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1.
Acta Pharmacol Sin ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999412

RESUMO

Metrnl, a secreted protein expressed in white adipose tissue, has been identified as a novel adipokine. It is also highly expressed in barrier tissues, including the skin, intestinal and respiratory tract epithelium in both mice and humans. Research shows that its expression is upregulated by inflammation, chronic high-fat diets, exercise, cold exposure, etc., and it plays important roles in promoting neurite extension, enhancing white fat browning, improving insulin sensitivity, modulating lipid metabolism and regulating inflammatory response, the latter implying Metrnl is a new cytokine. These studies suggest that Metrnl could be a promising biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for the related diseases. For proving this, clinical studies need to be performed to bridge the gap between bench and bedside. In this paper, we summarize the progress in recent clinical research on Metrnl. Most of these clinical studies are designed to confirm the relationship between circulating Metrnl and metabolic or cardiovascular disease (type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease), or immune inflammation-related diseases, such as colitis, psoriasis and arthritis. Although blood Metrnl seems to fluctuate and are affected by many factors, such as drugs, physical exercise, and cold exposure, these clinical studies provide reliable clues that Metrnl is associated with coronary heart disease, inflammation-related diseases, etc. Nevertheless, the roles of Metrnl in some diseases such as nervous system diseases remain unclear, and its putative involvement should be further clarified. These studies could promote the application of Metrnl in clinic as a new therapeutic target.

2.
Plant Cell ; 2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004616

RESUMO

Heterosis or hybrid vigor is widespread in plants and animals. Despite the molecular basis for heterosis has been extensively studied, metabolic and proteomic contributions to heterosis remain elusive. Here we report integrative analysis of time-series metabolome and proteome data in maize hybrids and their inbred parents. A large fraction of maize metabolites and proteins is diurnally regulated, many of which show nonadditive abundance in the hybrids, including key enzymes and metabolites involved in carbon assimilation. Compared with high levels of trait heterosis, metabolic heterosis is relatively mild. Interestingly, most amino acids display negative mid-parent heterosis (MPH), while metabolites in sugars, alcohols and nucleosides show positive MPH. From the network perspectives, metabolites in the photosynthetic pathway show positive MPH, whereas metabolites in the photorespiratory pathway show negative MPH, which correspond to nonadditive protein abundance and enzyme activities of key enzymes in the respective pathways in the hybrids. Moreover, rhythmic proteins that are upregulated in the hybrids are enriched in photosynthetic related Gene Ontology terms. Hybrids may more effectively remove toxic metabolites generated during photorespiration, and thus maintain higher photosynthetic efficiency. These metabolic and proteomic results provide novel insights into heterosis and its utilization for high yielding maize and other crop plants.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006532

RESUMO

Elsinoë ampelina is an ascomycetous fungus that causes grape anthracnose, a potentially devastating disease worldwide. In this study, a dual RNA-seq analysis was used to simultaneously monitor the fungal genes related to pathogenesis and grape genes related to defence during the interaction at 2, 3, 4, and 5 days post inoculation (dpi). Consistent with their potential roles in pathogenicity, genes for carbohydrate-active enzymes, secondary metabolites synthesis, pathogen-host interaction and those encoding secreted proteins are upregulated during infection. Based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, we further showed that eight and nine candidate effectors suppressed BAX- and INF1-mediated programmed cell death, respectively. The host response was characterized by the induction multiple defense systems against E. ampelina, including synthesis of phenylpropanoids, stilbenes, and terpenoids biosynthesis, cell wall modifications, regulation by phytohormones, and expression of defense related genes. Together, these findings offer new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the grape-E. ampelina interaction.

4.
Food Funct ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026021

RESUMO

The effect of short-term intake of high- and low-concentrations of sucrose solution on the neurochemistry of male and female mice was studied. The body weight, feed intake, sucrose solution consumption and brain monoamine neurotransmitters were determined after 34 days' intake of 1% and 8% sucrose solutions. The gene expression and protein levels related to dopamine and opioids were also determined. The results showed that the intake of 1% and 8% sucrose solution for 34 days did not cause significant changes in the weight development of both male and female mice. The preference for sucrose varies with sex. Both males and females had greater preference for the high concentration sucrose solution than the low concentration sucrose solution. The continuous intake of sucrose stimulated the release of monoamine neurotransmitters (DA, 5-HT, NE) in the brains of mice, and the reward effect of 8% sucrose solution is significantly higher than that of 1% sucrose solution. The sex of mice did not affect the release of neurotransmitters. The gene expressions of D1 and D2 were up-regulated in the 1% sucrose group of male mice, while the OPRM1 gene expression was down-regulated. The expression of these three genes in the 8% sucrose group of male mice was all down-regulated, while the gene expressions of D1 and D2 in the 1% and 8% sucrose group (p < 0.05) of female mice were both up-regulated.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 2176, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33013914

