Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 63
Filtrar
1.
Microsc Microanal ; 26(2): 310-318, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051051

RESUMO

Exosomes derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells are nanovesicles and are involved in the occurrence and development of HCC, they also serve as important carriers and drug targets of nanodrug delivery systems. The external shape and internal structure of exosomes are important indexes of identification, and isolated intact morphology is crucial to biological function integrity. However, given their susceptibility to various influencing factors, the external shape and internal structure of exosomes derived from HCC cells remain incompletely studied. In this study, exosomes purified from HCC cells were isolated at different centrifugation speeds and examined via multiple electron microscopy (EM) techniques. The results demonstrate that exosomes possess a nearly spherical shape and bilipid membranous vesicle with a concave cavity structure containing electron-dense and coated vesicles, suggesting the possible existence of subpopulations of exosomes with specific functions. The exosomes isolated at ultracentrifugation (UC) speed (≥110,000×g) presented irregular and diverse external morphologies, indicating the effect on the integrity of the exosomes. Transforming growth factor signaling bioactive substances (TGF-ß1, S100A8, and S100A9) can be found in exosomes by performing Western blotting, showing that the internal content is associated with metastasis of HCC. These findings show that EMelectron microscopy and UC speed can affect exosome characteristics, including external shape, internal structure, and content of bioactive substances. The electron-dense and coated vesicles that had been discovered in exosomes might become new additional morphological features, which could help to improve the interpretation of experimental results and widen our understanding of exosome morphology.

2.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 2, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding the global spatiotemporal pattern of seasonal influenza is essential for influenza control and prevention. Available data on the updated global spatiotemporal pattern of seasonal influenza are scarce. This study aimed to assess the spatiotemporal pattern of seasonal influenza after the 2009 influenza pandemic. METHODS: Weekly influenza surveillance data in 86 countries from 2010 to 2017 were obtained from FluNet. First, the proportion of influenza A in total influenza viruses (PA) was calculated. Second, weekly numbers of influenza positive virus (A and B) were divided by the total number of samples processed to get weekly positive rates of influenza A (RWA) and influenza B (RWB). Third, the average positive rates of influenza A (RA) and influenza B (RB) for each country were calculated by averaging RWA, and RWB of 52 weeks. A Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted to examine if the year-to-year change in PA in all countries were significant, and a universal kriging method with linear semivariogram model was used to extrapolate RA and RB in all countries. RESULTS: PA ranged from 0.43 in Zambia to 0.98 in Belarus, and PA in countries with higher income was greater than those countries with lower income. The spatial patterns of high RB were the highest in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia-Pacific region and South America. RWA peaked in early weeks in temperate countries, and the peak of RWB occurred a bit later. There were some temperate countries with non-distinct influenza seasonality (e.g., Mauritius and Maldives) and some tropical/subtropical countries with distinct influenza seasonality (e.g., Chile and South Africa). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza seasonality is not predictable in some temperate countries, and it is distinct in Chile, Argentina and South Africa, implying that the optimal timing for influenza vaccination needs to be chosen with caution in these unpredictable countries.


Assuntos
Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Humanos , Influenza Humana/virologia , Estações do Ano , Análise Espacial , Análise Espaço-Temporal
3.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31922655

RESUMO

Yin-deficiency-heat (YDH) syndrome is a very common subhealth status in Traditional Chinese Medicine. However, currently, there is no unified standard for diagnosing YDH syndrome. We applied the iTRAQ-2D LC-MS/MS method to explore the potential of serum protein profiles as biomarker for YDH syndrome. A total of 120 differentially expressed proteins (79 downregulated and 41 upregulated) were identified by the proteomic profiling. The results of KEGG pathway analysis showed that the functions of the differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades. The clinical data showed that YDH syndrome was closely related to inflammation and coagulation, compared with the healthy controls. The ELISA validation results indicated that the expression levels of ALB, CFI, and KLKB1 were downregulated in the YDH syndrome group (p < .05). Moreover, we established a decision tree model based on the combination of these three proteins and achieved a sensitivity of 87.5%, a specificity of 84.4%, and AUC of 0.891. The results indicated that the combination of ALB, CFI, and KLKB1 may serve as potential biomarkers for diagnosing YDH syndrome. Our study can provide a new method for YDH syndrome diagnosis, and may also provide an experimental basis to understand the molecular mechanism of YDH syndrome.

