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1.
J Med Chem ; 64(8): 4913-4946, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822623

RESUMO

Neomorphic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) are oncogenic for a number of malignancies, primarily low-grade gliomas and acute myeloid leukemia. We report a medicinal chemistry campaign around a 7,7-dimethyl-7,8-dihydro-2H-1λ2-quinoline-2,5(6H)-dione screening hit against the R132H and R132C mutant forms of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1). Systematic SAR efforts produced a series of potent pyrid-2-one mIDH1 inhibitors, including the atropisomer (+)-119 (NCATS-SM5637, NSC 791985). In an engineered mIDH1-U87-xenograft mouse model, after a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg, 16 h post dose, between 16 and 48 h, (+)-119 showed higher tumoral concentrations that corresponded to lower 2-HG concentrations, when compared with the approved drug AG-120 (ivosidenib).

2.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 35: 127778, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422603

RESUMO

The discovery of a series of substituted diarylether compounds as retinoic acid related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) agonists is described. Compound 1 was identified from deck mining as a RORγt agonist. Hit-to-lead optimization led to the identification of lead compound 5, which possesses improved potency (10x). Extensive SAR exploration led to the identification of a potent and selective compound 22, that demonstrated an improved pharmacokinetic profile and a dose-dependent pharmacodynamic response. However, when dosed in a MC38 syngeneic tumor model, no evidence of efficacy was observed. ©2020 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 14408, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873881

RESUMO

Quantitatively determining in vivo achievable drug concentrations in targeted organs of animal models and subsequent target engagement confirmation is a challenge to drug discovery and translation due to lack of bioassay technologies that can discriminate drug binding with different mechanisms. We have developed a multiplexed and high-throughput method to quantify drug distribution in tissues by integrating high content screening (HCS) with U-Net based deep learning (DL) image analysis models. This technology combination allowed direct visualization and quantification of biologics drug binding in targeted tissues with cellular resolution, thus enabling biologists to objectively determine drug binding kinetics.

4.
Biomarkers ; 25(7): 556-565, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803990

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tenascin-C is a marker of interstitial fibrosis. We assessed whether plasma Tenascin-C differed between heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and asymptomatic controls and related to clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective, observational study of 172 age- and sex-matched subjects (HFpEF n = 130; controls n = 42, age 73 ± 9, males 50%) who underwent phenotyping with 20 plasma biomarkers, echocardiography, cardiac MRI and 6-minute-walk-testing. The primary endpoint was the composite of all-cause death/HF hospitalisation. RESULTS: Tenascin-C was higher in HFpEF compared to controls (13.7 [10.8-17.3] vs (11.1 [8.9-12.9] ng/ml, p < 0.0001). Tenascin-C correlated positively with markers of clinical severity (NYHA, E/E', BNP) and plasma biomarkers reflecting interstitial fibrosis (ST-2, Galectin-3, GDF-15, TIMP-1, TIMP-4, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-7, MMP-8), cardiomyocyte stress (BNP, NTpro-ANP), inflammation (MPO, hs-CRP, TNFR-1, IL6) and renal dysfunction (urea, cystatin-C, NGAL); p < 0.05 for all. During follow-up (median 1428 days), there were 61 composite events (21 deaths, 40 HF hospitalizations). In multivariable Cox regression analysis, Tenascin-C (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.755, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.305-2.360; p < 0.0001) and indexed extracellular volume (HR 1.465, CI 1.019-2.106; p = 0.039) were independently associated with adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In HFpEF, plasma Tenascin-C is higher compared to age- and sex-matched controls and a strong predictor of adverse outcomes. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03050593.

5.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett ; 30(12): 127204, 2020 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32334911

RESUMO

Substituted benzyloxy aryl compound 2 was identified as an RORγt agonist. Structure based drug design efforts resulted in a potent and selective tricyclic compound 19 which, when administered orally in an MC38 mouse tumor model, demonstrated a desired pharmacokinetic profile as well as a dose-dependent pharmacodynamic response. However, no perceptible efficacy was observed in this tumor model at the doses investigated.

