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1.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490705

RESUMO

The proband with congenital heart disease and abnormal thumb was clinically diagnosed as Holt-Oram syndrome (HOS). A novel variant, T-box transcription factor 5 (TBX5) c.755 + 1 G > A, was identified in the proband via whole exome sequencing and validated using Sanger sequencing. Pedigree analysis and clinical examinations revealed three/seven individuals over three generations within the family, with features suggestive of HOS. Deep amplicon sequencing confirmed that the allele frequencies of the novel variant in the proband (III-1), her brother (III-2), and her mother (II-2) were 50%, 48.3%, and 38.1%, respectively, indicating that III-1 and III-2 harbored heterozygous variants, while II-2 harbored mosaic heterozygous variants. The minigene splicing assay showed that the novel variant affected the normal splicing of exon 7, resulting in the production of abnormal TBX5 transcripts. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses revealed that the novel variant upregulated TBX5 expression at the transcriptional and translational levels. Nuclear localization assay demonstrated impaired nuclear localization of the mutant TBX5. Cell viability assay revealed the inhibition of cell activity by the mutant TBX5. Our findings indicate that the novel variant was potentially induced HOS, probably by causing aberrant splicing, reducing the enrichment of nuclear TBX5 protein, and inhibiting cellular proliferation.

2.
Mikrochim Acta ; 188(10): 320, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480212

RESUMO

The gradual emissions of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) from the primitive recycling of E-waste create human health threats, which urgently require to develop an efficient, rapid yet simple detection method. The present study conducts a highly sensitive molecularly imprinted photoelectrochemical sensor (MIPES) containing molecularly imprinted (MI)-TiO2, Au, and reduced graphene oxide for the trace detection of TBBPA in indoor dust and surface water from an E-waste recycling area. The photocurrent response is used to evaluate the sensing performance of the MIPES toward TBBPA detection. The working potential for amperometry is 0.48 V. The wavelength range for photoelectrochemical detection is 320-780 nm. The sensor shows a detection range of 1.68 to 100 nM with a low limit of detection of 0.51 nM (LOD = 3 sb/S) and a limit of quantification of 1.68 nM (LOQ = 3.3 LOD). In addition, the MIPES sensor exhibits rapid, excellent reproducibility, selectivity, and long-term stability toward TBBPA detection. The relative standard deviation of three measurements for real samples is less than 7.0%, and the recovery range is 90.0-115%. The surface of molecular imprinting contributes to the high charge separation and sensing photocurrent response of TBBPA, which is confirmed by single-particle photoluminescence spectroscopy. The present study provides a new facile sensor with highly sensitive yet rapid response to detect environmental pollutants in E-waste by using the MIPES.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 17(9): e1009760, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491994

RESUMO

Unisexual taxa are commonly considered short-lived as the absence of meiotic recombination is supposed to accumulate deleterious mutations and hinder the creation of genetic diversity. However, the gynogenetic gibel carp (Carassius gibelio) with high genetic diversity and wide ecological distribution has outlived its predicted extinction time of a strict unisexual reproduction population. Unlike other unisexual vertebrates, males associated with supernumerary microchromosomes have been observed in gibel carp, which provides a unique system to explore the rationales underlying male occurrence in unisexual lineage and evolution of unisexual reproduction. Here, we identified a massively expanded satellite DNA cluster on microchromosomes of hexaploid gibel carp via comparing with the ancestral tetraploid crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Based on the satellite cluster, we developed a method for single chromosomal fluorescence microdissection and isolated three male-specific microchromosomes in a male metaphase cell. Genomic anatomy revealed that these male-specific microchromosomes contained homologous sequences of autosomes and abundant repetitive elements. Significantly, several potential male-specific genes with transcriptional activity were identified, among which four and five genes displayed male-specific and male-biased expression in gonads, respectively, during the developmental period of sex determination. Therefore, the male-specific microchromosomes resembling common features of sex chromosomes may be the main driving force for male occurrence in gynogenetic gibel carp, which sheds new light on the evolution of unisexual reproduction.