4.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 86, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578147

RESUMO

Since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, considerable progress has been made in the control and elimination of the country's initial set of 11 neglected tropical diseases. Indeed, elimination as a public health problem has been declared for lymphatic filariasis in 2007 and for trachoma in 2015. The remaining numbers of people affected by soil-transmitted helminth infection, clonorchiasis, taeniasis, and echinococcosis in 2015 were 29.1 million, 6.0 million, 366 200, and 166 100, respectively. In 2017, after more than 60 years of uninterrupted, multifaceted schistosomiasis control, has seen the number of cases dwindling from more than 10 million to 37 600. Meanwhile, about 6000 dengue cases are reported, while the incidence of leishmaniasis, leprosy, and rabies are down at 600 or fewer per year. Sustained social and economic development, going hand-in-hand with improvement of water, sanitation, and hygiene provide the foundation for continued progress, while rigorous surveillance and specific public health responses will consolidate achievements and shape the elimination agenda. Targets for poverty elimination and strategic plans and intervention packages post-2020 are important opportunities for further control and elimination, when remaining challenges call for sustainable efforts.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , China , Humanos , Medicina Tropical/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 101(2): 310-318, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219001

RESUMO

Acute diarrhea is an important public health issue. Here, we focused on the differences of enteropathogens in acute diarrhea between urban and rural areas in southeast China. Laboratory- and sentinel-based surveillance of acute diarrhea (≥ 3 loose or liquid stools/24 hours) was conducted at 16 hospitals. Fecal specimens were tested for bacterial (Aeromonas sp., Campylobacter sp., diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Plesiomonas shigelloides, non-typhoidal Salmonella, Shigella sp., Vibrio sp., and Yersinia sp.) and viral (adenovirus, astrovirus, Norovirus, Rotavirus, and Sapovirus) pathogens. Descriptive statistics were used. Between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, 4,548 outpatients with acute diarrhea were enrolled (urban, n = 3,220; rural, n = 1,328). Pathogens were identified in 2,074 (45.6%) patients. Norovirus (25.7%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (10.2%), enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) (8.8%), group A Rotavirus (7.0%), and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) (5.6%) were the most common pathogens. Enteropathogens were less common in urban than in rural areas (42.0% versus 54.4%, P < 0.001). In urban areas, EAEC and ETEC were more common in high-income than in middle-income regions. Interventions targeting the most common enteropathogens can substantially reduce the burden of acute diarrhea in southeast China.

6.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 59, 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is a life-threatening disease caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, and specific antimicrobial medicine is available. Early and accurate diagnosis is essential for reducing the risk of severe complications and death. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the case diagnosis situation among medical care institutions and geographical regions in China, and the results will benefit both clinical practice and the disease surveillance system. METHODS: We extracted individual scrub typhus case data 2006-2016 from a national disease surveillance system in China. The diagnosis category and interval time from illness onset to diagnosis were compared among three levels of medical care institutions and provinces. The descriptive analysis method was performed in our study. RESULTS: During the 11-year study period, 93 481 scrub typhus cases, including 57 deaths, were recorded in the nationwide surveillance system. The overall proportion of laboratory-confirmed cases was only 4.7%, and this proportion varied greatly among primary medical centres (2.8%), county level hospitals (4.2%), and city level hospitals (6.3%). Notably, the proportion of laboratory-confirmed cases has consistently decreased from 16.3% in 2006 to 2.6% in 2016, and the same decreasing trend was found among all three levels of medical care institutions. The interval from illness onset to case diagnosis (Tdiag) for all cases was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 2-9 days) and decreased from 7 days (IQR: 3-11 days) in 2006 to 5 days (IQR: 2-8 days) in 2016. The risk of death for patients with a Tdiag of > 7 days was 2.2 times higher (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.05-5.21) than that of patients with a Tdiag of < 2 days. CONCLUSIONS: The interval time from illness onset to diagnosis for scrub typhus cases decreased greatly in China; however, the diagnosis rate of cases with laboratory-confirmed results must be increased among all levels of medical care institutions to reduce both the risk of death and the misuse of antibiotics associated with scrub typhus.


