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1.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009317, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33600488

RESUMO

The transmembrane protein 33 (TMEM33) was originally identified as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein that influences the tubular structure of the ER and modulates intracellular calcium homeostasis. However, the role of TMEM33 in antiviral immunity in vertebrates has not been elucidated. In this article, we demonstrate that zebrafish TMEM33 is a negative regulator of virus-triggered interferon (IFN) induction via two mechanisms: mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) ubiquitination and a decrease in the kinase activity of TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Upon stimulation with viral components, tmem33 was remarkably upregulated in the zebrafish liver cell line. The IFNφ1 promoter (IFNφ1pro) activity and mRNA level induced by retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RLRs) were significantly inhibited by TMEM33. Knockdown of TMEM33 increased host ifn transcription. Subsequently, we found that TMEM33 was colocalized in the ER and interacted with the RLR cascades, whereas MAVS was degraded by TMEM33 during the K48-linked ubiquitination. On the other hand, TMEM33 reduced the phosphorylation of mediator of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) activation (MITA)/IRF3 by acting as a decoy substrate of TBK1, which was also phosphorylated. A functional domain assay revealed that the N-terminal transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) and TM2 regions of TMEM33 were necessary for IFN suppression. Finally, TMEM33 significantly attenuated the host cellular antiviral capacity by blocking the IFN response. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the different mechanisms employed by TMEM33 in cellular IFN-mediated antiviral process.

2.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 115: 103876, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987012

RESUMO

In mammals, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a crucial cytosolic DNA sensor responsible for activating the interferon (IFN) response. A cGAS-like (cGASL) gene was previously identified from grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, which is evolutionarily closest to cGAS but not a true ortholog of cGAS. Here, we found that grass carp cGASL targets mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) for autophagic degradation to negatively regulate fish IFN response. Firstly, the transcriptional level of cellular cgasl was upregulated by poly I:C stimulation, and overexpression of cGASL significantly decreased poly I:C- and MAVS-induced promoter activities and transcriptional levels of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). In addition, cGASL associated with MAVS and prompted autophagic degradation of MAVS in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, overexpression of cGASL attenuated MAVS-mediated cellular antiviral response. These results collectively indicate that cGASL negatively regulates fish IFN response by triggering autophagic degradation of MAVS.

3.
Dev Comp Immunol ; 114: 103805, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755617

RESUMO

TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) plays a vital role in activating interferon (IFN) production and positively regulating antiviral response in mammals. Research on more species of fish is necessary to clarify whether the function of fish TBK1 is conserved compared to that in mammals. Here, a cyprinid fish (Ancherythroculter nigrocauda) TBK1 (AnTBK1) was functionally identified and characterized. The full-length open reading frame (ORF) of AnTBK1 consists of 2184 nucleotides encoding 727 amino acids and contains a conserved Serine/Threonine protein kinase catalytic domain (S_TKc) in the N-terminal, similar to TBK1 in other species. The transcripts of AnTBK1 were found in all the tissues evaluated and the cellular distribution indicated that AnTBK1 was localized in the cytoplasm. In terms of functional identification, AnTBK1 induced a variety of IFN promoter activities as well as the expression of downstream IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). In addition, AnTBK1 interacted with and significantly phosphorylated IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), exhibiting the canonical kinase activity of TBK1. Finally, AnTBK1 presented strong antiviral activity against spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) infection. Taken together, our research on the features and functions of AnTBK1 demonstrated that AnTBK1 plays a central role in IFN induction against SVCV infection.

4.
Front Immunol ; 11: 545302, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193312

RESUMO

Viruses typically target host RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), a group of key factors involved in interferon (IFN) production, to enhance viral infection. To date, though immune evasion methods to contradict IFN production have been characterized for a series of terrestrial viruses, the strategies employed by fish viruses remain unclear. Here, we report that all grass carp reovirus (GCRV) proteins encoded by segments S1 to S11 suppress mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)-mediated IFN expression. First, the GCRV viral proteins blunted the MAVS-induced expression of IFN, and impair MAVS antiviral capacity significantly. Interestingly, subsequent co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that all GCRV viral proteins interacted with several RLR cascades, especially with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) which was the downstream factor of MAVS. To further illustrate the mechanisms of these interactions between GCRV viral proteins and host RLRs, two of the viral proteins, NS79 (S4) and VP3 (S3), were selected as representative proteins for two distinguished mechanisms. The obtained data demonstrated that NS79 was phosphorylated by gcTBK1, leading to the reduction of host substrate gcIRF3/7 phosphorylation. On the other hand, VP3 degraded gcMAVS and the degradation was significantly reversed by 3-MA. The biological effects of both NS79 and VP3 were consistently found to be related to the suppression of IFN expression and the promotion of viral evasion. Our findings shed light on the special evasion mechanism utilized by fish virus through IFN regulation, which might differ between fish and mammals.