4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18281, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521978

RESUMO

In this paper, the influence of E-glass fiber volume fraction and laying angle on the damping and strength of composite laminates was comprehensively analyzed. By increasing the fiber laying angle and reducing the glass fiber volume fraction, the damping capacity of the composite laminate was increased, but the tensile strength of the laminate was reduced; By reducing the fiber laying angle and increasing the glass fiber volume fraction, the tensile strength of the composite laminate was increased, but the damping characteristics of the laminate was reduced. In addition, in the damping experiment of composite laminates, in order to avoid the influence of external damping sources, the vacuum non-contact damping test method was adopted in this paper, and the influence of air damping on the damping experiment results of composite laminates was comparatively analyzed. The results of comparative experiments showed that air damping had a very obvious influence on the damping of composite laminates, especially when the damping of composite laminates was small, the influence of air damping would be greater.

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 702971, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531856

RESUMO

Polyploidy and subsequent diploidization provide genomic opportunities for evolutionary innovations and adaptation. The researches on duplicated gene evolutionary fates in recurrent polyploids have seriously lagged behind that in paleopolyploids with diploidized genomes. Moreover, the antiviral mechanisms of Viperin remain largely unclear in fish. Here, we elaborate the distinct antiviral mechanisms of two viperin homeologs (Cgviperin-A and Cgviperin-B) in auto-allo-hexaploid gibel carp (Carassius gibelio). First, Cgviperin-A and Cgviperin-B showed differential and biased expression patterns in gibel carp adult tissues. Subsequently, using co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) screening analysis, both CgViperin-A and CgViperin-B were found to interact with crucian carp (C. auratus) herpesvirus (CaHV) open reading frame 46 right (ORF46R) protein, a negative herpesvirus regulator of host interferon (IFN) production, and to promote the proteasomal degradation of ORF46R via decreasing K63-linked ubiquitination. Additionally, CgViperin-B also mediated ORF46R degradation through autophagosome pathway, which was absent in CgViperin-A. Moreover, we found that the N-terminal α-helix domain was necessary for the localization of CgViperin-A and CgViperin-B at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the C-terminal domain of CgViperin-A and CgViperin-B was indispensable for the interaction with degradation of ORF46R. Therefore, the current findings clarify the divergent antiviral mechanisms of the duplicated viperin homeologs in a recurrent polyploid fish, which will shed light on the evolution of teleost duplicated genes.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533970

RESUMO

Grape anthracnose caused by Elsinoë ampelina (Shear) is one of the most serious fungal diseases that lead to the quality reduction and yield losses of grape (Vitis vinifera cv. Red Globe) berries. In the present study, metabolome and transcriptome analyses were conducted using grape berries in the field after infection with E. ampelina at 7, 10, and 13 days to identify the metabolic properties of berries. A total of 132 metabolites with significant differences and 6877 differentially expressed genes were detected and shared by three comparisons. The analyses demonstrated that phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, stilbenoid and nucleotide metabolisms were enriched in E. ampelina-infected grape berries but not amino acid metabolism. Phenolamide, terpene and polyphenole contents also accumulated during E. ampelina infection. The results provided evidence of the enhancement of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence, such as resveratrol, α-viniferin, ε-viniferin, and lignins. The results showed the plant defence-associated metabolic reprogramming caused by E. ampelina infection in grape berry and provided a global metabolic mechanism under E. ampelina stimulation.

7.
Immunobiology ; 226(5): 152133, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pyroptosis is a relatively newly discovered form of programmed cell death that plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Many studies have reported that lncRNAs participated in the regulation of atherosclerosis development. However, the regulatory mechanism of lncRNAs in pyroptosis must be studied further. METHODS: In a previous study, microarray analysis was used to detect the lncRNA expression profile in three human advanced atherosclerotic plaques and three normal arterial intimae. In the present research, in vitro assays were performed to investigate the role of lncRNA RP11-490M8.1 on pyroptosis. The relative gene mRNA and lncRNA expression levels were tested by quantitative real-time PCR, and protein levels were evaluated by western blot analysis. The RNA hybrid structure was analyzed using the DINAMelt server. RESULTS: The lncRNA RP11-490M8.1 was significantly downregulated in atherosclerotic plaques and serum. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) markedly reduced the expression of lncRNA RP11-490M8.1 and induced pyroptosis by increasingthe mRNA and protein levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC, IL-1ß, and IL-18 in HUVECs. The promotion effects ofLPS on pyroptosis were markedly suppressed by overexpression of lncRNA RP11-490M8.1. In addition, LPS increased the mRNA and protein levels ofTLR4 and NF-κB, which was also markedly offsetby overexpression of lncRNA RP11-490M8.1. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicated that lncRNA RP11-490M8.1 inhibited LPS-induced pyroptosis via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Thus, lncRNA RP11-490M8.1 may provide a therapeutic target to ameliorate atherosclerosis.

