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1.
Mol Plant ; 2022 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032688

RESUMO

Southern corn rust (SCR), caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia polysora, is a major threat to maize production worldwide. Efficient breeding and deployment of resistant hybrids are key to the durable control of SCR. Here, we report molecular cloning and characterization of RppC, encoding an NLR-type immune receptor that is responsible for a major SCR resistance QTL. Furthermore, we identified the corresponding avirulence effector, AvrRppC, which is secreted by Puccinia polysora and triggers RppC-mediated resistance. Allelic variation of AvrRppC directly determines the effectiveness of RppC-mediated resistance, indicating that monitoring of AvrRppC variants in the field can guide the rational deployment of RppC-containing hybrids in maize production. Currently, RppC is the most frequently deployed SCR resistance gene in China, and a better understanding of its mode of action is critical for extending its durability.

2.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2022 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064752

RESUMO

Abnormally expressed long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recognized as potential diagnostic biomarkers or therapeutic targets in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The role of the novel lnc-CYB561-5 in NSCLC and its specific biological activity remain unknown. In this study, lncRNAs highly expressed in NSCLC tissue samples compared with paired adjacent normal tissue samples and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia were identified by RNA-seq analysis. Lnc-CYB561-5 is highly expressed in human NSCLC and is associated with a poor prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma. In vivo, downregulation of lnc-CYB561-5 significantly decreases tumour growth and metastasis. In vitro, lnc-CYB561-5 knockdown treatment inhibits cell migration, invasion and proliferation ability, as well as glycolysis rates. In addition, RNA pulldown and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays show that basigin (Bsg) protein interacts with lnc-CYB561-5. Overall, this study demonstrates that lnc-CYB561-5 is an oncogene in NSCLC, which is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and metastasis. Lnc-CYB561-5 interacts with Bsg to promote the expression of Hk2 and Pfk1 and further lead to metabolic reprogramming of NSCLC cells.

3.
Mol Cancer ; 21(1): 12, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More and more studies have shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a critical regulatory role in many cancers. However, the potential molecular mechanism of circRNAs in prostate cancer (PCa) remains largely unknown. METHODS: Differentially expressed circRNAs were identified by RNA sequencing. The expression of hsa_circ_0003258 was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR and RNA in situ hybridization. The impacts of hsa_circ_0003258 on the metastasis of PCa cells were investigated by a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. Lastly, the underlying mechanism of hsa_circ_0003258 was revealed by Western blot, biotin-labeled RNA pulldown, RNA immunoprecipitation, luciferase assays and rescue experiments. RESULTS: Increased expression of hsa_circ_0003258 was found in PCa tissues and was associated with advanced TNM stage and ISUP grade. Overexpression of hsa_circ_0003258 promoted PCa cell migration by inducing epithelial mesenchymal transformation (EMT) in vitro as well as tumor metastasis in vivo, while knockdown of hsa_circ_0003258 exerts the opposite effect. Mechanistically, hsa_circ_0003258 could elevate the expression of Rho GTPase activating protein 5 (ARHGAP5) via sponging miR-653-5p. In addition, hsa_circ_0003258 physically binds to insulin like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) in the cytoplasm and enhanced HDAC4 mRNA stability, in which it activates ERK signalling pathway, then triggers EMT programming and finally accelerates the metastasis of PCa. CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of hsa_circ_0003258 drives tumor progression through both hsa_circ_0003258/miR-653-5p/ARHGAP5 axis and hsa_circ_0003258/IGF2BP3 /HDAC4 axis. Hsa_circ_0003258 may act as a promising biomarker for metastasis of PCa and an attractive target for PCa intervention.

4.
Cell ; 185(1): 204-217.e14, 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965378

RESUMO

Conifers dominate the world's forest ecosystems and are the most widely planted tree species. Their giant and complex genomes present great challenges for assembling a complete reference genome for evolutionary and genomic studies. We present a 25.4-Gb chromosome-level assembly of Chinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis) and revealed that its genome size is mostly attributable to huge intergenic regions and long introns with high transposable element (TE) content. Large genes with long introns exhibited higher expressions levels. Despite a lack of recent whole-genome duplication, 91.2% of genes were duplicated through dispersed duplication, and expanded gene families are mainly related to stress responses, which may underpin conifers' adaptation, particularly in cold and/or arid conditions. The reproductive regulation network is distinct compared with angiosperms. Slow removal of TEs with high-level methylation may have contributed to genomic expansion. This study provides insights into conifer evolution and resources for advancing research on conifer adaptation and development.