5.
J Immunol ; 205(7): 1819-1829, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859727

RESUMO

IFN is essential for hosts to defend against viral invasion, whereas it must be tightly regulated to prevent hyperimmune responses. Fish mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a vital factor for IFN production, but until now, there have been few studies on the regulation mechanisms of fish MAVS enabling IFN to be properly controlled. In this study, we show that zebrafish RNA-binding motif protein 47 (RBM47) promotes MAVS degradation in a lysosome-dependent manner to suppress IFN production. First, the transcription of IFN activated by polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), spring viremia of carp virus, or retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptor pathway components were significantly suppressed by RBM47. Second, RBM47 interacted with MAVS and promoted lysosome-dependent degradation of MAVS, changing the cellular location of MAVS from the cytoplasm to the lysosome region. Finally, RBM47 inhibited downstream MITA and IRF3/7 activation, impairing the host antiviral response. Collectively, these data suggest that zebrafish RBM47 negatively regulates IFN production by promoting lysosome-dependent degradation of MAVS, providing insights into the role of RBM47 in the innate antiviral immune response in fish.

6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 102: 449-459, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408017

RESUMO

Calcium (Ca) is a messenger that regulates a multitude of physiological processes, but its functions in antiviral progress remain undefined. In this study, we found that Ca2+ enhances fish survival to defend against spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) infection by reversing the instability of p53 mediated by the viral protein. First, Ca2+ significantly protected cells and fish against SVCV infection by inducing early apoptosis. Additionally, p53 expression, which was inhibited by SVCV N protein, was upregulated by Ca2+ treatment. Then, the mechanism underlying the reduction of K63-linked p53 ubiquitination by SVCV N protein via the K358 site was completely prevented by Ca2+. These findings reveal the role of Ca2+ in lower vertebrates in the antiviral response, which is connected to and corresponds with viral immune evasion, providing a solution to fish diseases caused by pathogens.

7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 99-106, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032764

RESUMO

Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is an efficient pathogen causing high mortality in grass carp, meanwhile, fish interferon (IFN) is a powerful cytokine enabling host cells to establish an antiviral state; therefore, the strategies used by GCRV to escape the cellular IFN response need to be investigated. Here, we report that GCRV VP56 inhibits host IFN production by degrading the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7). First, overexpression of VP56 inhibited the IFN production induced by the polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), while the capacity of IRF7 on IFN induction was unaffected. Second, VP56 interacted with RLRs but did not affect the stabilization of the proteins in the normal state, while the phosphorylated IRF7 activated by TBK1 was degraded by VP56 through K48-linked ubiquitination. Finally, overexpression of VP56 remarkably reduced the host cellular ifn transcription and facilitated viral proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GCRV VP56 suppresses the host IFN response by targeting phosphorylated IRF7 for ubiquitination and degradation.


Assuntos
Carpas/virologia , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferons/antagonistas & inibidores , Infecções por Reoviridae/veterinária , Proteínas Virais/genética , Animais , Carpas/imunologia , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Fator Regulador 7 de Interferon/imunologia , Interferons/imunologia , Ovário/citologia , Fosforilação , Poli I-C/farmacologia , Reoviridae , Infecções por Reoviridae/imunologia , Ubiquitinação , Proteínas Virais/imunologia
8.
J Virol ; 93(21)2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413136

RESUMO

Interferon (IFN) production activated by phosphorylated interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is a pivotal process during host antiviral infection. For viruses, suppressing the host IFN response is beneficial for viral proliferation; in such cases, evoking host-derived IFN negative regulators would be very useful for viruses. Here, we report that the zebrafish rapunzel 5 (RPZ5) protein which activated by virus degraded phosphorylated IRF7 is activated by TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), leading to a reduction in IFN production. Upon viral infection, zebrafish rpz5 was significantly upregulated, as was ifn, in response to the stimulation. Overexpression of RPZ5 blunted the IFN expression induced by both viral and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) like-receptor (RLR) factors. Subsequently, RPZ5 interacted with RLRs but did not affect the stabilization of the proteins in the normal state. Interestingly, RPZ5 degraded the phosphorylated IRF7 under TBK1 activation through K48-linked ubiquitination. Finally, the overexpression of RPZ5 remarkably reduced the host cell antiviral capacity. These findings suggest that zebrafish RPZ5 is a negative regulator of phosphorylated IRF7 and attenuates IFN expression during viral infection, providing insight into the IFN balance mechanism in fish.IMPORTANCE The phosphorylation of IRF7 is helpful for host IFN production to defend against viral infection; thus, it is a potential target for viruses to mitigate the antiviral response. We report that the fish RPZ5 is an IFN negative regulator induced by fish viruses and degrades the phosphorylated IRF7 activated by TBK1, leading to IFN suppression and promotion of viral proliferation. These findings reveal a novel mechanism for interactions between the host cell and viruses in the lower vertebrate.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/virologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/veterinária , Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/virologia , Animais , Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/metabolismo , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/metabolismo , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/genética , Fatores Reguladores de Interferon/metabolismo , Interferons/imunologia , Fosforilação , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/metabolismo , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae/virologia , Ubiquitinação , Replicação Viral , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética
9.
Front Immunol ; 10: 985, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130963

