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1.
EBioMedicine ; 71: 103558, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy is a major cause of therapeutic failure during the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients. Our study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which ZNF711 down regulation promotes CISPLATIN resistance in EOC. METHODS: ZNF711 expression in 150 EOC specimens was examined using immunohistochemistry. ZNF711 expression and the survival of EOC patients were assessed with a Kaplan-Meier analysis. The effects of ZNF711 expression on CDDP resistance were studied by IC50, Annexin V, and colony formation in vitro, and in an in vivo intra-peritoneal tumor model. The molecular mechanism was determined using a luciferase reporter assay, ChIP assay, CAPTURE approach, and co-IP assay. FINDINGS: ZNF711 down-regulation exerts a great impact on CDDP resistance for EOC patients by suppressing SLC31A1 and inhibiting CDDP influx. ZNF711 down-regulation promoted, while ZNF711 overexpression drastically inhibited CDDP resistance, both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistically, the histone demethylase JHDM2A was recruited to the SLC31A1 promoter by ZNF711 and decreased the H3K9me2 level, resulting in the activation of SLC31A1 transcription and enhancement of CDDP uptake. Importantly, co-treatment with the histone methylation inhibitor, BIX-01294, increased the therapeutic efficacy of CDDP treatment in ZNF711-suppressed EOC cells. INTERPRETATION: These findings both verified the clinical importance of ZNF711 in CDDP resistance and provide novel therapeutic regimens for EOC treatment. FUNDING: This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China; Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects; Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province; The Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities; and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation.

2.
Cardiovasc Res ; 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528097

RESUMO

AIMS: Endothelial cell dysfunction drives the initiation and pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We aimed to characterise endothelial cell (EC) dynamics in PAH at single-cell resolution. METHODS AND RESULTS: We carried out single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of lung ECs isolated from an EC lineage-tracing mouse model in Control and SU5416/Hypoxia-induced PAH conditions. EC populations corresponding to distinct lung vessel types, including two discrete capillary populations, were identified in both Control and PAH mice. Differential gene expression analysis revealed global PAH-induced EC changes that were confirmed by bulk RNA-seq. This included upregulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II pathway, supporting a role for ECs in the inflammatory response in PAH. We also identified a PAH response specific to the second capillary EC population including upregulation of genes involved in cell death, cell motility and angiogenesis. Interestingly, four genes with genetic variants associated with PAH were dysregulated in mouse ECs in PAH. To compare relevance across PAH models and species, we performed a detailed analysis of EC heterogeneity and response to PAH in rats and humans through whole-lung PAH scRNA-seq datasets, revealing that 51% of up-regulated mouse genes were also up-regulated in rat or human PAH. We identified promising new candidates to target endothelial dysfunction including CD74, the knockdown of which regulates EC proliferation and barrier integrity in vitro. Finally, with an in silico cell ordering approach, we identified zonation-dependent changes across the arteriovenous axis in mouse PAH and showed upregulation of the Serine/threonine-protein kinase Sgk1 at the junction between the macro- and micro-vasculature. CONCLUSIONS: This study uncovers PAH-induced EC transcriptomic changes at a high resolution, revealing novel targets for potential therapeutic candidate development.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360681