6.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 75(11): 1281-1295, 2020 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192654

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Better risk stratification strategies are needed to enhance clinical care and trial design in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of a targeted plasma multi-marker approach to enhance our phenotypic characterization and risk prediction in HFpEF. METHODS: In this study, the authors measured 49 plasma biomarkers from TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial participants (n = 379) using a Multiplex assay. The relationship between biomarkers and the risk of all-cause death or heart failure-related hospital admission (DHFA) was assessed. A tree-based pipeline optimizer platform was used to generate a multimarker predictive model for DHFA. We validated the model in an independent cohort of HFpEF patients enrolled in the PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) (n = 156). RESULTS: Two large, tightly related dominant biomarker clusters were found, which included biomarkers of fibrosis/tissue remodeling, inflammation, renal injury/dysfunction, and liver fibrosis. Other clusters were composed of neurohormonal regulators of mineral metabolism, intermediary metabolism, and biomarkers of myocardial injury. Multiple biomarkers predicted incident DHFA, including 2 biomarkers related to mineral metabolism/calcification (fibroblast growth factor-23 and OPG [osteoprotegerin]), 3 inflammatory biomarkers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, sTNFRI [soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor I], and interleukin-6), YKL-40 (related to liver injury and inflammation), 2 biomarkers related to intermediary metabolism and adipocyte biology (fatty acid binding protein-4 and growth differentiation factor-15), angiopoietin-2 (related to angiogenesis), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (related to extracellular matrix turnover), ST-2, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. A machine-learning-derived model using a combination of biomarkers was strongly predictive of the risk of DHFA (standardized hazard ratio: 2.85; 95% confidence interval: 2.03 to 4.02; p < 0.0001) and markedly improved the risk prediction when added to the MAGGIC (Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure Risk Score) risk score. In an independent cohort (PHFS), the model strongly predicted the risk of DHFA (standardized hazard ratio: 2.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.93 to 3.90; p < 0.0001), which was also independent of the MAGGIC risk score. CONCLUSIONS: Various novel circulating biomarkers in key pathophysiological domains are predictive of outcomes in HFpEF, and a multimarker approach coupled with machine-learning represents a promising strategy for enhancing risk stratification in HFpEF.

7.
Lab Invest ; 100(8): 1111-1123, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203152

RESUMO

An ability to characterize the cellular composition and spatial organization of the tumor microenvironment (TME) using multiplexed IHC has been limited by the techniques available. Here we show the applicability of multiplexed ion beam imaging (MIBI) for cell phenotype identification and analysis of spatial relationships across numerous tumor types. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from tumor biopsies were simultaneously stained with a panel of 15 antibodies, each labeled with a specific metal isotope. Multi-step processing produced images of the TME that were further segmented into single cells. Frequencies of different cell subsets and the distributions of nearest neighbor distances between them were calculated using this data. A total of 50 tumor specimens from 15 tumor types were characterized for their immune profile and spatial organization. Most samples showed infiltrating cytotoxic T cells and macrophages present amongst tumor cells. Spatial analysis of the TME in two ovarian serous carcinoma images highlighted differences in the degree of mixing between tumor and immune cells across samples. Identification of admixed PD-L1+ macrophages and PD-1+ T cells in an urothelial carcinoma sample allowed for the detailed observations of immune cell subset spatial arrangement. These results illustrate the high-parameter capability of MIBI at a sensitivity and resolution uniquely suited to understanding the complex tumor immune landscape including the spatial relationships of immune and tumor cells and expression of immunoregulatory proteins.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Microambiente Tumoral , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/classificação , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo
8.
Physiol Genomics ; 52(4): 191-199, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089075

RESUMO

Aortic valve sclerosis is a highly prevalent, poorly characterized asymptomatic manifestation of calcific aortic valve disease and may represent a therapeutic target for disease mitigation. Human aortic valve cusps and blood were obtained from 333 patients undergoing cardiac surgery (n = 236 for severe aortic stenosis, n = 35 for asymptomatic aortic valve sclerosis, n = 62 for no valvular disease), and a multiplex assay was used to evaluate protein expression across the spectrum of calcific aortic valve disease. A subset of six valvular tissue samples (n = 3 for asymptomatic aortic valve sclerosis, n = 3 for severe aortic stenosis) was used to create RNA sequencing profiles, which were subsequently organized into clinically relevant gene modules. RNA sequencing identified 182 protein-encoding, differentially expressed genes in aortic valve sclerosis vs. aortic stenosis; 85% and 89% of expressed genes overlapped in aortic stenosis and aortic valve sclerosis, respectively, which decreased to 55% and 84% when we targeted highly expressed genes. Bioinformatic analyses identified six differentially expressed genes encoding key extracellular matrix regulators: TBHS2, SPARC, COL1A2, COL1A1, SPP1, and CTGF. Differential expression of key circulating biomarkers of extracellular matrix reorganization was observed in control vs. aortic valve sclerosis (osteopontin), control vs. aortic stenosis (osteoprotegerin), and aortic valve sclerosis vs. aortic stenosis groups (MMP-2), which corresponded to valvular mRNA expression. We demonstrate distinct mRNA and protein expression underlying aortic valve sclerosis and aortic stenosis. We anticipate that extracellular matrix regulators can serve as circulating biomarkers of early calcific aortic valve disease and as novel targets for early disease mitigation, pending prospective clinical investigations.