RESUMO

In East Asia, the dark sleeper, Odontobutis obscura (O. obscura) is a crucial commercial species of freshwater fish; however, its molecular biology research is still undeveloped, including its innate immune system, which is pivotal to antiviral responses. In this study, we cloned and identified the characterization and kinase function of dark sleeper TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1), supplementing the evidence of the conservation of this classical factor in fish. First, the ORF of Odontobutis obscurus (O. obscura) TBK1 (OdTBK1) was cloned from liver tissue by RACE-PCR. Subsequent nucleic acid and amino acid sequence analysis suggested that OdTBK1 is homologous with other fish TBK1, and the N-terminal Serine/Threonine protein kinases catalytic domain (S_TKc) and C-terminal coiled coil domain (CCD) are conserved. Subsequently, the cellular distribution demonstrated that OdTBK1 was located in the cytoplasm region. With regard to the identification of functions, OdTBK1 activated several interferon (IFN) promoters' activity and induced downstream IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression. In a canonical manner, wild-type OdTBK1 significantly phosphorylated interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) but failed when the N-terminal region was truncated. Furthermore, overexpression of OdTBK1 decreased viral proliferation remarkably. Collectively, these data systematically analyzed the characterization and function of OdTBK1, initiating the study of the innate antiviral response of dark sleeper.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Peixes/imunologia , Fator Regulador 3 de Interferon/imunologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/imunologia , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/imunologia , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Peixes/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Interferons/imunologia , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética
10.
PLoS Pathog ; 15(3): e1007695, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925159

RESUMO

p53, which regulates cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis, is a crucial target for viruses to release cells from cell-cycle checkpoints or to protect cells from apoptosis for their own benefit. Viral evasion mechanisms of aquatic viruses remain mysterious. Here, we report the spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) degrading and stabilizing p53 in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway by the N and P proteins, respectively. Early in an SVCV infection, significant induction was observed in the S phase and p53 was decreased in the protein level. Further experiments demonstrated that p53 interacted with SVCV N protein and was degraded by suppressing the K63-linked ubiquitination. However, the increase of p53 was observed late in the infection and experiments suggested that p53 was bound to SVCV P protein and stabilized by enhancing the K63-linked ubiquitination. Finally, lysine residue 358 was the key site for p53 K63-linked ubiquitination by the N and P proteins. Thus, our findings suggest that fish p53 is modulated by SVCV N and P protein in two distinct mechanisms, which uncovers the strategy for the subversion of p53-mediated host innate immune responses by aquatic viruses.


Assuntos
Rhabdoviridae/metabolismo , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Animais , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Vírus de DNA , Doenças dos Peixes , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Rhabdoviridae/patogenicidade , Ubiquitinação , Viremia , Peixe-Zebra , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
11.
J Immunol ; 202(2): 559-566, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530482

RESUMO

IFN production is crucial for hosts to defend against viral infection, yet it must be tightly controlled to maintain immune homeostasis. TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is a pivotal kinase in the IFN induction signaling pathway, but it is negatively regulated by multiple molecules to avoid the excessive expression of IFN in mammals. However, the identified TBK1 suppressors and the mechanisms are rare in fish. In this study, we show that zebrafish major vault protein (MVP) recruits and degrades TBK1 in a lysosome-dependent manner to inhibit IFN production. Through viral infection, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and RIG-I-like receptor factor stimulation upregulated IFN expression, but overexpression of MVP significantly subverted these inductions. On the protein level, MVP interacted with TBK1, and interestingly, MVP recruited TBK1 from a uniformly distributed state in the cytoplasm to an aggregated state. Finally, MVP mediated the lysosome-dependent degradation of TBK1 and decreased the IFN response and IFN-stimulated genes expression. Our findings reveal that zebrafish MVP is a negative regulator of IFN production by restricting the activation of TBK1, supplying evidence of the balanced mechanisms of IFN expression in lower vertebrates.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Partículas de Ribonucleoproteínas em Forma de Abóbada/metabolismo , Viroses/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Interferons/genética , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Poli I-C/imunologia , Agregação Patológica de Proteínas , Ligação Proteica , Proteólise , Transdução de Sinais , Partículas de Ribonucleoproteínas em Forma de Abóbada/genética
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