RESUMO

The function and regulation of lipid metabolic genes are essential for plant male reproduction. However, expression regulation of lipid metabolic genic male sterility (GMS) genes by noncoding RNAs is largely unclear. Here, we systematically predicted the microRNA regulators of 34 maize white brown complex members in ATP-binding cassette transporter G subfamily (WBC/ABCG) genes using transcriptome analysis. Results indicate that the ZmABCG26 transcript was predicted to be targeted by zma-miR164h-5p, and their expression levels were negatively correlated in maize B73 and Oh43 genetic backgrounds based on both transcriptome data and qRT-PCR experiments. CRISPR/Cas9-induced gene mutagenesis was performed on ZmABCG26 and another lipid metabolic gene, ZmFAR1. DNA sequencing, phenotypic, and cytological observations demonstrated that both ZmABCG26 and ZmFAR1 are GMS genes in maize. Notably, ZmABCG26 proteins are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), chloroplast/plastid, and plasma membrane. Furthermore, ZmFAR1 shows catalytic activities to three CoA substrates in vitro with the activity order of C12:0-CoA > C16:0-CoA > C18:0-CoA, and its four key amino acid sites were critical to its catalytic activities. Lipidomics analysis revealed decreased cutin amounts and increased wax contents in anthers of both zmabcg26 and zmfar1 GMS mutants. A more detailed analysis exhibited differential changes in 54 monomer contents between wild type and mutants, as well as between zmabcg26 and zmfar1. These findings will promote a deeper understanding of miRNA-regulated lipid metabolic genes and the functional diversity of lipid metabolic genes, contributing to lipid biosynthesis in maize anthers. Additionally, cosegregating molecular markers for ZmABCG26 and ZmFAR1 were developed to facilitate the breeding of male sterile lines.


Assuntos
Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Flores/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Aldeído Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas , Pólen/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/metabolismo , RNA-Seq , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
Mol Cancer ; 20(1): 98, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) has a marked tendency to spread to the bone, resulting in significant skeletal complications and mortality. Recently, circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been reported to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. However, the function and mechanism of circRNAs in BC bone metastasis (BC-BM) remain largely unknown. METHODS: Bone-metastatic circRNAs were screened using circRNAs deep sequencing and validated using in situ hybridization in BC tissues with or without bone metastasis. The role of circIKBKB in inducing bone pre-metastatic niche formation and bone metastasis was determined using osteoclastogenesis, immunofluorescence and bone resorption pit assays. The mechanism underlying circIKBKB-mediated activation of NF-κB/bone remodeling factors signaling and EIF4A3-induced circIKBKB were investigated using RNA pull-down, luciferase reporter, chromatin isolation by RNA purification and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: We identified that a novel circRNA, circIKBKB, was upregulated significantly in bone-metastatic BC tissues. Overexpressing circIKBKB enhanced the capability of BC cells to induce formation of bone pre-metastatic niche dramatically by promoting osteoclastogenesis in vivo and in vitro. Mechanically, circIKBKB activated NF-κB pathway via promoting IKKß-mediated IκBα phosphorylation, inhibiting IκBα feedback loop and facilitating NF-κB to the promoters of multiple bone remodeling factors. Moreover, EIF4A3, acted acting as a pre-mRNA splicing factor, promoted cyclization of circIKBKB by directly binding to the circIKBKB flanking region. Importantly, treatment with inhibitor eIF4A3-IN-2 reduced circIKBKB expression and inhibited breast cancer bone metastasis effectively. CONCLUSION: We revealed a plausible mechanism for circIKBKB-mediated NF-κB hyperactivation in bone-metastatic BC, which might represent a potential strategy to treat breast cancer bone metastasis.

6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2328: 261-275, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34251632