9.
JACC Heart Fail ; 8(3): 172-184, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926856

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess if clinical phenogroups differ in comprehensive biomarker profiles, cardiac and arterial structure/function, and responses to spironolactone therapy. BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified distinct subgroups (phenogroups) of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS: Among TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist Trial) participants, we performed latent-class analysis to identify HFpEF phenogroups based on standard clinical features and assessed differences in multiple biomarkers measured from frozen plasma; cardiac and arterial structure/function measured with echocardiography and arterial tonometry; prognosis; and response to spironolactone. RESULTS: Three HFpEF phenogroups were identified. Phenogroup 1 (n = 1,214) exhibited younger age, higher prevalence of smoking, preserved functional class, and the least evidence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and arterial stiffness. Phenogroup 2 (n = 1,329) was older, with normotrophic concentric LV remodeling, atrial fibrillation, left atrial enlargement, large-artery stiffening, and biomarkers of innate immunity and vascular calcification. Phenogroup 3 (n = 899) demonstrated more functional impairment, obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, concentric LV hypertrophy, high renin, and biomarkers of tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated inflammation, liver fibrosis, and tissue remodeling. Compared with phenogroup 1, phenogroup 3 exhibited the highest risk of the primary endpoint of cardiovascular death, heart failure hospitalization, or aborted cardiac arrest (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.79 to 4.24); phenogroups 2 and 3 demonstrated similar all-cause mortality (phenotype 2 HR: 2.36; 95% CI: 1.89 to 2.95; phenotype 3 HR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.77 to 2.87). Spironolactone randomized therapy was associated with a more pronounced reduction in the risk of the primary endpoint in phenogroup 3 (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.59 to 0.95; p for interaction = 0.016). Results were similar after excluding participants from Eastern Europe. CONCLUSIONS: We identified important differences in circulating biomarkers, cardiac/arterial characteristics, prognosis, and response to spironolactone across clinical HFpEF phenogroups. These findings suggest distinct underlying mechanisms across clinically identifiable phenogroups of HFpEF that may benefit from different targeted interventions.

10.
Am J Cardiol ; 125(4): 575-582, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843232

RESUMO

Little data are available regarding the determinants and prognostic significance of serum albumin in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction (HFpEF). We sought to examine the phenotypic correlates of albumin and its independent prognostic implications in HFpEF. We analyzed data from 3,254 subjects enrolled the TOPCAT trial. We stratified subjects according to tertiles of albumin and examined differences in various phenotypic traits between these strata, including 8 protein biomarkers selected ad hoc and measured from frozen samples available in a subset of participants (n = 372). We also assessed the relationship between albumin and the trial primary endpoint. Lower albumin was associated with older age, black race, and greater prevalence of NYHA class III-IV, peripheral arterial disease, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus. Lower albumin was also associated with increased levels of several inflammatory biomarkers, markers of liver fibrosis, albuminuria, and greater arterial stiffness, diastolic dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Albumin was a strong predictor of the primary trial endpoint, even after adjustment for the MAGGIC risk score (hazard ratio [HR] 0.72, confidence interval [CI] 0.67 to 0.78; p <0.0001) and prespecified traditional risk factors (HR 0.78, CI 0.71 to 0.85; p <0.0001). Lower albumin was strongly associated with a worse prognosis even well within normal ranges (>3.5 g/dL), with a sharp increase in risk between 4.6 and 3.6 g/dL. In conclusion, albumin is an integrated marker of various adverse processes in HFpEF, including inflammation, subclinical liver disease, arterial stiffness, and renal disease. Albumin is a powerful risk predictor independent of traditional risk prediction models, even within normal ranges.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Insuficiência Cardíaca/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Espironolactona/uso terapêutico , Volume Sistólico
11.
Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab ; 10: 2042018819861593, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31308926