Assuntos
Orientia tsutsugamushi/fisiologia , Vigilância da População , Tifo por Ácaros/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tifo por Ácaros/epidemiologia
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 8(1): 29, 2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030673

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The echinococcosis is prevalent in 10 provinces /autonomous region in western and northern China. Epidemiological survey of echinococcosis in China in 2012 showed the average prevalence of four counties in Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) is 4.23%, much higher than the average prevalence in China (0.24%). It is important to understand the transmission risks and the prevalence of echinococcosis in human and animals in TAR. METHODS: A stratified and proportionate sampling method was used to select samples in TAR. The selected residents were examined by B-ultrasonography diagnostic, and the faeces of dogs were tested for the canine coproantigen against Echinococcus spp. using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The internal organs of slaughtered domestic animals were examined by visual examination and palpation. The awareness of the prevention and control of echinococcosis among of residents and students was investigated using questionnaire. All data were inputted using double entry in the Epi Info database, with error correction by double-entry comparison, the statistical analysis of all data was processed using SPSS 21.0, and the map was mapped using ArcGIS 10.1, the data was tested by Chi-square test and Cochran-Armitage trend test. RESULTS: A total of 80 384 people, 7564 faeces of dogs, and 2103 internal organs of slaughtered domestic animals were examined. The prevalence of echinococcosis in humans in TAR was 1.66%, the positive rate in females (1.92%) was significantly higher than that in males (1.41%), (χ2 = 30.31, P < 0.01), the positive rate of echinococcosis was positively associated with age (χ2trend = 423.95, P < 0.01), and the occupational populations with high positive rates of echinococcosis were herdsmen (3.66%) and monks (3.48%). The average positive rate of Echinococcus coproantigen in TAR was 7.30%. The positive rate of echinococcosis in livestock for the whole region was 11.84%. The average awareness rate of echinococcosis across the region was 33.39%. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of echinococcosis is found across the TAR, representing a very serious concern to human health. Efforts should be made to develop an action plan for echinococcosis prevention and control as soon as possible, so as to control the endemic of echinococcosis and reduce the medical burden on the population.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Gado/parasitologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Anticorpos Anti-Helmínticos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Echinococcus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tibet/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 225: 271-278, 2018 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729385