RESUMO

Competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) are transcripts with the ability to competitively titrate microRNAs (miRNAs) against miRNA repressing target genes to post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of corresponding miRNAs. It is a newly discovered gene regulation pattern between longer RNA and miRNA molecules. Recent research has gradually revealed the functional significance of ceRNAs in regulating normal development and stress response processes in plants and animals, as well as in cancer genesis and metastasis. Therefore, ceRNA identification is an important and necessary step to deepen our understanding of the regulation mechanisms of various biological processes. Here, we provide a pipeline used to computationally identify plant ceRNAs and reconstruct ceRNA regulatory networks based on RNA-seq and small RNA-seq data.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , RNA-Seq/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Plantas/genética , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/genética , Pequeno RNA não Traduzido/metabolismo , Software
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumors with mutations associated with homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) are uncommon in prostate cancer (PCa) and variably responsive to PARP inhibition. To better identify tumors with HRD, we developed a transcriptomic signature for HRD in PCa (HRD-P). METHODS: By using an established mutational signature, we created and validated HRD-P in six independent PCa cohorts (primary PCa, n = 8224; metastatic castration-resistant PCa [mCRPC], n = 328). Molecular and clinical features were compared between HRD-P+ tumors and those with single HR-gene mutations. RESULTS: HRD-P+ tumors were more common than tumors with single HR-gene mutations in primary (201/491, 41% vs 32/491 6.5%) and mCRPC (126/328, 38% vs 82/328, 25%) cases, and HRD-P+ was more predictive of genomic instability suggestive of HRD. HRD-P+ was associated with a shorter time to recurrence following surgery and shorter overall survival in men with mCRPC. In a prospective trial of mCRPC treated with olaparib (n = 10), all three men with HRD-P+ experienced prolonged (>330 days) PSA progression-free survival. CONCLUSION: These results suggest transcriptomics can identify more patients that harbor phenotypic HRD than single HR-gene mutations and support further exploration of transcriptionally defined HRD tumors perhaps in conjunction with genomic markers for therapeutic application.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(25): 5944-5950, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156849

RESUMO

The Pd complex PdN3N exhibits an unusual dual emission of room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF), but the mechanism is elusive. Herein, we employed both density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) methods to explore excited-state properties of this Pd complex, which shows that the S0, S1, T1, and T2 states are involved in the luminescence. Both the S1 → T1 and S1 → T2 intersystem crossing (ISC) processes are more efficient than the S1 fluorescence and insensitive to temperature. However, the direct T1 → S1 and T2-mediated T1 → T2 → S1 reverse ISC (rISC) processes change remarkably with temperature. At 300 K, these two processes are more efficient than the T1 phosphorescence and therefore enable TADF. Importantly, the T1 → S1 rISC and T1 phosphorescence rates are comparable at 300 K, which leads to dual emissions of TADF and RTP, whereas these two channels become blocked at 100 K so that only the T1 phosphorescence is recorded experimentally.


Assuntos
Complexos de Coordenação/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Fluorescência , Paládio/química , Temperatura , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Molecular
9.
Cancer Res ; 81(14): 3835-3848, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049973

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dynamics play vital roles in the tumorigenicity and malignancy of various types of cancers by promoting the tumor-initiating potential of cancer cells, suggesting that targeting crucial factors that drive mitochondrial dynamics may lead to promising anticancer therapies. In the current study, we report that overexpression of mitochondrial fission factor (MFF), which is upregulated significantly in liver cancer-initiating cells (LCIC), promotes mitochondrial fission and enhances stemness and tumor-initiating capability in non-LCICs. MFF-induced mitochondrial fission evoked mitophagy and asymmetric stem cell division and promoted a metabolic shift from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis that decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which prevented ROS-mediated degradation of the pluripotency transcription factor OCT4. CRISPR affinity purification in situ of regulatory elements showed that T-box transcription factor 19 (TBX19), which is overexpressed uniquely in LCICs compared with non-LCICs and liver progenitor cells, forms a complex with PRMT1 on the MFF promoter in LCICs, eliciting epigenetic histone H4R3me2a/H3K9ac-mediated transactivation of MFF. Targeting PRMT1 using furamidine, a selective pharmacologic inhibitor, suppressed TBX19-induced mitochondrial fission, leading to a profound loss of self-renewal potential and tumor-initiating capacity of LCICs. These findings unveil a novel mechanism underlying mitochondrial fission-mediated cancer stemness and suggest that regulation of mitochondrial fission via inhibition of PRMT1 may be an attractive therapeutic option for liver cancer treatment. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings show that TBX19/PRMT1 complex-mediated upregulation of MFF promotes mitochondrial fission and tumor-initiating capacity in liver cancer cells, identifying PRMT1 as a viable therapeutic target in liver cancer.