5.
J Hazard Mater ; 421: 126811, 2022 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388933

RESUMO

There is an urgent requirement to treat cellulose present in papermaking black liquor since it induces severe economic wastes and causes environmental pollution. We characterized cellulase activity at different temperatures and pH to seek thermo-alkali-stable cellulase-producing bacteria, a natural consortium of Serratia sp. AXJ-M and Arthrobacter sp. AXJ-M1 was used to improve the degradation of cellulose. Notably, the enzyme activities and the degradation rate of cellulose were increased by 30%-70% and 30% after co-culture, respectively. In addition, the addition of cosubstrates increased the degradation rate of cellulose beyond 30%. The thermo-alkali-stable endoglucanase (bcsZ) gene was derived from the strain AXJ-M and was cloned and expressed. The purified bcsZ displayed the maximum activity at 70 °C and pH 9. Mn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Tween-20 had beneficial effects on the enzyme activity. Structurally, bcsZ potentially catalyzed the degradation of cellulose. The co-culture with ligninolytic activities significantly decreased target the parameters (cellulose 45% and COD 95%) while using the immobilized fluidized bed reactors (FBRs). Finally, toxicological tests and antioxidant enzyme activities indicated that the co-culture had a detoxifying effect on black liquor. Our study showed that Serratia sp. AXJ-M acts synergistically with Arthrobacter sp. AXJ-M1 may be potentially useful for bioremediation for black liquor.


Assuntos
Arthrobacter , Celulase , Álcalis , Arthrobacter/genética , Celulase/genética , Celulose , Serratia/genética
6.
Gene ; 808: 145971, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543688

RESUMO

Trehalose is an important disaccharide that plays an important role in extreme environmental conditions. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene is the key gene for trehalose synthesis in Marsupenaeus japonicus. In this study, a TPS gene was isolated and characterized from M. japonicus. The full-length cDNA of TPS gene of M. japonicus (MjTPS) was 3308 bp, encoding 844 amino acids. The protein of the deduced MjTPS contained a glycol_transf_20 domain and a trehalose_PPase domain. The mRNA expression level of MjTPS was the highest in hepatopancreas. The further analysis found that MjTPS gene expression was up-regulated in a short time under low-salinity and high-nitrite stress, indicating that MjTPS gene had certain resistance to low-salinity and high-nitrite stress. Compared with the control group, both the expression of MjTPS and the trehalose content significantly decreased from 3 h to 24 h after MjTPS gene interference,. After RNAi, the mortality of M. japonicus increased, the expression level of MjTPS and the synthesis of downstream products decreased under low-salinity and high-nitrite stress, and what's more, the expression of immune genes PMO25, ERP, CD, HSP90, HSP70, HSP60, HMC and CLEC2 were significantly changed, implying that MjTPS might be participated in the immune response of M. japonicus. In addition, MjTPS gene silencing could affect the expression of CHI1 and CHS, suggesting that MjTPS might be involved in molting behavior of M. japonicus. These results provide new information for further studying the function of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase in shrimp.


Assuntos
Glucosiltransferases/genética , Penaeidae/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , China , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Expressão Gênica , Glucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Filogenia , Frutos do Mar , Trealose/metabolismo
7.
Microvasc Res ; 139: 104266, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34688627

RESUMO

The no-reflow phenomenon induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury seriously limits the therapeutic value of coronary recanalization and leads to a poor prognosis. Previous studies have shown that luteolin (LUT) is a vasoprotective factor. However, whether LUT can be used to prevent the no-reflow phenomenon remains unknown. Positron emission tomography perfusion imaging, performed to detect the effects of LUT on the no-reflow phenomenon in vivo, revealed that LUT treatment was able to reduce the no-reflow area in rat I/R models. In vitro, LUT was shown to reduce the hypoxia-reoxygenation injury-induced endothelial permeability and apoptosis. The levels of malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species and NADPH were also measured and the results indicated that LUT could inhibit the oxidative stress. Western blot analysis revealed that LUT protected endothelial cells from I/R injury by regulating the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. Overall, we concluded that the use of LUT to minimize I/R induced microvascular damage is a feasible strategy to prevent the no-reflow phenomenon.