RESUMO

Chemokine receptor cxcr4 and its ligand cxcl12 have evolved two paralogs in the teleost lineage. In this study, we have identified four duplicated cxcr4 and cxcl12 genes from hexaploid gibel carp, Carassius gibelio, respectively. Cgcxcr4bs and Cgcxcl12as were dynamically and differentially expressed in immune-related tissues, and significantly up-regulated in head kidney and spleen after crucian carp herpesvirus (CaHV) infection. Blocking Cxcr4/Cxcl12 axis by injecting AMD3100 brought more severe bleeding symptom and lower survival rate in CaHV-infected fish. AMD3100 treatment also suppressed the up-regulation of key antiviral genes in head kidney and spleen, and resulted in more acute replication of CaHV in vivo. Consistently, the similar suppression of up-regulated expression of key antiviral genes were also observed in CAB cells treated by AMD3100 after poly(I:C) stimulation. Finally, MAPK3 and JAK/STAT were identified as the possible pathways that CgCxcr4s and CgCxcl12s participate in to promote the antiviral response in vitro.

6.
J Res Adolesc ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017487

RESUMO

This research investigated whether biases in processing threatening emotional cues operate as an indirect pathway through which parental harsh discipline is associated with adolescent socio-emotional functioning. Participants were 192 adolescents (M age = 12.4), and their parents assessed over two years. Findings revealed two significant indirect pathways involving fear processing. Greater parental harsh discipline was linked to more emotional response inhibition difficulty for fear, which was linked to more depressive symptoms in the following year. Greater parental harsh discipline was also associated with more emotional response inhibition difficulty for fear, and thereby, more peer problems later. Findings suggest that adolescent emotional processing operated as an indirect pathway linking parental harsh discipline and adolescent socio-emotional functioning within the broader social context.

7.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016251

RESUMO

Tributyltin (TBT), an organotin compound, is hazardous in aquatic ecosystems. However, the mechanisms underlying TBT-induced central nervous system (CNS) toxicity remain to be determined especially in freshwater aquatic vertebrates. The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to TBT on brain functions in a freshwater teleost the adult wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio). Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of TBT (10, 100 or 300 ng/L) for 6 weeks. The influence of long-term TBT exposure was assessed in the brain of zebrafish with antioxidant related indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and total antioxidant capacity, neurological parameters such as activities of acetylcholinesterase, and monoamine oxidase as well as levels of nitric oxide, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine. In addition indices related to sensitivity of toxic insult such as cytochrome P450 1 regulation and heat shock protein 70 were determined. The regulation of related genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), apoptosis and Nrf2 pathway were measured. Adverse physiological and biochemical responses were significantly enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner reflecting neurotoxicity attributed to TBT exposure. Our findings provide further insight into TBT-induced toxicity in wild-type zebrafish. and enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying TBT-initiated CNS effects.

8.
Plant Genome ; 13(1): e20001, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016624

RESUMO

African wild rice Oryza longistaminata, one of the eight AA- genome species in the genus Oryza, possesses highly valued traits, such as the rhizomatousness for perennial rice breeding, strong tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and high biomass production on poor soils. To obtain the high-quality reference genome for O. longistaminata we employed a hybrid assembly approach through incorporating Illumina and PacBio sequencing datasets. The final genome assembly comprised only 107 scaffolds and was approximately ∼363.5 Mb, representing ∼92.7% of the estimated African wild rice genome (∼392 Mb). The N50 lengths of the assembled contigs and scaffolds were ∼46.49 Kb and ∼6.83 Mb, indicating ∼3.72-fold and ∼18.8-fold improvement in length compared to the earlier released assembly (∼12.5 Kb and 364 Kb, respectively). Aided with Hi-C data and syntenic relationship with O. sativa, these assembled scaffolds were anchored into 12 pseudo-chromosomes. Genome annotation and comparative genomic analysis reveal that lineage-specific expansion of gene families that respond to biotic- and abiotic stresses are of great potential for mining novel alleles to overcome major diseases and abiotic adaptation in rice breeding programs. This reference genome of African wild rice will greatly enlarge the existing database of rice genome resources and unquestionably form a solid base to understand genomic basis underlying highly valued phenotypic traits and search for novel gene sources in O. longistaminata for the future rice breeding programs.