10.
J Exp Bot ; 72(12): 4298-4318, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822021

RESUMO

Fatty acyl reductases (FARs) catalyse the reduction of fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) or -acyl carrier protein (ACP) substrates to primary fatty alcohols, which play essential roles in lipid metabolism in plants. However, the mechanism by which FARs are involved in male reproduction is poorly defined. Here, we found that two maize allelic mutants, ms25-6065 and ms25-6057, displayed defective anther cuticles, abnormal Ubisch body formation, impaired pollen exine formation and complete male sterility. Based on map-based cloning and CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis, Zm00001d048337 was identified as ZmMs25, encoding a plastid-localized FAR with catalytic activities to multiple acyl-CoA substrates in vitro. Four conserved residues (G101, G104, Y327 and K331) of ZmMs25 were critical for its activity. ZmMs25 was predominantly expressed in anther, and was directly regulated by transcription factor ZmMYB84. Lipidomics analysis revealed that ms25 mutation had significant effects on reducing cutin monomers and internal lipids, and altering the composition of cuticular wax in anthers. Moreover, loss of function of ZmMs25 significantly affected the expression of its four paralogous genes and five cloned lipid metabolic male-sterility genes in maize. These data suggest that ZmMs25 is required for anther development and male fertility, indicating its application potential in maize and other crops.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Zea mays , Oxirredutases , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plastídeos/metabolismo , Pólen/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
11.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 630311, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868334

RESUMO

We have previously demonstrated that General Control Non-derepressible 1 (AtGCN1) is essential for translation inhibition under cold stress through interacting with GCN2 to phosphorylate eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2). Here, we report that the flower time of the atgcn1 mutant is later than that of the wild type (WT), and some siliques of atgcn1 cannot develop and produce seeds. Total and polysomal RNA of atgcn1-1 and wild type (WT) after cold treatments were sequenced. The sequencing results show that the mutation of atgcn1 selectively alters the expression of genes at both transcriptional and translational levels. The classification of AtGCN1 target genes reveals that AtGCN1 regulated gens are involved in flower development, seed dormancy and seed development, response to osmotic stress, amino acid biosynthesis, photosynthesis, cell wall organization, protein transport and localization, lipid biosynthesis, transcription, macroautophagy, proteolysis and cell death. Further analysis of AtGCN1 regulated genes at translational levels shows that the Kozak sequence and uORFs (upstream open reading frame) of transcripts affect translation selection. These results show that AtGCN1 is required for the expression of selective genes in Arabidopsis.

12.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 19(9): 1769-1784, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772993

RESUMO

Identifying genic male-sterility (GMS) genes and elucidating their roles are important to unveil plant male reproduction and promote their application in crop breeding. However, compared with Arabidopsis and rice, relatively fewer maize GMS genes have been discovered and little is known about their regulatory pathways underlying anther and pollen development. Here, by sequencing and analysing anther transcriptomes at 11 developmental stages in maize B73, Zheng58 and M6007 inbred lines, 1100 transcription factor (TF) genes were identified to be stably differentially expressed among different developmental stages. Among them, 14 maize TF genes (9 types belonging to five TF families) were selected and performed CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene mutagenesis, and then, 12 genes in eight types, including ZmbHLH51, ZmbHLH122, ZmTGA9-1/-2/-3, ZmTGA10, ZmMYB84, ZmMYB33-1/-2, ZmPHD11 and ZmLBD10/27, were identified as maize new GMS genes by using DNA sequencing, phenotypic and cytological analyses. Notably, ZmTGA9-1/-2/-3 triple-gene mutants and ZmMYB33-1/-2 double-gene mutants displayed complete male sterility, but their double- or single-gene mutants showed male fertility. Similarly, ZmLBD10/27 double-gene mutant displayed partial male sterility with 32.18% of aborted pollen grains. In addition, ZmbHLH51 was transcriptionally activated by ZmbHLH122 and their proteins were physically interacted. Molecular markers co-segregating with these GMS mutations were developed to facilitate their application in maize breeding. Finally, all 14-type maize GMS TF genes identified here and reported previously were compared on functional conservation and diversification among maize, rice and Arabidopsis. These findings enrich GMS gene and mutant resources for deeply understanding the regulatory network underlying male fertility and for creating male-sterility lines in maize.