RESUMO

Background: Attempts to characterize cardiac structure in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have yielded inconsistent findings. We aimed to determine whether patients with HFpEF and T2D have a distinct pattern of cardiac remodelling compared with those without diabetes and whether remodelling was related to circulating markers of inflammation and fibrosis and clinical outcomes. Methods: We recruited 140 patients with HFpEF (75 with T2D and 65 without). Participants underwent comprehensive cardiovascular phenotyping, including echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and plasma biomarker profiling. Results: Patients with T2D were younger (age 70 ± 9 versus 75 ± 9y, p = 0.002), with evidence of more left ventricular (LV) concentric remodelling (LV mass/volume ratio 0.72 ± 0.15 versus 0.62 ± 0.16, p = 0.024) and smaller indexed left atrial (LA) volumes (maximal LA volume index 48 ± 20 versus 59 ± 29 ml/m2, p = 0.004) than those without diabetes. Plasma biomarkers of inflammation and extracellular matrix remodelling were elevated in those with T2D. Overall, there were 45 hospitalizations for HF and 22 deaths over a median follow-up period of 47 months [interquartile range (IQR) 38-54]. There was no difference in the primary composite endpoint of hospitalization for HF and mortality between groups. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, age, prior HF hospitalization, history of pulmonary disease and LV mass/volume were independent predictors of the primary endpoint. Conclusions: Patients with HFpEF and T2D have increased concentric LV remodelling, smaller LA volumes and evidence of increased systemic inflammation compared with those without diabetes. This suggests the underlying pathophysiology for the development of HFpEF is different in patients with and without T2D. ClinicalTrialsgov identifier: NCT03050593.

12.
Am J Transl Res ; 11(3): 1531-1540, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972180

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis represents a significant and rapidly growing unmet medical need. The development of novel therapies has been hindered in part, by the limitations of existing preclinical models. There is a strong need for physiologically relevant in vivo and in vitro liver fibrosis models that are characterized by better translational predictability. In this study, we used the InSphero 3D InSightTM three-dimensional (3D) human liver microtissue (3D-hLMT) system prepared by co-culturing primary human hepatocytes with hepatic stellate cells, Kupffer cells and endothelial cells to develop a model of NASH with a severe fibrotic phenotype. In our model, palmitic acid (PA) induced a robust proinflammatory and profibrogenic phenotype in the 3D-hLMT. PA significantly increased several markers of the inflammatory and profibrotic process including gene expression of collagens, α-sma, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloprotease 1 (timp1) and the stellate cell activation marker pdgfrß as well as secreted CXCL8 (IL8) levels. We also observed TGFß pathway activation, increase in active collagen synthesis and significant overall increase in tissue damage in the 3D-hLMTs. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated the upregulation of collagen, cleaved caspase 3 as well as of the PDGFRß protein. We further validated the model using a phase 3 clinical compound, GS-4997, an apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK-1) inhibitor and showed that GS-4997 significantly decreased PA induced profibrotic and proinflammatory response in the 3D-hLMTs with decreases in apoptosis and stellate cell activation in the microtissues. Taken together we have established and validated an in vitro 3D-hLMT NASH model with severe fibrotic phenotype that can be a powerful tool to investigate experimental compounds for the treatment of NASH.

14.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 31(7): 749-755, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Currently, there are no competing risk analyses of cause-specific mortality in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated a cumulative incidence function for cause-specific mortality. The first nomogram for predicting cause-specific mortality was constructed using a proportional subdistribution hazard model, validated using bootstrap cross-validation, and evaluated with decision curve analysis. RESULTS: Sex, age, positive lymph node status, metastasis, surveillance, epidemiology, and end results historic stage, grade, and surgery strongly predicted cause-specific mortality. The discrimination performance of Fine-Gray models was evaluated using the c-index, which was 0.864. In addition, the calibration plot of the developed nomogram demonstrated good concordance between the predicted and actual outcomes. Decision curve analysis yielded a range of threshold probabilities (0.014-0.779) at which the clinical net benefit of the risk model was greater than that in hypothetical all-screening or no-screening scenarios. CONCLUSION: Our nomogram allows selection of a patient population at high risk for cancer-specific mortality and thus facilitates the design of prevention trials for the affected population.