Assuntos
Oryza , Genoma , Genômica , Oryza/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
9.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 302, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028372

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to identify the incidence rate of Acute kidney injury (AKI) in our center and predict in-hospital mortality and long-term survival after heart transplantation (HTx). METHODS: This single-center, retrospective study from October 2009 and March 2020 analyzed the pre-, intra-, and postoperative characteristics of 95 patients who underwent HTx. AKI was defined according to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria. Risk factors were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models. The log-rank test was used to compare long-term survival. RESULTS: Thirty-three (34.7%) patients developed AKI. The mortality in hospital in HTx patients with and without AKI were 21.21 and 6.45%, respectively (P < 0.05). Recipients in AKI who required renal replacement therapy (RRT) had a hospital mortality rate of 43.75% compared to 6.45% in those without AKI or RRT (P < 0.0001). A long cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time (OR:11.393, 95% CI: 2.183 to 59.465, P = 0.0039) was positively related to the occurrence of AKI. A high intraoperative urine volume (OR: 0.031, 95% CI: 0.005 to 0.212, P = 0.0004) was negatively correlated with AKI. AKI requiring RRT (OR, 11.348; 95% CI, 2.418-53.267, P = 0.002) was a risk factor for mortality in hospital. Overall survival in patients without AKI at 1 and 3 years was not different from that in patients with AKI (P = 0.096). CONCLUSIONS: AKI is common after HTx. AKI requiring RRT could contribute powerful prognostic information to predict mortality in hospital. A long CPB time and low intraoperative urine volume are associated with the occurrence of AKI.

10.
Nature ; 586(7828): 228-231, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028998

RESUMO

Annular structures (rings and gaps) in disks around pre-main-sequence stars have been detected in abundance towards class II protostellar objects that are approximately 1,000,000 years old1. These structures are often interpreted as evidence of planet formation1-3, with planetary-mass bodies carving rings and gaps in the disk4. This implies that planet formation may already be underway in even younger disks in the class I phase, when the protostar is still embedded in a larger-scale dense envelope of gas and dust5. Only within the past decade have detailed properties of disks in the earliest star-forming phases been observed6,7. Here we report 1.3-millimetre dust emission observations with a resolution of five astronomical units that show four annular substructures in the disk of the young (less than 500,000 years old)8 protostar IRS 63. IRS 63 is a single class I source located in the nearby Ophiuchus molecular cloud at a distance of 144 parsecs9, and is one of the brightest class I protostars at millimetre wavelengths. IRS 63 also has a relatively large disk compared to other young disks (greater than 50 astronomical units)10. Multiple annular substructures observed towards disks at young ages can act as an early foothold for dust-grain growth, which is a prerequisite of planet formation. Whether or not planets already exist in the disk of IRS 63, it is clear that the planet-formation process begins in the initial protostellar phases, earlier than predicted by current planet-formation theories11.

11.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050303

RESUMO

The integrins function as the primary receptor molecules for the pathogenic infection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in vivo, while the acquisition of a high affinity for heparan sulfate (HS) of some FMDV variants could be privileged to facilitate viral infection and expanded cell tropism in vitro. Here, we noted that a BHK-adapted Cathay topotype derivative (O/HN/CHA/93tc) but not its genetically engineered virus (rHN), was able to infect HS-positive CHO-K1 cells and mutant pgsD-677 cells. There were one or three residue changes in the capsid proteins of O/HN/CHA/93tc and rHN, as compared with that of their tissue-originated isolate (O/HN/CHA/93wt). The phenotypic properties of a set of site-directed mutants of rHN revealed that E83K of VP1 surrounding the fivefold symmetry axis was necessary for the integrin-independent infection of O/HN/CHA/93tc. L80 in VP2 was essential for the occurrence of E83K in VP1 during the adaptation of O/HN/CHA/93wt to BHK-21 cells. L80M in VP2 and D138G in VP1 of rHN was deleterious, which could be compensated by K83R of VP1 for restoring an efficient infection of integrin-negative CHO cell lines. These might have important implications for understanding the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms of the recognition and binding of FMDV with alternative cellular receptors.