13.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(11): 6536-6543, 2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690742

RESUMO

Here, we used collinear and noncollinear density functional theory (DFT) methods to explore the interfacial properties of two heterojunctions between a fullerene (C60 and C70) and the MAPbI3(110) surface. Methodologically, consideration of the spin-orbit interaction has been proven to be required to obtain accurate energy-level alignment and interfacial carrier dynamics between fullerenes and perovskites in hybrid perovskite solar cells including heavy atoms (such as Pb atoms). Both heterojunctions are predicted to be the same type-II heterojunction, but the interfacial electron transfer process from MAPbI3 to C60 is completely distinct from that to C70. In the former, the interfacial electron transfer is slow because of the associated large energy gap, and the excited electrons are thus trapped in MAPbI3 for a while. In contrast, in the latter, the smaller energy gap induces ultrafast electron transfer from MAPbI3 to C70. These points are further supported by DFT-based nonadiabatic dynamics simulations including the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects. These gained insights could help rationally design superior fullerene-perovskite interfaces to achieve high power conversion efficiencies of fullerene-perovskite solar cells.

14.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(4): 2001961, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643786

RESUMO

The incidence of bone metastases in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has increased prominently over the past decade owing to the prolonged overall survival of HCC patients. However, the mechanisms underlying HCC bone-metastasis remain largely unknown. In the current study, HCC-secreted lectin galactoside-binding soluble 3 (LGALS3) is found to be significantly upregulated and correlates with shorter bone-metastasis-free survival of HCC patients. Overexpression of LGALS3 enhances the metastatic capability of HCC cells to bone and induces skeletal-related events by forming a bone pre-metastatic niche via promoting osteoclast fusion and podosome formation. Mechanically, ubiquitin ligaseRNF219-meidated α-catenin degradation prompts YAP1/ß-catenin complex-dependent epigenetic modifications of LGALS3 promoter, resulting in LGALS3 upregulation and metastatic bone diseases. Importantly, treatment with verteporfin, a clinical drug for macular degeneration, decreases LGALS3 expression and effectively inhibits skeletal complications of HCC. These findings unveil a plausible role for HCC-secreted LGALS3 in pre-metastatic niche and can suggest a promising strategy for clinical intervention in HCC bone-metastasis.

15.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 935, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568675

RESUMO

Black men die more often of prostate cancer yet, interestingly, may derive greater survival benefits from immune-based treatment with sipuleucel-T. Since no signatures of immune-responsiveness exist for prostate cancer, we explored race-based immune-profiles to identify vulnerabilities. Here we show in multiple independent cohorts comprised of over 1,300 patient samples annotated with either self-identified race or genetic ancestry, prostate tumors from Black men or men of African ancestry have increases in plasma cell infiltrate and augmented markers of NK cell activity and IgG expression. These findings are associated with improved recurrence-free survival following surgery and nominate plasma cells as drivers of prostate cancer immune-responsiveness.