8.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469051

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease for which currently no cure is available. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been widely used in China as an alternative therapeutic approach for neurological diseases. The cognitive decline in patients with AD has been reported to be closely related to the deposition of amyloid-ß (Aß) in the hippocampus of the brain, and the Morris water maze (MWM) test is a widely used method for assessing the behavior of animal models. In this study, the MWM test was performed to evaluate the effects of EA treatment on cognitive function and memory, and the micro-positron emission tomography scan was used to assess the hippocampal Aß deposition. The results showed that the cognitive function of APP/PS1 mice was significantly improved and the rate of [18F]AV-45 uptake was reduced in the EA group, compared with the AD group. Our study suggested that EA can exert a therapeutic effect in AD by improving spatial learning and memory and inhibiting the hippocampal Aß deposition.

9.
Hematol Oncol ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472655

RESUMO

This retrospective cohort study aimed to evaluate primary treatment and recent survival trends in patients with primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of central nervous system (CNS) from 1995 to 2016. Using the SEER data, patients diagnosed with non-HIV-associated primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL)-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) aged ⩾18 years between 1995 and 2016 were identified. The year of diagnosis was divided into the time period-1 (1995-2002), the time period-2 (2003-2012), and the time period-3 (2013-2016). Chi-square tests, the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox regression model were used in the analysis. Overall, 3760 patients were included. Both the use of radiotherapy alone and the application of combined chemoradiotherapy decreased significantly, following the wider use of chemotherapy alone during 1995-2016. There was a significant improvement in PCNSL cause-specific survival (CSS) (period-1: 13 months vs. period-2: 19 months vs. period-3: 41 months, p < 0.001). Survival of patients aged above 70 years did not change from the time period-1 to the time period-2 (p = 0.101). However, there was an increase in CSS from the time period-2 to the time period-3 in the elderly patients (period-2: 5 months vs. period-3: 9 months, p < 0.001). On multivariable analyses, diagnosed in the time period-3 was significantly and independently associated with better CSS (hazard ratio 0.577, 95% confidence interval 0.506-0.659, p < 0.001). Our analysis shows the use of radiotherapy in the treatment of PCNSL has waned over the study span. There was a significant improvement in CSS during 1995-2016, which reflected developments in treatment over time. The elderly patient population also gained a significant CSS benefit in the most recent period.

10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 709986, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512630

RESUMO

Background: Nowadays, researchers are leveraging the mRNA-based vaccine technology used to develop personalized immunotherapy for cancer. However, its application against glioma is still in its infancy. In this study, the applicable candidates were excavated for mRNA vaccine treatment in the perspective of immune regulation, and suitable glioma recipients with corresponding immune subtypes were further investigated. Methods: The RNA-seq data and clinical information of 702 and 325 patients were recruited from TCGA and CGGA, separately. The genetic alteration profile was visualized and compared by cBioPortal. Then, we explored prognostic outcomes and immune correlations of the selected antigens to validate their clinical relevance. The prognostic index was measured via GEPIA2, and infiltration of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) was calculated and visualized by TIMER. Based on immune-related gene expression, immune subtypes of glioma were identified using consensus clustering analysis. Moreover, the immune landscape was visualized by graph learning-based dimensionality reduction analysis. Results: Four glioma antigens, namely ANXA5, FKBP10, MSN, and PYGL, associated with superior prognoses and infiltration of APCs were selected. Three immune subtypes IS1-IS3 were identified, which fundamentally differed in molecular, cellular, and clinical signatures. Patients in subtypes IS2 and IS3 carried immunologically cold phenotypes, whereas those in IS1 carried immunologically hot phenotype. Particularly, patients in subtypes IS3 and IS2 demonstrated better outcomes than that in IS1. Expression profiles of immune checkpoints and immunogenic cell death (ICD) modulators showed a difference among IS1-IS3 tumors. Ultimately, the immune landscape of glioma elucidated considerable heterogeneity not only between individual patients but also within the same immune subtype. Conclusions: ANXA5, FKBP10, MSN, and PYGL are identified as potential antigens for anti-glioma mRNA vaccine production, specifically for patients in immune subtypes 2 and 3. In summary, this study may shed new light on the promising approaches of immunotherapy, such as devising mRNA vaccination tailored to applicable glioma recipients.