13.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-9, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33054468

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the combined impact of IKZF1 deletions/high expression of CRLF2 on the prognosis of pediatric B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). IKZF1 deletions and CRLF2 expression were assessed in bone marrow samples from 117 children with newly diagnosed BCP-ALL. Sixteen (13.7%) patients were found to harbor IKZF1 deletions, which was associated with inferior outcomes. The event-free survival (EFS) for patients with high -CRLF2 expression was significantly worse than that for low -CRLF2 expression. Moreover, combined modeling of IKZF1+ /CRLF2 high identified 7.8% of cases as the highest risk subgroup (7-year EFS 33.3 ± 15.7%). In a multivariate analysis, IKZF1+ /CRLF2 high remained a strong independent prognostic factor for EFS (HR: 14.263, p = 0.019). IKZF1 deletions and high -CRLF2 expression were associated with inferior outcomes, and the coexistence of IKZF1+ /CRLF2 high had a significant impact on an integrated prognostic model for high-risk BCP-ALL.

14.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068453

RESUMO

The soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability often constrains soil carbon (C) pool, and elevated N deposition could further intensify soil P limitation, which may affect soil C cycling in these N-rich and P-poor ecosystems. Soil microbial residues may not only affect soil organic carbon (SOC) pool, but also impact SOC stability through soil aggregation. However, how soil nutrient availability and aggregate fractions affect microbial residues and the microbial residue contribution to SOC is still not well understood. We took advantage of a 10-year field-fertilization experiment to investigate the effects of nutrient additions, soil aggregate fractions, and their interactions on the concentrations of soil microbial residues and their contribution to SOC accumulation in a tropical coastal forest. We found that continuous P addition greatly decreased the concentrations of microbial residues and their contribution to SOC, whereas N addition had no significant effect. The P-stimulated decreases in microbial residues and their contribution to SOC were presumably due to enhanced recycling of microbial residues via increased activity of residue-decomposing enzymes. The interactive effects between soil aggregate fraction and nutrient addition were not significant, suggesting a weak role of physical protection by soil aggregates in mediating microbial responses to altered soil nutrient availability. Our data suggest that the mechanisms driving microbial residue responses to increased N and P availability might be different, and the P-induced decrease of the contribution of microbial residues might be unfavorable for the stability of SOC in N-rich and P-poor tropical forests. Such information is critical for understanding the role of tropical forests in the global carbon cycle.

15.
Environ Res ; : 110331, 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068576

RESUMO

The excess organic carbon is often added to meet denitrification requirements during municipal wastewater treatment, resulting in the carbon waste and increased risk of secondary pollution. In this study, microbial fuel cell (MFC) was coupled with an up-flow denitrification biofilter (BF), and the long-term performances of denitrification and power output were investigated under the different carbon source concentration. With sodium acetate (NaAc) of 600 mg/L and 300 mg/L, the favorable denitrification efficiencies were obtained (98.60%) and the stable current output was maintained (0.44 mA∼0.48 mA). By supplying NaAc of 150 mg/L, the high denitrification efficiency remained in a high range (89.31%) and the current output maintained at 0.12 mA, while, the denitrification efficiency dropped to 71.34% without coupling MFC. Electron balance analysis indicated that both nitrate removal and electron recovery efficiencies were higher in MFC-BF than that in BF, verifying the improved denitrification and carbon utilization performance. Coupling MFC significantly altered the bacterial community structure and composition, and while, the diversified abundance and distribution of bacterial genera were observed at the different locations. Compared with BF, the more exoelectrogenic genera (Desulfobacterium, Trichococcus) and genera holding both denitrifying and electrogenic functions (Dechloromonas, Geobacter) were found dominated in MFC-BF. Instead, the dominating genera in BF were Dechloromonas, Desulfomicrobium, Acidovorax and etc. By coupling MFC, the more complex and diversified network and the closer interaction relationships between the dominant potential functional genera were found. The study provides a feasible approach to effectively improve the denitrification efficiency and organic carbon recovery for deep denitrification process.

16.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1165-1168, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018194

RESUMO

Osteosarcoma is a prominent bone cancer that typically affects adolescents or people in late adulthood. Early recognition of this disease relies on imaging technologies such as x-ray radiography to detect tumor size and location. This paper aims to differentiate osteosarcoma from benign tumors by analyzing both imaging and RNA-seq data through a combination of image processing and machine learning. In experimental results, the proposed method achieved an Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic Curve (AUC) of 0.7272 in three-fold cross-validation, and an AUC of 0.9015 using leave-one-out cross-validation.