8.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e934043, 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND Being refractory to drugs remains an urgent treatment problem in status epilepticus (SE). The fact that γ-aminobutyric acid A receptors (GABAARs) become internalized and inactive, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) become externalized and active during SE may explain the refractoriness to benzodiazepine. However, the real-time dynamic efficacy of antiepileptic drugs remains unclear. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that diazepam monotherapy or diazepam-ketamine dual therapy could terminate seizures and reduce mortality in the SE model at different time points during ongoing SE. MATERIAL AND METHODS An SE model was established in adult Sprague-Dawley rats with lithium and pilocarpine. The GABAAR agonist diazepam was injected at 5, 10, 20, or 30 min when SE continued. In addition, diazepam and the NMDAR antagonist ketamine were injected at 10 to 60 min at 6 different time points. We measured seizure-free rates, seizure duration, degree of behavioral seizure, and mortality. RESULTS Diazepam monotherapy at 5 min and 10 min from the beginning of SE was able to terminate seizures and improved survival rates. Diazepam-ketamine dual therapy at 10 min, 20 min, and 30 min from the beginning of SE terminated seizures and achieved high survival rates. CONCLUSIONS In this parallel randomized controlled trial with a rat model, we found that diazepam monotherapy was an effective antiepileptic strategy at the early stage of SE less than 10 min after SE onset. If SE lasts more than 10 min but less than 30 min, the diazepam-ketamine dual therapy strategy may be an appropriate choice.

9.
Plant Genome ; : e20179, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34859966

RESUMO

The leaf angle (LA), plant height (PH), and ear height (EH) are key plant architectural traits influencing maize (Zea mays L.) yield. However, their genetic determinants have not yet been well-characterized. Here, we developed a maize advanced backcross-nested association mapping population in Henan Agricultural University (HNAU-NAM1) comprised of 1,625 BC1 F4 /BC2 F4 lines. These were obtained by crossing a diverse set of 12 representative inbred lines with the common GEMS41 line, which were then genotyped using the MaizeSNP9.4K array. Genetic diversity and phenotypic distribution analyses showed considerable levels of genetic variation. We obtained 18-88 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with LA, PH, and EH by using three complementary mapping methods, named as separate linkage mapping, joint linkage mapping, and genome-wide association studies. Our analyses enabled the identification of ten QTL hot-spot regions associated with the three traits, which were distributed on nine different chromosomes. We further selected 13 major QTLs that were simultaneously detected by three methods and deduced the candidate genes, of which eight were not reported before. The newly constructed HNAU-NAM1 population in this study will further broaden our insights into understanding of genetic regulation of plant architecture, thus will help to improve maize yield and provide an invaluable resource for maize functional genomics and breeding research.

10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 588, 2021 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34895144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frogeye leaf spot (FLS) is a destructive fungal disease that affects soybean production. The most economical and effective strategy to control FLS is the use of resistant cultivars. However, the use of a limited number of resistant loci in FLS management will be countered by the emergence of new high-virulence Cercospora sojina races. Therefore, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) that control resistance to FLS and identified novel resistant genes using a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 234 Chinese soybean cultivars. RESULTS: A total of 30,890 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were used to estimate linkage disequilibrium (LD) and population structure. The GWAS results showed four loci (p < 0.0001) distributed over chromosomes (Chr.) 5 and 20, that are significantly associated with FLS resistance. No previous studies have reported resistance loci in these regions. Subsequently, 45 genes in the two resistance-related haplotype blocks were annotated. Among them, Glyma20g31630 encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), Glyma05g28980, which encodes mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MPK7), and Glyma20g31510, Glyma20g31520 encoding calcium-dependent protein kinase 4 (CDPK4) in the haplotype blocks deserves special attention. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that GWAS can be employed as an effective strategy for identifying disease resistance traits in soybean and narrowing SNPs and candidate genes. The prediction of candidate genes in the haplotype blocks identified by disease resistance loci can provide a useful reference to study systemic disease resistance.