11.
Radiology ; : 203281, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34519578

RESUMO

Background The biologic meaning of prognostic radiomics phenotypes remains poorly understood, hampered in part by lack of multicenter reproducible evidence. Purpose To uncover the biologic meaning of individual prognostic radiomics phenotypes in glioblastomas using paired MRI and RNA sequencing data and to validate the reproducibility of the identified radiogenomics linkages externally. Materials and Methods This retrospective multicenter study included four data sets gathered between January 2015 and December 2016. From a radiomics analysis set, a 13-feature radiomics signature was built using preoperative MRI for overall survival prediction. Using a radiogenomics training set with both MRI and RNA sequencing, biologic pathways were enriched and correlated with each of the 13 radiomics phenotypes. Radiomics-correlated key genes were identified to derive a prognostic radiomics gene expression (RadGene) score. The reproducibility of identified pathways and genes was validated with an external test set and a public data set (The Cancer Genome Atlas [TCGA]). A log-rank test was performed to assess prognostic significance. Results A total of 435 patients (mean age, 55 years ± 15 [standard deviation]; 263 men) were enrolled. The radiomics signature was associated with overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 3.68; 95% CI: 2.08, 6.52; P < .001) in the radiomics validation subset. Four types of prognostic radiomics phenotypes were correlated with distinct pathways: immune, proliferative, treatment responsive, and cellular functions (false-discovery rate < 0.10). Thirty radiomics-correlated genes were identified. The prognostic significance of the RadGene score was confirmed in an external test set (HR, 2.02; 95% CI: 1.19, 3.41; P = .01) and a TCGA test set (HR, 1.43; 95% CI: 1.001, 2.04; P = .048). The radiomics-associated pathways and key genes can be replicated in an external test set. Conclusion Individual radiomics phenotypes on MRI scans predictive of overall survival were driven by distinct key pathways involved in immune regulation, tumor proliferation, treatment responses, and cellular functions in glioblastoma, which could be reproduced externally. © RSNA, 2021 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

12.
J Environ Manage ; 299: 113607, 2021 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467864

RESUMO

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has wide application and important functions in curing many diseases, but a great number of herb residues are usually generated after its manufacture and usage. Without proper and timely treatment, these traditional Chinese medicinal herb (TCMH) residues will cause some environmental pollution. In addition to treatment, bioresources utilization of TCMH residues is also important for its great potential as a suitable feedstock for the production of energy, materials, and chemicals. In this situation, advanced and well-designed solid waste management is important to make the TCM industry environmentally friendly and economically attractive. In this review article, the recent progress focusing on various methods for TCMH residues treatment and bioresources utilization are introduced in detail. In particular, the technologies for thermochemical conversion and biochemical conversion of TCMH residues are mainly focused on in order to show how to fulfill effective and efficient bioresources utilization. Besides, some other technologies which are suitable for the treatment and bioresources utilization of TCMH residues are presented as well. Finally, some industrial prospects are given from the economic, operational, and environmental aspects for the further development of treatment and bioresources utilization of TCMH residues. Overall, this work can provide some systematical and comprehensive information for the development of technologies that help sustainably manage the herb residues generated in the TCM industry.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498195