Assuntos
Tumores Neuroendócrinos/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Feminino , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Invasividade Neoplásica , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/diagnóstico , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/terapia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco , Programa de SEER
15.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(1): 96-105, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29248646

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to establish sex differences in remodeling and outcome in aortic stenosis (AS) and their associations with biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis. BACKGROUND: The remodeling response and timing of symptoms is highly variable in AS, and sex plays an important role. METHODS: A total of 174 patients (133 men, mean age 66.2 ± 13.3 years) with asymptomatic moderate to severe AS underwent comprehensive stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, transthoracic echocardiography, and biomarker analysis (matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-2, -3, -7, -8, and -9; tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinases-1 and -4; syndecan-1 and -4; and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), and were followed up at 6-month intervals. A primary endpoint was a composite of typical AS symptoms necessitating referral for aortic valve replacement, cardiovascular death, or major adverse cardiovascular events. RESULTS: For a similar severity of AS, male patients demonstrated higher indexed left ventricular (LV) volumes and mass, more concentric remodeling (higher LV mass/volume), a trend to more late gadolinium enhancement (present in 51.1% men vs. 34.1% women; p = 0.057), and higher extracellular volume index than female patients (13.27 [interquartile range (IQR): 11.5 to 17.0] vs. 11.53 [IQR: 10.5 to 13.5] ml/m2, p = 0.017), with worse systolic and diastolic function and higher MMP-3 and syndecan-4 levels, whereas female patients had higher septal E/e'. Male sex was independently associated with indexed LV mass (ß = 13.32 [IQR: 9.59 to 17.05]; p < 0.001). During median follow-up of 374 (IQR: 351 to 498) days, a primary outcome, driven by spontaneous symptom onset, occurred in 21.8% of male and 43.9% of female patients (relative risk: 0.50 [95% confidence interval: 0.31 to 0.80]; p = 0.004). Measures of AS severity were associated with the primary outcome in both sexes, whereas N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, MMP-3, and mass/volume were only associated in men. CONCLUSIONS: In AS, women tolerate pressure overload with less concentric remodeling and myocardial fibrosis but are more likely to develop symptoms. This may be related to higher wall stress and filling pressures in women.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/complicações , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/etiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Remodelação Ventricular , Adaptação Fisiológica , Idoso , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/patologia , Estenose da Valva Aórtica/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/fisiopatologia
16.
Clin Transl Sci ; 11(5): 461-470, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29877628

RESUMO

The Assay Guidance Manual (AGM) is an eBook of best practices for the design, development, and implementation of robust assays for early drug discovery. Initiated by pharmaceutical company scientists, the manual provides guidance for designing a "testing funnel" of assays to identify genuine hits using high-throughput screening (HTS) and advancing them through preclinical development. Combined with a workshop/tutorial component, the overall goal of the AGM is to provide a valuable resource for training translational scientists.


Assuntos
Bioensaio/métodos , Descoberta de Drogas , Geografia , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional
17.
Am J Transl Res ; 10(3): 847-856, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636874

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the exact function of RGC-32 in kidney diseases and explore the potential mechanism of RGC-32 in regulating cell cycle. RGC-32 knockout (RGC-32-/-) mice were generated from C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. Differentially expressed proteins in the kidney were investigated with the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) technique. Gene ontology analyses (GO), Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway mapping analysis and functional network analysis were also performed. The expressions of Smc3, Smad 2-3, DNA-PK were further confirmed by qPCR. Results showed that 4690 proteins were quantified on the basis of 25165 unique peptides. Comparative proteomic analysis revealed 361 differentially expressed proteins in RGC-32-/- mice (knockout/wild ratio >+/- 1.2 and P<0.05). GO and KEGG pathway mapping analyses showed differentially expressed proteins were involved in spliceosome, fluid shear stress and atherosclerosis protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, pathways in cancer, viral carcinogenesis, epithelial cell signaling in Helicobacter pylori infection, HTLV-I infection, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, Parkinson's disease, MAPK signaling pathway, carbon metabolism, Alzheimer's disease, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, tight junction, Proteoglycans in cancer, phagosome, ribosome, mTOR signaling pathway, and AMPK signaling pathway. Differentially expressed proteins Smc3 (0.821), DNA-PK (0.761), Smad 2-3 (0.631) were involved in cell cycle regulation. mRNA expression of Smad2-3, DNA-PK, and Smc3 was consistent with that from iTRAQ. It is concluded that RGC-32 may affect the expression of many proteins (76 up-regulated and 285 down-regulated) in the kidney, and may regulate the expression of Smc3, DNA-PK and Smad 2-3 to affect the cell cycle.