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zhibai Dihuang Granule (ZDG), a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) made from eight Chinese herbs, has been classically used to treat Yin-deficiency-heat (YDH) syndrome. ZDG is well known with the therapeutic efficacy of nourishing Yin and decreasing internal heat in clinic, but the mechanism of ZDG's therapeutic effect is still not clear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High doses of triiodothyronine (T3) were given intraperitoneally to induce Hyperthyroid YDH syndrome in SD rats. The animals were then treated with ZDG for one week. The iTRAQ-coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) technique was used to screen the differentially expressed serum proteins between ZDG treated rats and YDH syndrome rats. The differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by bioinformatics method and were verified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: A total of 55 differentially expressed proteins were identified, including 23 up-regulated proteins (>1.25 fold, p < 0.05) and 32 down-regulated proteins (<0.80 fold, p < 0.05). Among the differentially expressed proteins, 26 proteins returned to normal after ZDG treatment. Bioinformatics analysis showed that these proteins were mainly involved in immune response, including regulation of immune system process, complement activation, and humoral immune response mediated by circulating immunoglobulin. ELISA revealed significantly increased levels of Zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein (Azgp1), L-selectin, C-reactive protein (Crp), Plasminogen (Plg), Kininogen 1 (Kng1), and significantly decreased levels of Mannose binding lectin 2 (Mbl2) and Complement C1qb chain (C1qb) in ZDG treated rats compared with YDH syndrome rats. Bioinformatics analyses indicated that Azgp1 participated in antigen processing and presentation, Crp, C1qb, and Mbl2 were involved in complement activation, while L-selectin, Plg, and Kng1 were involved in regulating the inflammatory response. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides experimental evidence to understand the therapeutic mechanism of ZDG in YDH syndrome. The results suggested that ZDG may regulate the complement activation and inflammatory response, and promote the ability to recognize antigens to alleviate YDH syndrome.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Deficiência da Energia Yin/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Corporal , Ativação do Complemento/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Feminino , Hipertireoidismo/induzido quimicamente , Hipertireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertireoidismo/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteômica , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Síndrome , Tri-Iodotironina , Deficiência da Energia Yin/induzido quimicamente , Deficiência da Energia Yin/imunologia
9.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 108: 26-34, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29523324

RESUMO

Rapid and efficient methods for the determination of cured pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) are lacking. We screened serum miRNAs using the Solexa sequencing method among untreated TB patients, two-month treated TB patients, cured TB patients, and healthy controls. A total of 100 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified in cured TB patients, including 37 up-regulated (fold change >1.50, P < 0.05) and 63 down-regulated (fold change <0.60, P < 0.05) miRNAs. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis revealed that most of the predicted genes were present in the nucleus with a strong protein binding function. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis strongly suggested alterations in the metabolic pathways. Following quantitative real time chain reaction (qRT-PCR), significantly reduced expression levels of miR-21-5p (0.30, P < 0.001), miR-92a-3p (0.63, P < 0.001), and miR-148b-3p (0.17, P < 0.001) were found in the cured TB patients compared with the untreated TB patients, while significantly increased expression levels of miR-21-5p (2.09, P = 0.001), miR-92a-3p (1.40, P = 0.005), and miR-148b-3p (4.80, P = 0.003) were found in the untreated TB patients compared with the healthy controls. And significantly increased level of miR-125a-5p was found between two-month treated TB patients and untreated TB patients (1.81, P = 0.004). We established a cured TB model with 83.96% accuracy by four miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-92a-3p, miR-148b-3p, and miR-125a-5p), and also established a diagnostic model with 70.09% accuracy. Our study provides experimental data for establishing objective indicators of cured TB, and also provides a new experimental basis to understand the pathogenesis and prognosis of TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , MicroRNA Circulante/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Indução de Remissão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Chin Med ; 13: 2, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321808

RESUMO

Background: Zhibai Dihuang Granule (ZDG) is a traditional Chinese medicine which has been used to treat Yin-deficiency-heat (YDH) syndrome for thousands of years in China. However, little work has been conducted to explore the molecular mechanism of ZDG in YDH syndrome, and the processes of YDH syndrome prevention and treatment have been developed slowly. The present study was aimed to explore the therapeutic mechanism of ZDG on YDH syndrome. Methods: The YDH syndrome rats were induced by hot Chinese herbs, then treated by ZDG orally for 1 week. Body weight was measured every 2 days. After sacrifice, blood samples were collected and the thymus, adrenal glands, spleen, and liver were immediately removed and weighed. iTRAQ-based proteomics approach was applied to explore the serum protein alterations with the treatment of ZDG, and to investigate the underlying mechanism of ZDG in treating YDH syndrome. Results: The body weights of YDH syndrome rats were significantly decreased compared with control group, and increased in ZDG treated rats. The relative weights of thymus in YDH syndrome rats were increased compared with the control rats, and significantly decreased in after ZDG treatment. In the proteomic analyses, seventy-one proteins were differentially expressed in the YDH syndrome group and the ZDG treated group, including 10 up-regulated and 61 down-regulated proteins. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the differentially expressed proteins were mostly related to immune response, and pathway enrichment analysis showed that these proteins were enriched in coagulation and complement cascades. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect the protein levels in coagulation and complement cascades, and the results showed that complement component 5 levels were significantly increased, while fibrinogen gamma chain levels were significantly decreased in the ZDG treated group. Conclusions: We found that ZDG treatment could lead to proteins alteration in immune response, especially in coagulation and complement cascades. ZDG can up-regulate the proteins in the complement cascade to eliminate pathogens, and down-regulate the proteins in the coagulation cascade to suppress inflammation. Our study provides experimental basis to understand the therapeutic mechanism of ZDG and revealed that ZDG can regulate coagulation and complement cascades in treating YDH syndrome.