RESUMO

Water quality and quantity should be paid more attention in regions with arid climate and thick vadose zones since the limited groundwater cannot be replenished rapidly once polluted. This study focused on the Loess Plateau of China to investigate the geochemical mechanism affecting groundwater chemistry and to calculate contribution rates of multiple sources to groundwater solutes. We employed multiple methods (diagrams, bivariate analyses, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), water quality index (WQI), correlation analysis, and forward model) for the above purposes. We collected 64 groundwater samples in the thick loess deposits in June 2018 (flood season) and April 2019 (dry season). The average concentrations of cation were in the order of Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ in the flood season, and Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ in the dry season. The order of anions contents in the flood season and the dry season were HCO3- > SO42- > Cl- > NO3-. The major hydrochemical facies were Ca-HCO3 and Ca·Mg-HCO3 in the flood season and Na·Ca-HCO3·SO4 and Na-HCO3 in the dry season, respectively. Most of the groundwater (95% in the flood season and 96% in the dry season) was suitable for drinking, and the overall water quality was acceptable for irrigation. Mineral dissolution and cation exchange were important natural processes affecting groundwater chemistry. The forward model showed that the contribution of atmospheric input, anthropogenic input, evaporite dissolution, silicate weathering, and carbonate weathering to solutes in groundwater was 2.3±1.5%, 5.0±7.1%, 19.3±21.4%, 42.8±27.3%, and 30.6±27.1% in the flood season, and 9.1±6.4%, 3.4±5.2%, 20.3±15.9, 56.6±23.2%, and 10.7±15.4% in the dry season, respectively. Obviously, silicate and carbonate weathering contribute the most to groundwater chemistry in the flood season, while silicate weathering and evaporite dissolution contribute the most in the dry season. Although the overall contribution of anthropogenic inputs was insignificant, it was the dominant source of solutes for local groundwater. This study provides fundamental information for water management in arid areas.

14.
Biomark Med ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498488

RESUMO

Aim: To develop and validate internally a multivariate risk model for predicting the in-hospital mortality of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF). Methods & results: The clinical data of 8172 inpatients with HFpEF and HFmrEF was used to establish a retrospective database. These patients, among whom 307 in-hospital deaths (3.8%) occurred, were randomly assigned to derivation and verification cohort. Among the extracted data from the derivation cohort were nine variables significantly related to in-hospital mortality, which were scored 0-4, for a total score of 24, which allowed formation of a risk predictive model. The verification cohort was then used to validate the discrimination and calibration capacities of this predictive model: the area under curve equaled 0.8575 (0.8285, 0.8865) for the derivation cohort, and 0.8323 (0.7999, 0.8646) for the verification cohort. According to this risk score, we divided patients into four risk classes (low-, medium-, high- and extremely high-risk) and revealed that the risk of in-hospital mortality increased with increasing risk class with an obvious linear relationship between actual and predicted mortality (r = 0.998, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The model based on nine common clinical variables should provide an accurate prediction of in-hospital mortality and appears to be a reliable risk classification system for patients with HFpEF and HFmrEF.

15.
Cancer Commun (Lond) ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a significant role in pathological processes including tumorigenesis. In contrast to exonic circRNAs, which are the most frequently reported circRNAs in cancer so far, the studies of intronic circRNAs have been greatly lagged behind. Here, we aimed to investigate the regulatory role of intronic circRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). METHODS: We conducted whole-transcriptome sequencing with four pairs of primary tumor tissues and adjacent normal tissues from HNSCC patients. Then, we characterized circGNG7 expression in HNSCC tissues and cell lines and explored its association with the prognosis of HNSCC patients. We also identified interactions between circGNG7 and functional proteins, which alter downstream signaling that regulate HNSCC progression. RESULTS: In this study, we identified a new intronic circRNA, circGNG7, and validated its functional roles in HNSCC progression. CircGNG7 was predominately localized to the cytoplasm, and its expression was downregulated in both HNSCC tissues andCAL27, CAL33, SCC4, SCC9, HN6, and HN30 cells. Low expression of circGNG7 was significantly correlated with poor prognosis in HNSCC patients. Consistent with this finding, overexpression of circGNG7 strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation, colony formation, in vitro migration, and in vivo tumor growth. Mechanistically, the expression of circGNG7 in HNSCC cells was regulated by the transcription factor SMAD family member 4 (SMAD4). Importantly, we discovered that circGNG7 could bind to serine residues 78 and 82 of the functional heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), occupying its phosphorylation sites and hindering its phosphorylation, which reduced HSP27-JNK/P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) oncogenic signaling. Downregulation of circGNG7 expression in HNSCC increased HSP27-JNK/P38 MAPK signaling and promoted tumor progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that a new intronic circRNA, circGNG7, functions as a strong tumor suppressor and that circGNG7/HSP27-JNK/P38 MAPK signaling is a novel mechanism by which HNSCC progression can be controlled.