18.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 26(8): 1727-1739, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555419

RESUMO

Proliferating cells, including cancer cells, obtain serine both exogenously and via the metabolism of glucose. By catalyzing the first, rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serine from glucose, phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) controls flux through the biosynthetic pathway for this important amino acid and represents a putative target in oncology. To discover inhibitors of PHGDH, a coupled biochemical assay was developed and optimized to enable high-throughput screening for inhibitors of human PHGDH. Feedback inhibition was minimized by coupling PHGDH activity to two downstream enzymes (PSAT1 and PSPH), providing a marked improvement in enzymatic turnover. Further coupling of NADH to a diaphorase/resazurin system enabled a red-shifted detection readout, minimizing interference due to compound autofluorescence. With this protocol, over 400,000 small molecules were screened for PHGDH inhibition, and following hit validation and triage work, a piperazine-1-thiourea was identified. Following rounds of medicinal chemistry and SAR exploration, two probes (NCT-502 and NCT-503) were identified. These molecules demonstrated improved target activity and encouraging ADME properties, enabling in vitro assessment of the biological importance of PHGDH, and its role in the fate of serine in PHGDH-dependent cancer cells. This manuscript reports the assay development and medicinal chemistry leading to the development of NCT-502 and -503 reported in Pacold et al. (2016).


Assuntos
Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Tioureia/análogos & derivados , Tioureia/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Descoberta de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/síntese química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/genética , Fosfoglicerato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Piperazinas/síntese química , Piperazinas/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tioureia/síntese química , Tioureia/química
19.
J Biol Chem ; 291(47): 24628-24640, 2016 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27681596

RESUMO

Deubiquitinases are important components of the protein degradation regulatory network. We report the discovery of ML364, a small molecule inhibitor of the deubiquitinase USP2 and its use to interrogate the biology of USP2 and its putative substrate cyclin D1. ML364 has an IC50 of 1.1 µm in a biochemical assay using an internally quenched fluorescent di-ubiquitin substrate. Direct binding of ML364 to USP2 was demonstrated using microscale thermophoresis. ML364 induced an increase in cellular cyclin D1 degradation and caused cell cycle arrest as shown in Western blottings and flow cytometry assays utilizing both Mino and HCT116 cancer cell lines. ML364, and not the inactive analog 2, was antiproliferative in cancer cell lines. Consistent with the role of cyclin D1 in DNA damage response, ML364 also caused a decrease in homologous recombination-mediated DNA repair. These effects by a small molecule inhibitor support a key role for USP2 as a regulator of cell cycle, DNA repair, and tumor cell growth.


Assuntos
Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Ciclina D1/metabolismo , Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Neoplasias/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Ciclina D1/genética , Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Endopeptidases/genética , Humanos , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/genética , Linfoma de Célula do Manto/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase
20.
ACS Chem Biol ; 11(11): 3214-3225, 2016 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27552339

RESUMO

Loss of function mutations in Kelch-like ECH Associated Protein 1 (KEAP1), or gain-of-function mutations in nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), are common in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and associated with therapeutic resistance. To discover novel NRF2 inhibitors for targeted therapy, we conducted a quantitative high-throughput screen using a diverse set of ∼400 000 small molecules (Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository Library, MLSMR) at the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences. We identified ML385 as a probe molecule that binds to NRF2 and inhibits its downstream target gene expression. Specifically, ML385 binds to Neh1, the Cap 'N' Collar Basic Leucine Zipper (CNC-bZIP) domain of NRF2, and interferes with the binding of the V-Maf Avian Musculoaponeurotic Fibrosarcoma Oncogene Homologue G (MAFG)-NRF2 protein complex to regulatory DNA binding sequences. In clonogenic assays, when used in combination with platinum-based drugs, doxorubicin or taxol, ML385 substantially enhances cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells, as compared to single agents. ML385 shows specificity and selectivity for NSCLC cells with KEAP1 mutation, leading to gain of NRF2 function. In preclinical models of NSCLC with gain of NRF2 function, ML385 in combination with carboplatin showed significant antitumor activity. We demonstrate the discovery and validation of ML385 as a novel and specific NRF2 inhibitor and conclude that targeting NRF2 may represent a promising strategy for the treatment of advanced NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia
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