11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(17): 3294-3304, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29192438

RESUMO

For thousands of years, scorpions and their venoms have been applied in traditional medicine in China to treat a variety of difficult miscellaneous diseases. The venom is a complex mixture of bioactive molecules, such as peptides and proteins (e.g. neurotoxins). Among them, neurotoxins (named scorpion toxins) are the most important bioactive components. Up to now, more and more characterized venom components have been isolated from different scorpions, providing numerous candidate molecules for drug design and development. Many investigations have shown the potent effects of venom or its components against the nervous, immune, infection, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases. Moreover, the scorpion toxins could be used as molecular backbone to develop new specific drugs based on their unique structures and functions. In this review, we focus on the medicinal values and the possible mechanisms of scorpion toxins with promising medicinal prospect against the relative diseases, providing the data basis for further development of relative drugs.


Assuntos
Neurotoxinas/farmacologia , Venenos de Escorpião/farmacologia , Animais , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Peptídeos , Escorpiões
13.
PLoS One ; 12(3): e0173304, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28278182

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to discover novel biomarkers for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Differentially expressed proteins in the serum of patients with TB were screened and identified by iTRAQ-two dimensional liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis. A total of 79 abnormal proteins were discovered in patients with TB compared with healthy controls. Of these, significant differences were observed in 47 abnormally expressed proteins between patients with TB or pneumonia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with TB (n = 136) exhibited significantly higher levels of serum amyloid A (SAA), vitamin K-dependent protein Z (PROZ), and C4b-binding protein ß chain (C4BPB) than those in healthy controls (n = 66) (P<0.0001 for each) albeit significantly lower levels compared with those in patients with pneumonia (n = 72) (P<0.0001 for each) or COPD (n = 72) (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, P = 0.0016, respectively). After 6 months of treatment, the levels of SAA and PROZ were significantly increased (P = 0.022, P<0.0001, respectively), whereas the level of C4BPB was significantly decreased (P = 0.0038) in treated TB cases (n = 72). Clinical analysis showed that there were significant differences in blood clotting and lipid indices in patients with TB compared with healthy controls, patients with pneumonia or COPD, and treated TB cases (P<0.05). Correlation analysis revealed significant correlations between PROZ and INR (rs = 0.414, P = 0.044), and between C4BPB and FIB (rs = 0.617, P = 0.0002) in patients with TB. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the area under the curve value of the diagnostic model combining SAA, PROZ, and C4BPB to discriminate the TB group from the healthy control, pneumonia, COPD, and cured TB groups was 0.972, 0.928, 0.957, and 0.969, respectively. Together, these results suggested that SAA, PROZ, and C4BPB may serve as new potential biomarkers for TB. Our study may thus provide experimental data for the differential diagnosis of TB.