Assuntos
Plasmócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/imunologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Idoso , Movimento Celular , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/genética , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Próstata/imunologia , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia
16.
Chemistry ; 27(12): 4159-4167, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372312

RESUMO

Whether chemical bonding can regulate the excited-state and optoelectronic properties of donor-acceptor dyads has been largely elusive. In this work, we used electronic structure and nonadiabatic dynamics methods to explore the excited-state properties of covalently bonded zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc)-fullerene (C60 ) dyads with a 6-6 (or 5-6) bonding configuration in which ZnPc is bonded to two carbon atoms shared by the two hexagonal rings (or a pentagonal and a hexagonal ring) in C60 . In both cases, the locally excited (LE) states on ZnPc are spectroscopically bright. However, their different chemical bonding differentiates the electronic interactions between ZnPc and C60 . In the 5-6 bonding configuration, the LE states on ZnPc are much higher in energy than the LE states on C60 . Thus, the excitation energy transfer from ZnPc to C60 is thermodynamically favorable. On the other hand, in the 6-6 bonding configuration, such a process is inhibited because the LE states on ZnPc are the lowest ones. More detailed mechanisms are elucidated from nonadiabatic dynamics simulations. In the 6-6 bonding configuration, no excitation energy transfer was observed. In contrast, in the 5-6 bonding configuration, several LE and charge-transfer (CT) excitons were shown to participate in the energy-transfer process. Further analysis reveals that the photoinduced energy transfer is mediated by a CT exciton, such that electron- and hole-transfer processes take place in a concerted but asynchronous manner in the excitation energy transfer. It is also found that high-level electronic structure methods including exciton effects are indispensable to accurately describe photoinduced energy- and electron-transfer processes. Furthermore, this work opens up new avenues for regulating the excited-state properties of molecular donor-acceptor dyads by means of chemical bonding.

17.
Bioorg Med Chem ; 28(20): 115697, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33069077

RESUMO

Structural modification of active natural compoundswhichwereoriginated fromTraditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) have showedgreat advantagesin thedevelopmentof new drugs. In TCM, "Huangqin-Huanglian" is a classic "medicine couple"thathas been used to treat intestinal diseases for thousands ofyears, while baicalinand berberine are the major active compoundsof Huangqin and Huanglianrespectively. Based onthis"medicine couple",wedesignedand synthesizeda newbaicalin and berberine hybrid compound (BBH).Its molecular structure wasconfirmedby spectroscopy.The antibacterial activity of BBH was detected in vitro.Results indicatedthat the new hybrid compound exhibited the best antibacterial activity forproteobacteria as compared with its original synthetic materials (baicalin andberberine). In vivo, the effect of BBHon ulcerative colitiswas alsoinvestigated.BBH treatment significantly ameliorated the disease symptoms andpreventedthe colon damage of ulcerative colitis. Furthermore, BBH showed asignificant anti-inflammatory effect through regulating activities of SOD, MPOandexpressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß and IL-6) in colontissue. Data also suggested that BBH was more superior than baicalin and berberine inameliorating colonic damage. This indicated that the new hybrid compound BBHshowed enhanced efficacy in treating ulcerative colitis.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Berberina/farmacologia , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Antibacterianos/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/síntese química , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Berberina/química , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Sulfato de Dextrana , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Desenho de Fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Superóxido Dismutase/antagonistas & inibidores , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Mol Plant ; 13(11): 1624-1643, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956899