17.
ACS Comb Sci ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052651

RESUMO

Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) carry reliable clinical information for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer that is a malignant disease with a high mortality rate. However, the amount of CTCs in the blood is quite low. To obtain credible clinical information, an efficient method of extracting CTCs is necessary. Microfluidic technology has proven its effectiveness on CTCs separation in recent years. Here, we present a comprehensive review of CTC sorting methods based on microfluidics. Specifically, we introduce four different microfluidic sorting methods of CTCs and compare their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we summarize the analysis of CTCs based on microfluidics and present a prospective view of future research.

18.
J Hazard Mater ; 404(Pt A): 124134, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022527

RESUMO

In this study, legacy and novel per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were measured in groundwater samples collected from the Loess Plateau of China to understand their occurrence, sources and health risks. The total concentration of PFASs ranged from 2.78 to 115 ng/L, with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the dominant compound. Many emerging PFASs, including 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonates (FTS), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonic acid (Cl-PFESAs), ammonium 4,8-dioxa-3H-perfluorononanoate (ADONA), and hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO) homologues were frequently detected in 96.7-100% of the samples. Multiple source apportionment analyses indicated that the PFASs in the groundwater mainly originated from industrial activities, but in rural areas, agricultural activities also contributed. The total oxidizable precursor (TOP) assay indicated that there were substantial unknown precursors of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the groundwater samples. The total concentration of PFASs decreased with the well depth, while the PFAA-precursors displayed contrasting vertical profile trends, which might be due to the suppressed microbial transformation in the groundwater. The potential human health risk caused by PFAS exposure via drinking groundwater in the Loess Plateau was low, except for one site that was close to the industry bases.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Osteochondral defect presents a big challenge for clinical treatment. This study aimed to construct a bi-layered composite Chitosan/Chitosan-ß-Tricalcium phosphate (CS/CS-ß-TCP) scaffold and repair the rat osteochondral defect. APPROACH: The bi-layered CS/CS-ß-TCP scaffold was fabricated by lyophilization and its microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscope. Chondrocytes and BMSCs were seeded into the CS layer and the CS-ß-TCP layer respectively. Viability and proliferation ability of the cells were observed under confocal microscopy. After subcutaneous implantation, the chondrogenic ability of CS layer and osteogenic ability of CS-ß-TCP layer were evaluated by immunofluorescence. Then, the bi-layered scaffolds were implanted into the rat osteochondral defects and the harvested samples were macroscopically and histologically evaluated. RESULTS: The bi-layered CS/CS-ß-TCP scaffold exhibited the distinctive microstructures for each layer. The seeded chondrocytes in the CS layer could maintain the chondrogenic lineage, while BMSCs in the CS-ß-TCP layer could continually differentiate into the osteogenic lineage. Moreover, cells in both layers could maintain well viability and excellent proliferation ability. For in vivo study, the newly-formed tissues in the bi-layered scaffolds group were similar with the native osteochondral tissues which comprised of hyaline-like cartilage and subchondral bone, with better repair effects compared with those of the pure CS group and the blank control group. INNOVATION: This is the first time that the bi-layered composite CS/CS-ß-TCP scaffold has been fabricated and evaluated with respect to osteochondral defect repair.

20.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067266

RESUMO

Frontier evidence suggests that dysregulation of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is ubiquitous in all human tumors, indicating that lncRNAs might have essential roles in tumorigenesis. Therefore, an in-depth study of the roles of lncRNA in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) carcinogenesis might be helpful to provide novel therapeutic targets. Here we report that lncRNA TINCR was significantly upregulated in NPC and was associated positively with poor survival. Silencing TINCR inhibited NPC progression and cisplatin resistance. Mechanistically, TINCR bound ACLY and protected it from ubiquitin degradation to maintain total cellular acetyl-CoA levels. Accumulation of cellular acetyl-CoA promoted de novo lipid biosynthesis and histone H3K27 acetylation, which ultimately regulated the peptidyl arginine deiminase 1 (PADI1)-MAPK-MMP-2/9 pathway. In addition, IGF2BP3 interacted with TINCR and slowed its decay, which partially accounted for TINCR upregulation in NPC. These findings demonstrate that TINCR acts as a crucial driver of NPC progression and chemoresistance and highlights the newly identified TINCR-ACLY-PADI1-MAPK-MMP2/9 axis as a potential therapeutic target in NPC.

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