Assuntos
Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Complemento C4b/metabolismo , Proteína Amiloide A Sérica/metabolismo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 16(1): 472, 2016 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27855662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combination chemotherapy with Western anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs is the mainstay of TB treatment. Chinese herbal medicines with either heat clearing and detoxifying effects or nourishing Yin and reducing fire effects have been used to treat TB based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) syndromes of TB patients. This study analyzed the expression profiles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs in TB patients with different TCM syndromes. METHODS: TB patients were classified as pulmonary Yin deficiency (PYD) syndrome, hyperactivity of fire due to Yin deficiency (HFYD) syndrome, and deficiency of Qi and Yin (DQY) syndrome. Total RNA from 44 TB patients and healthy controls was extracted and hybridized with a human lncRNA microarray containing 30586 lncRNAs and 26109 mRNAs probes. Bioinformatics analyses, including gene ontology (GO) and pathways, were performed. Related clinical data were also analyzed. RESULTS: Differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs were identified (fold change >2, and P < 0.05) in PYD (634 mRNAs and 566 lncRNAs), HFYD (47 mRNAs and 55 lncRNAs), and DQY (63 mRNAs and 60 lncRNAs) patients. The most enriched pathways were the hippo signaling pathway (P = 0.000164) and the protein digestion and absorption pathway (P = 5.89017E-05). Clinical analyses revealed that the lipid indexes of TB patients were abnormal and that the triglyceride concentration was significantly higher in DQY patients (P = 0.0252). Our study is the first to acquire the microarray expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs and analyze pathway enrichment in PYD, HFYD, and DQY patients with TB. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses of the expression profiles of lncRNAs and mRNAs may represent a novel method to explore the biological essence of TCM syndromes of TB.


Assuntos
RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Tuberculose Pulmonar/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qi , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Deficiência da Energia Yin/diagnóstico , Deficiência da Energia Yin/genética , Deficiência da Energia Yin/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 5(1): 74, 2016 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27491387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Ebola virus disease spread rapidly in West Africa in 2014, leading to the loss of thousands of lives. Community engagement was one of the key strategies to interrupt Ebola transmission, and practical community level measures needed to be explored in the field and tailored to the specific context of communities. METHODS: First, community-level education on Ebola virus disease (EVD) prevention was launched for the community's social mobilizers in six districts in Sierra Leone beginning in November 2014. Then, from January to May of 2015, in three pilot communities, local trained community members were organized to engage in implementation of EVD prevention and transmission interruption measures, by involving them in alert case report, contact tracing, and social mobilization. The epidemiological indicators of transmission interruption in three study communities were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 6 016 community social mobilizers from 185 wards were trained by holding 279 workshops in the six districts, and EVD message reached an estimated 631 680 residents. In three pilot communities, 72 EVD alert cases were reported, with 70.8 % of them detected by trained local community members, and 14 EVD cases were finally identified. Contact tracing detected 64.3 % of EVD cases. The median duration of community infectivity for the cases was 1 day. The secondary attack rate was 4.2 %, and no third generation of infection was triggered. No health worker was infected, and no unsafe burial and noncompliance to EVD control measures were recorded. The community-based measures were modeled to reduce 77 EVD cases, and the EVD-free goal was achieved four months earlier in study communities than whole country of Sierra Leone. CONCLUSIONS: The community-based strategy of social mobilization and community engagement was effective in case detection and reducing the extent of Ebola transmission in a country with weak health system. The successfully practical experience to reduce the risk of Ebola transmission in the community with poor resources would potentially be helpful for the global community to fight against the EVD and the other diseases in the future.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Ebolavirus/fisiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/transmissão , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 5(1): 65, 2016 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27349745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The elimination of malaria requires high-quality surveillance data to enable rapid detection and response to individual cases. Evaluation of the performance of a national malaria surveillance system could identify shortcomings which, if addressed, will improve the surveillance program for malaria elimination. METHODS: Case-level data for the period 2005-2014 were extracted from the China National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting Information System and Malaria Enhanced Surveillance Information System. The occurrence of cases, accuracy and timeliness of case diagnosis, reporting and investigation, were assessed and compared between the malaria control stage (2005-2010) and elimination stage (2011-2014) in mainland China. RESULTS: A total of 210 730 malaria cases were reported in mainland China in 2005-2014. The average annual incidence declined dramatically from 2.5 per 100 000 people at the control stage to 0.2 per 100 000 at the elimination stage, but the proportion of migrant cases increased from 9.8 % to 41.0 %. Since the initiation of the National Malaria Elimination Programme in 2010, the overall proportion of cases diagnosed by laboratory testing consistently improved, with the highest of 99.0 % in 2014. However, this proportion was significantly lower in non-endemic provinces (79.0 %) than that in endemic provinces (91.4 %) during 2011-2014. The median interval from illness onset to diagnosis was 3 days at the elimination stage, with one day earlier than that at the control stage. Since 2011, more than 99 % cases were reported within 1 day after being diagnosed, while the proportion of cases that were reported within one day after diagnosis was lowest in Tibet (37.5 %). The predominant source of cases reporting shifted from town-level hospitals at the control stage (67.9 % cases) to city-level hospitals and public health institutes at the eliminate stage (69.4 % cases). The proportion of investigation within 3 days after case reporting has improved, from 74.6 % in 2010 to 98.5 % in 2014. CONCLUSIONS: The individual case-based malaria surveillance system in China operated well during the malaria elimination stage. This ensured that malaria cases could be diagnosed, reported and timely investigated at local level. However, domestic migrants and overseas populations, as well as cases in the historically malarial non-endemic areas and hard-to-reach area are new challenges in the surveillance for malaria elimination.