RESUMO

Genic male sterility (GMS) is critical for heterosis utilization and hybrid seed production. Although GMS mutants and genes have been studied extensively in plants, it has remained unclear whether chloroplast-associated photosynthetic and metabolic activities are involved in the regulation of anther development. In this study, we characterized the function of ZmMs33/ZmGPAT6, which encodes a member of the glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) family that catalyzes the first step of the glycerolipid synthetic pathway. We found that normal structure and function of endothecium (En) chloroplasts maintained by ZmMs33-mediated lipid biosynthesis in tapetal cells are crucial for maize anther development. ZmMs33 is expressed mainly in the tapetum at early anther developmental stages and critical for cell proliferation and expansion at late stages. Chloroplasts in En cells of wild-type anthers function as starch storage sites before stage 10 but as photosynthetic factories since stage 10 to enable starch metabolism and carbohydrate supply. Loss of ZmMs33 function inhibits the biosynthesis of glycolipids and phospholipids, which are major components of En chloroplast membranes, and disrupts the development and function of En chloroplasts, resulting in the formation of abnormal En chloroplasts containing numerous starch granules. Further analyses reveal that starch synthesis during the day and starch degradation at night are greatly suppressed in the mutant anthers, leading to carbon starvation and low energy status, as evidenced by low trehalose-6-phosphate content and a reduced ATP/AMP ratio. The energy sensor and inducer of autophagy, SnRK1, was activated to induce early and excessive autophagy, premature PCD, and metabolic reprogramming in tapetal cells, finally arresting the elongation and development of mutant anthers. Taken together, our results not only show that ZmMs33 is required for normal structure and function of En chloroplasts but also reveal that starch metabolism and photosynthetic activities of En chloroplasts at different developmental stages are essential for normal anther development. These findings provide novel insights for understanding how lipid biosynthesis in the tapetum, the structure and function of En chloroplasts, and energy and substance metabolism are coordinated to maintain maize anther development.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(38): 23499-23509, 2020 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907946

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular basis of male sterility and developing practical male-sterility systems are essential for heterosis utilization and commercial hybrid seed production in crops. Here, we report molecular regulation by genic male-sterility gene maize male sterility 7 (ZmMs7) and its application for developing a dominant male-sterility system in multiple species. ZmMs7 is specifically expressed in maize anthers, encodes a plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein that functions as a transcriptional activator, and plays a key role in tapetal development and pollen exine formation. ZmMs7 can interact with maize nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) subunits to form ZmMs7-NF-YA6-YB2-YC9/12/15 protein complexes that activate target genes by directly binding to CCAAT box in their promoter regions. Premature expression of ZmMs7 in maize by an anther-specific promoter p5126 results in dominant and complete male sterility but normal vegetative growth and female fertility. Early expression of ZmMs7 downstream genes induced by prematurely expressed ZmMs7 leads to abnormal tapetal development and pollen exine formation in p5126-ZmMs7 maize lines. The p5126-ZmMs7 transgenic rice and Arabidopsis plants display similar dominant male sterility. Meanwhile, the mCherry gene coupled with p5126-ZmMs7 facilitates the sorting of dominant sterility seeds based on fluorescent selection. In addition, both the ms7-6007 recessive male-sterility line and p5126-ZmMs7M dominant male-sterility line are highly stable under different genetic germplasms and thus applicable for hybrid maize breeding. Together, our work provides insight into the mechanisms of anther and pollen development and a promising technology for hybrid seed production in crops.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Arabidopsis/genética , Produtos Agrícolas , Oryza/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pólen/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 22(35): 19542-19548, 2020 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844829

RESUMO

Hybrid carbon materials are found to exhibit novel optoelectronic properties at their interfaces, but the related interfacial carrier dynamics is rarely explored theoretically. In this contribution, we have employed density functional theory (DFT) and DFT-based nonadiabatic dynamics methods to explore photoinduced interfacial electron transfer processes at interfaces between a single-walled carbon nanotube with chiral index (6,5) and C60 or C70 (C60@CNT65 and C70@CNT65). We have found that with low E11 excitation, electron transfer takes place from CNT65 to C60 and C70 in both heterojunctions. This process is ultrafast and completed within about 200 fs, which is consistent with recent experiments. Differently, high E22 excitation does not induce electron injection to C60 in C60@CNT65; instead, "hot" electrons produced within CNT65 will be trapped in its higher conduction band for a while because of slow inter-band relaxation. By contrast, in C70@CNT65, high E22 excitation still can lead to ultrafast electron transfer to C70, but only a comparable amount of electrons are transferred (ca. 30%). Interestingly, electrons either remaining on CNT65 or transferred to C70 are trapped in the higher conduction band for a while, similarly, due to slow inter-band relaxation. The present results could be useful to guide the design of excellent interfaces of mixed-dimensional hybrid carbon materials for various optoelectronic applications.

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