Assuntos
Cercospora/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Soja/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Modelos Lineares , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Soja/imunologia , Soja/microbiologia , Virulência
11.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2204021, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725635

RESUMO

This paper incorporates the adaptive neurofuzzy inference system (ANFIS) technique to model the yield of bio-oil. The estimation of this parameter was performed according to pyrolysis conditions and biomass compositions of feedstock. For this purpose, this paper innovates two optimization methods including a genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Primary data were gathered from previous studies and included 244 data of biodiesel oils. The findings showed a coefficient determination (R 2) of 0.937 and RMSE of 2.1053 for the GA-ANFIS model, and a coefficient determination (R 2) of 0.968 and RMSE of 1.4443 for PSO-ANFIS. This study indicates the capability of the PSO-ANFIS algorithm in the estimation of the bio-oil yield. According to the performed analysis, this model shows a higher ability than the previously presented models in predicting the target values and can be a suitable alternative to time-consuming and difficult experimental tests.

12.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735281

RESUMO

In July 2020, symptoms of crown and root rot were observed on about 10% of 4-month-old plants of industrial hemp Cannabis sativa cultivar Yunma-1 in Weifang City, Shandong Province in eastern China (Fig 1). During this month, the local temperature ranged from 19-32°C, and the total precipitation was 148mm. The disease symptoms included leaf chlorosis, crown and root rot, stunted growth, and wilting (Figs. 1 and 2). The diseased stem and root tissues were collected and cut into fragments of 0.5cm each. The fragments were surface-sterilized by dipping into 1% NaClO for 1 min, rinsed in sterile water and plated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and on oomycetes-selective medium PARP (Jeffers and Martin 1986). The plates were incubated at 25°C in the dark for 3 days and 18 total single-hyphal purified isolates were obtained for further analyses with 8 from PDA and 10 from PARP. The colonies of all 18 isolates were white, had abundant aerial hyphae, and were cottony in appearance, resembling Pythium spp (Watanabe 2002). The grass-leaf method (Van Der Plaats-Niterink 1981) induced their sexual reproduction. The size and shape of hyphae, oogonia, antheridia, and oospores were all consistent with those of Pythium aphanidermatum (Fig 3). DNA was extracted from three isolates and their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA were amplified and sequenced using the primers ITS1/ITS4 (White et al. 1990). The ITS sequences of all three isolates were identical to each other (GenBank accession OK091124.1) and showed a 100% query coverage and 99.88% nucleotide sequence identity with that of type strain of P. aphanidermatum (GenBank accession AY598622.2). Pathogenicity tests were performed with three isolates on hemp cultivar B1. Sterile substrates were prepared in 2L-pots containing peat soil and vermiculite in a 2:1 ratio, with test hemp plants grown from rooted stem cuttings. Plants were kept in a greenhouse at 22 to 27°C under 16 h photoperiod, watered every two days (about 200ml each time) and supplied commercial nutrient solution once a week. A month after transplanting to pots, a wound of 1 mm deep and 10 mm long (made by a sterilized needle) on the surface of the root crown area of the main stem was inoculated with an 8-mm-diameter agar disk of mycelia grown on PDA for 4 days. Six plants were tested for each isolate and three plants were inoculated with sterile agar medium without mycelia as negative controls. The experiment was repeated twice. After one month, plants inoculated with P. aphanidermatum isolates showed the same disease symptoms as observed on field plants while all negative control plants remained disease-free. P. aphanidermatum was reisolated from the diseased tissue and confirmed to be identical to those inoculated based on ITS sequencing and colony morphology. To our knowledge, this is the first report of P. aphanidermatum causing crown and root rot on hemp in China. With an estimated 66,700 hectares hemp cultivation in China producing over US$1 billion worth of hemp fiber (McGrath 2020), this pathogen represents a serious threat to the hemp industry. This pathogen has been reported on hemp in the US and Canada (Beckerman et al. 2017; Punja et al. 2018). The origin of P. aphanidermatum on hemp in China and its relationship to those in North America remain to be examined.

13.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 244, 2021 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34795210

RESUMO

The fruits of Physalis (Solanaceae) have a unique structure, a lantern-like fruiting calyx known as inflated calyx syndrome (ICS) or the Chinese lantern, and are rich in steroid-related compounds. However, the genetic variations underlying the origin of these characteristic traits and diversity in Physalis remain largely unknown. Here, we present a high-quality chromosome-level reference genome assembly of Physalis floridana (~1.40 Gb in size) with a contig N50 of ~4.87 Mb. Through evolutionary genomics and experimental approaches, we found that the loss of the SEP-like MADS-box gene MBP21 subclade is likely a key mutation that, together with the previously revealed mutation affecting floral MPF2 expression, might have contributed to the origination of ICS in Physaleae, suggesting that the origination of a morphological novelty may have resulted from an evolutionary scenario in which one mutation compensated for another deleterious mutation. Moreover, the significant expansion of squalene epoxidase genes is potentially associated with the natural variation of steroid-related compounds in Physalis fruits. The results reveal the importance of gene gains (duplication) and/or subsequent losses as genetic bases of the evolution of distinct fruit traits, and the data serve as a valuable resource for the evolutionary genetics and breeding of solanaceous crops.

15.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 395, 2021 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34838028

RESUMO

Stimulus-responsive therapy that allows precise imaging-guided therapy is limited for osteoarthritis (OA) therapy due to the selection of proper physiological markers as stimulus. Based on that the over-production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) is associated with the progression in OA, we selected ROS as markers and designed a cartilage targeting and ROS-responsive theranostic nanoprobe that can be used for effective bioimaging and therapy of OA. This nanoprobe was fabricated by using PEG micelles modified with ROS-sensitive thioketal linkers (TK) and cartilage-targeting peptide, termed TKCP, which was then encapsulated with Dexamethasone (DEX) to form TKCP@DEX nanoparticles. Results showed that the nanoprobe can smartly "turn on" in response to excessive ROS and "turn off" in the normal joint. By applying different doses of ROS inducer and ROS inhibitor, this nanoprobe can emit ROS-dependent fluorescence according to the degree of OA severity, helpful to precise disease classification in clinic. Specifically targeting cartilage, TKCP@DEX could effectively respond to ROS and sustained release DEX to remarkably reduce cartilage damage in the OA joints. This smart, sensitive and endogenously activated ROS-responsive nanoprobe is promising for OA theranostics.

16.
J Fish Biol ; 2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34813091

RESUMO

Turbulence is a complex hydraulic phenomenon which commonly occurs in natural streams and fishways. Riverine fish are subjected to heterogeneous flow velocities and turbulence, which may affect their movements and ability to pass the fishways. However, studies focusing on fish response to turbulent flows are lacking for many species. Here we investigate the effects of the turbulence created by a vertical half cylinder of various diameters (1.9, 2.5, 3.2, and 5.0 cm) on the swimming ability and behavior of silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix. The large D-cylinders (3.0 and 5.0 cm) create specific vorticity and reduced velocities areas in their vicinity, which favors flow refuging behaviors (FRB) and thus increased relative critical swimming speeds (Urcrit , BL/s) of silver carp, by comparison to free-flow conditions and cylinders of smaller diameter (1.9 and 2.5 cm). The flow speed at which silver carp maximized flow refuge behaviors such as Karman gaiting downstream of the cylinder, holding position in the bow wake or entraining on the side, ranged from 40 to 70 cm·s-1 , depending on fish body size. When holding station near a cylinder under optimal flow speeds, the distance between the fish and the cylinder is related to the size of the fish, but also to the size of the cylinder and the produced vortices. The optimal holding region in the drag wake of the cylinder ranged from 28 to 40 cm downstream of the center of the cylinder, depending on the size of the fish. Smaller fish however tend to use the reduced velocities areas located in the bow wake of the large cylinders. We hypothesize that fish will display flow refuging behaviors, including maintaining a Karman gait in turbulent flow, when the ratio of the cylinder diameter to their body length is between 1:3 and 1:4. They also match their tail beat frequency to the vortex shedding frequency of the cylinder. Our results provide a better understanding of how silver carp respond to turbulent flows around physical structures, with implications for the design of nature-like fishways or exclusion devices in both its native and invasive range. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

17.
Synth Syst Biotechnol ; 6(4): 302-325, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632124

RESUMO

l-glutamate family amino acids (GFAAs), consisting of l-glutamate, l-arginine, l-citrulline, l-ornithine, l-proline, l-hydroxyproline, γ-aminobutyric acid, and 5-aminolevulinic acid, are widely applied in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and animal feed industries, accounting for billions of dollars of market activity. These GFAAs have many functions, including being protein constituents, maintaining the urea cycle, and providing precursors for the biosynthesis of pharmaceuticals. Currently, the production of GFAAs mainly depends on microbial fermentation using Corynebacterium glutamicum (including its related subspecies Corynebacterium crenatum), which is substantially engineered through multistep metabolic engineering strategies. This review systematically summarizes recent advances in the metabolic pathways, regulatory mechanisms, and metabolic engineering strategies for GFAA accumulation in C. glutamicum and C. crenatum, which provides insights into the recent progress in l-glutamate-derived chemical production.

18.
PhytoKeys ; 182: 27-38, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616209

RESUMO

Youngiahangii T.Deng, D.G.Zhang, Qun Liu & Z.M.Li, sp. nov., a new species of Asteraceae, is described and illustrated. It was collected in Wufeng County, Hubei Province, Eastern Central China. Youngiahangii is morphologically most similar to Y.rubida, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by capitula with 8-10 florets and the hairy leaf surface. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and one chloroplast marker (rps16), showed that Y.hangii and Y.rubida were sister species with good support. The results of both phylogenetic analysis and the morphological data support the specific rank of Y.hangii.

19.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(11): 706, 2021 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34623532

RESUMO

This study aimed to research the effects of forest (Pinus elliottii, slash pine) and shrub (Vitex trifolia) plantation on the soil microbial community in sandification land by using the Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA and ITS rRNA genes and combined with the soil properties analysis to explore the driving factors. Finally, the results showed that the dominant bacterial phyla were Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Acidobacteria; the shrub and forest plantation significantly increasing the proportion of Acidobacteria, while decreasing the proportion of Proteobacteria. For the fungal community, forest plantation was significantly changing the community structure at the phylum level that shifted from Ascomycota to Basidiomycota, and the ectomycorrhizal fungi take the most abundant with genus Rhizopogon predominant. The soil bacterial Chao1 and Shannon indices were significantly increased after revegetation, while the soil fungal Shannon diversity in the forest land that significantly correlated with soil total organic carbon and C/N was lower than that in the sandy and shrub land (p < 0.05). Besides, the bacterial and fungal communities were significantly affected by soil water content among all analyzed soil properties. Our results suggest that the revegetation significantly increasing the soil bacterial diversity that correlated with soil water content, total organic carbon, and available phosphorus, but there was no significant change in community structure. In contrast, slash pine plantation changes the fungal community structure and diversity dramatically. This change and possible succession of fungal community with stand age increasing may lead to the fragility of the plantation, which deserves continuous attention.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Solo , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Microbiologia do Solo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638687

RESUMO

Exosomes are associated with cancer progression, pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, central nervous system-related diseases, immune responses and viral pathogenicity. However, study on the role of exosomes in the immune response of teleost fish, especially antiviral immunity, is limited. Herein, serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish were used to investigate the antiviral effect on the exosomes of teleost fish. Exosomes isolated from mandarin fish serum by ultra-centrifugation were internalized by mandarin fish fry cells and were able to inhibit Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) infection. To further investigate the underlying mechanisms of exosomes in inhibiting ISKNV infection, the protein composition of serum-derived exosomes was analyzed by mass spectrometry. It was found that myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1) was incorporated by exosomes. Furthermore, the mandarin fish Mx1 protein was proven to be transferred into the recipient cells though exosomes. Our results showed that the serum-derived exosomes from mandarin fish could inhibit ISKNV replication, which suggested an underlying mechanism of the exosome antivirus in that it incorporates Mx1 protein and delivery into recipient cells. This study provided evidence for the important antiviral role of exosomes in the immune system of teleost fish.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus de DNA , Exossomos , Doenças dos Peixes , Proteínas de Peixes , Peixes , Iridoviridae , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/sangue , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de DNA/veterinária , Exossomos/imunologia , Exossomos/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/sangue , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/sangue , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/sangue , Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/virologia , Iridoviridae/imunologia , Iridoviridae/metabolismo , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/sangue , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/imunologia
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