Assuntos
Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , China/epidemiologia , Notificação de Doenças , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/parasitologia , Plasmodium/fisiologia
17.
Int J Biol Sci ; 12(2): 246-56, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26884721

RESUMO

The epidemic of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), especially multidrug-resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB) presented a major challenge for TB treatment today. We performed iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) and Solexa sequencing among MDR-TB patients, drug-sensitive tuberculosis (DS-TB) patients, and healthy controls. A total of 50 differentially expressed proteins and 43 differentially expressed miRNAs (fold change >1.50 or <0.60, P<0.05) were identified in the MDR-TB patients compared to both DS-TB patients and healthy controls. We found that 22.00% of differentially expressed proteins and 32.56% of differentially expressed miRNAs were related, and could construct a network mainly in complement and coagulation cascades. Significant differences in CD44 antigen (CD44), coagulation factor XI (F11), kininogen-1 (KNG1), miR-4433b-5p, miR-424-5p, and miR-199b-5p were found among MDR-TB patients, DS-TB patients and healthy controls (P<0.05) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and SYBR green qRT-PCR validation. A strong negative correlation, consistent with the target gene prediction, was found between miR-199b-5p and KNG1 (r=-0.232, P=0.017). Moreover, we established the MDR-TB diagnostic model based on five biomarkers (CD44, KNG1, miR-4433b-5p, miR-424-5p, and miR-199b-5p). Our study proposes potential biomarkers for MDR-TB diagnosis, and also provides a new experimental basis to understand the pathogenesis of MDR-TB.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Mineração de Dados , Árvores de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteômica , Curva ROC , Análise de Sequência/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Transcriptoma , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/sangue
18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30130036