17.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-35, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526168

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation exerts pleiotropic effects in the etiology and progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Glucosamine is widely used in many countries and may have anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD risk and explore whether such association could be modified by smoking in the UK Biobank cohort, which recruited more than half a million participants aged 40-69 years from across the UK between 2006 and 2010. Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for potential confounding factors were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) as well as 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the risk of incident COPD. During a median follow-up of 8.96 years (interquartile range 8.29 to 9.53 years), 9016 new-onset events of COPD were documented. We found that regular use of glucosamine was associated with a significantly lower risk of incident COPD with multivariable adjusted HR of 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85; P<0.001). When subgroup analyses were performed by smoking status, the adjusted HRs for the association of regular glucosamine use with incident COPD were 0.84 (0.73 to 0.96), 0.84 (0.77 to 0.92), and 0.71 (0.62 to 0.80) among never smokers, former smokers and current smokers, respectively. No significant interaction was observed between glucosamine use and smoking status (P for interaction=0.078). Incident COPD could be reduced by 14% to 84% through a combination of regular glucosamine use and smoking cessation.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 127(8): 080602, 2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477410

RESUMO

Entanglement renormalization is a method for "coarse graining" a quantum state in real space, with the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz as a notable example. We obtain an entanglement renormalization scheme for finite-temperature (Gibbs) states by applying the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz to their canonical purification, the thermofield double state. As an example, we find an analytically exact renormalization circuit for a finite-temperature two-dimensional toric code that maps it to a coarse-grained system with a renormalized higher temperature, thus explicitly demonstrating its lack of topological order. Furthermore, we apply this scheme to one-dimensional free boson models at a finite temperature and find that the thermofield double corresponding to the critical thermal state is described by a Lifshitz theory. We numerically demonstrate the relevance and irrelevance of various perturbations under real space renormalization.

19.
Anim Biosci ; 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474531

RESUMO

Objective: Cage rearing has critical implications for the laying duck industry because it is convenient for feeding and management. However, caging stress is a type of chronic stress that induces maladaptation. Environmental stress responses have been extensively studied, but no detailed information is available about the comprehensive changes in plasma metabolites at different stages of caging stress in ducks. We designed this experiment to analyze the effects of caging stress on performance parameters and oxidative stress indexes in ducks. Methods: Furthermore, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) was used to determine the changes in metabolites in duck plasma at 5 (CR5), 10 (CR10), and 15 (CR15) days after cage rearing and traditional breeding (TB). The associated pathways of differentially altered metabolites were analyzed using KEGG database. Results: The results of this study indicate that caging stress decreased performance parameters, and the plasma T-SOD levels were increased in the CR10 group compared with the other groups. In addition, 1431 metabolites were detected. Compared with the TB group, 134, 381 and 190 differentially produced metabolites were identified in the CR5, CR10 and CR15 groups, respectively. The results of principal component analysis (PCA) show that the selected components sufficiently distinguish the TB group and CR10 group. KEGG analysis results revealed that the differentially altered metabolites in duck plasma from the CR5 and TB groups were mainly associated with ovarian steroidogenesis, biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, and phenylalanine metabolism. Conclusions: In this study, the production performance, blood indexes, number of metabolites and PCA were compared to determine effect of the caging stress stage on ducks. We inferred from the aforementioned experimental results that caging-stressed ducks were in the sensitive phase in the first 5 days after caging, caging for approximately 10 days was an important transition phase, and then the duck continually adapted.

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