photosynthesis - antenna protein, 33 (70.21%) for Chl metabolism and 34 (68%) for antioxidative enzyme activity were upregulated in CN17 compared with CN19 during leaf senescence, which could be regulated by the differential expression of SAG39 (senescence-associated gene 39), while 22 (100%) genes for photosynthesis - antenna proteins, 6 (46.15%) for Chl metabolism and 12 (80%) for antioxidative enzyme activity were upregulated in CN17 compared with CN19 before the onset of leaf senescence. Here, we further clarified the expression profiles of genes associated with a functional stay-green phenotype. This information provides new insight into the mechanism underlying delayed leaf senescence and a new strategy for breeders to improve wheat yields.

19.
Front Chem ; 10: 999856, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092667

RESUMO

According to Hund's multiplicity rule, the energy of the lowest excited triplet state (T1) is always lower than that of the lowest excited singlet state (S1) in organic molecules, resulting in a positive singlet-triplet energy gap (ΔE ST). Therefore, the up-converted reverse intersystem crossing (RISC) from T1 to S1 is an endothermic process, which may lead to the quenching of long-lived triplet excitons in electroluminescence, and subsequently the reduction of device efficiency. Interestingly, organic molecules with inverted singlet-triplet (INVEST) gaps in violation of Hund's multiplicity rule have recently come into the limelight. The unique feature has attracted extensive attention in the fields of organic optoelectronics and photocatalysis over the past few years. For an INVEST molecule possessing a higher T1 with respect to S1, namely a negative ΔE ST, the down-converted RISC from T1 to S1 does not require thermal activation, which is possibly conducive to solving the problems of fast efficiency roll-off and short lifetime of organic light-emitting devices. By virtue of this property, INVEST molecules are recently regarded as a new generation of organic light-emitting materials. In this review, we briefly summarized the significant progress of INVEST molecules in both theoretical calculations and experimental studies, and put forward suggestions and expectations for future research.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096467

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between oxidative stress (OS) and Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). METHODS: Terms associated with "KBD" and "OS" were searched in the 6 different databases up to October 2021. Stata 14.0 was used to pool the means and standard deviations using random-effect or fixed-effect model. The differentially expressed genes in the articular chondrocytes of KBD were identified, the OS related genes were identified by blasting with the GeneCards. The KEGG pathway and gene ontology enrichment analysis was conducted using STRING. RESULTS: The pooled SMD and 95% CI showed hair selenium (-4.59; - 6.99, -2.19), blood selenium (-1.65; -2.86, -0.44) and glutathione peroxidases (-4.15; -6.97, -1.33) levels were decreased in KBD, whereas the malondialdehyde (1.12; 0.60, 1.64), nitric oxide (2.29; 1.31, 3.27), nitric oxide synthase (1.07; 0.81, 1.33) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (1.69; 0.62, 2.77) were increased compared with external controls. Meanwhile, hair selenium (-2.71; -5.32, -0.10) and glutathione peroxidases (-1.00; -1.78, -0.22) in KBD were decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde (1.42; 1.04, 1.80), nitric oxide (3.08; 1.93, 4.22) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (0.81; 0.00, 1.61) were elevated compared with internal controls. Enrichment analysis revealed apoptosis was significantly correlated with KBD. The significant biological processes revealed OS induced the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. The cellular component of OS located in the mitochondrial outer membrane. CONCLUSIONS: The OS levels in KBD were significantly increased because of selenium deficiency, OS mainly occurred in mitochondrial outer membrane, released of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and induced apoptotic signaling pathway.

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