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the malaria situation in Shaanxi Province during 2005-2014, in the aim of providing reference for improving malaria elimination strategies and measures. Methods: Data on malaria control and malaria epidemic reports during 2005-2014 were collected, and analysis was made on prevalence and regional distribution of malaria, species of plasmodium, diagnosis of patients, and sources of imported malaria. Results: Four hundred and fifty three cases of malaria were reported in Shaanxi Province during 2005-2014, consisting of 73 local cases (16.1%) and 380 imported cases (83.9%) of which 141 were falciparum malaria (37.1%, 141/380). Three patients died and they all were imported cases of falciparum malaria. No indigenous infection had been reported since 2011. Most of the cases were laboratory-confirmed(71.5%, 324/453). The falciparum malaria cases accounted for 31.1%(141/453) of all the cases, and they all were imported cases. No cases of quartan malaria and ovale malaria were reported. The 73 indigenous cases distributed in 25 districts (counties) of 7 cities, including 3 cities in South Shaanxi (Shangluo, Hanzhong, Ankang)(61.6%, 45/73) and four cities in Central Shaanxi (Xi'an, Weinan, Xianyang, Baoji) (38.4%, 28/73). The imported cases showed an increasing trend from 24 in 2005 to 59 in 2014. The 380 imported cases were mainly from over 20 countries in Africa (72.6%, 276/380), with top sources of Angola (64 cases), Cameroon (26), Ghana (24), and Equatorial Guinea (23) accounting for 36.0% ( 137/380). The median of interval from onset to diagnosis was 5 d. The cases were mainly reported by clinical medical institutions (87.6%, 397/453), only 7.5% (34/453) were reported by disease control institutions. Conclusion: No indigenous cases have been reported since 2011, but the imported malaria cases show a trend of increase with a major source of Africa.


Assuntos
Malária , China , Epidemias , Humanos , Plasmodium , Prevalência
19.
PLoS One ; 10(11): e0143411, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26605919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In epidemiological research, major studies have focused on theoretical models; however, few methods of visual analysis have been used to display the patterns of disease distribution. DESIGN: For this study, a method combining the space-time cube (STC) with space-time scan statistics (STSS) was used to analyze the pattern of incidence of hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in Guangdong Province from May 2008 to March 2009. In this research, STC was used to display the spatiotemporal pattern of incidence of HFMD, and STSS were used to detect the local aggregations of the disease. SETTING: The hand-foot-mouth disease data were obtained from Guangdong Province from May 2008 to March 2009, with a total of 68,130 cases. RESULTS: The STC analysis revealed a differential pattern of HFMD incidence among different months and cities and also showed that the population density and average precipitation are correlated with the incidence of HFMD. The STSS analysis revealed that the most likely aggregation includes the Shenzhen, Foshan and Dongguan populations, which are the most developed regions in Guangdong Province. CONCLUSION: Both STC and STSS are efficient tools for the exploratory data analysis of disease transmission. STC clearly displays the spatiotemporal patterns of disease. Using the maximum likelihood ratio, the STSS model precisely locates the most likely aggregation.


Assuntos
Doença de Mão, Pé e Boca/epidemiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , China/epidemiologia , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Incidência , Estações do Ano
20.
Sci Rep ; 5: 15615, 2015 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26499913

RESUMO

Rapid and efficient methods for the determination of cured tuberculosis (TB) are lacking. A total of 85 differentially expressed serum proteins were identified by iTRAQ labeling coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (2D LC-MS/MS) analysis (fold change >1.50 or <0.60, P < 0.05). We validated albumin (ALB), Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (ARHGDIB), complement 3 (C3), ficolin-2 (FCN2), and apolipoprotein (a) (LPA) using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Significantly increased ALB and LPA levels (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012, respectively) and significantly reduced ARHGDIB, C3, and FCN2 levels (P < 0.001, P = 0.035, and P = 0.018, respectively) were observed in cured TB patients compared with untreated TB patients. In addition, changes in ALB and FCN2 levels occurred after 2 months of treatment (P < 0.001 and P = 0.030, respectively). We established a cured TB model with 87.10% sensitivity, 79.49% specificity, and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.876. The results indicated that ALB, ARHGDIB, C3, FCN2, and LPA levels might serve as potential biomarkers for cured TB. Our study provides experimental data for establishing objective indicators of cured TB and also proposes potential markers for evaluating the efficacy of anti-TB drugs.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas A/sangue , Complemento C3/análise , Lectinas/sangue , Albumina Sérica/análise , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Inibidor beta de Dissociação do Nucleotídeo Guanina rho/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Curva ROC , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA