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1.
AIDS Res Ther ; 17(1): 4, 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: For migrant female sex workers (FSWs) at the Sino-Vietnamese border, the impact of work time in their current location on the spread of HIV/AIDS is not clear. METHODS: Data were collected from the Sino-Vietnamese border cities of Guangxi, China. Migrant FSWs working in these cities were studied. FSWs who worked less than 6 months in their current location were assigned to the short-term work group (ST FSWs), and FSWs who worked equal to or longer than 6 months in their current location were assigned to the long-term work group (LT FSWs). Logistic regression was performed to examine the impact of work time in the current location and factors associated with HIV infection. RESULTS: Among the 1667 migrant FSWs, 586 (35.2%) and 1081 (64.9%) were assigned to the ST FSW and LT FSW groups, respectively. Compared to LT FSWs, ST FSWs were more likely to be of Vietnamese nationality, be less than 18 years old when they first engaged in commercial sex work, and have a low-level of HIV-related knowledge and had higher odds of using condoms inconsistently, having more male clients, having no regular male clients, and having a history of male clients who used aphrodisiacs but lower odds of receiving free condoms distribution and education/HIV counselling and testing programme. The analysis of factors associated with HIV infection revealed that Vietnamese FSWs, less than 18 years old when they first engaged in commercial sex work, having no regular male clients, and having lower average charge per sex transaction were correlated with HIV infection. CONCLUSION: FSWs with short-term work at the Sino-Vietnamese border had a higher risk of risky sex and were correlated with HIV risk factors. Vietnamese FSWs were at higher risk of HIV infection, and they were more likely to have short-term work. More targeted HIV prevention should be designed for new FSWs who recently began working in a locality to further control the spread of HIV, particularly cross-border FSWs.

2.
AIDS Care ; : 1-9, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008356

RESUMO

China's HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to grow in rural and less developed areas. This consecutive cross-sectional study examines demographic and behavioral factors associated with HIV/STI infection, Hepatitis C (HCV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among Vietnamese female sex workers (FSW), a vulnerable population who cross into Guangxi, China. This study is a secondary data analysis of 303 Vietnamese and 4,348 Chinese FSWs recruited over seven years from two Chinese counties that border Vietnam. Logistic regression models compared demographics, HIV/STI status, HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and risk behaviors between Vietnamese FSWs and Chinese FSWs. Compared with Chinese FSWs, Vietnamese FSWs were younger, had attained lower education levels, were highly mobile, more likely to report using drugs, and were more vulnerable to HIV/STIs. Younger age, less educational attainment, shorter time in their current working location, no voluntary HIV testing in the last year, greater drug use, and not using condoms for all commercial sex in the last month were associated with higher HIV/STIs. In conclusion, several factors were associated with HIV/STI risk in Vietnamese cross-border FSWs. There is a pressing need to improve support systems for Vietnamese cross-border FSW and health system cooperation across the Chinese/Vietnamese border.

3.
Antiviral Res ; 174: 104704, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31917237

RESUMO

AIMS: Deguelin, a natural compound derived from Mundulea sericea (Leguminosae) and some other plants exhibits an activity to inhibit autophagy, a cellular machinery required for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. This study aimed to illuminate the impact of deguelin on HCV replication and mechanism(s) involved. METHODS: HCV JFH-1-Huh7 infectious system was used for the investigation. Real time RT-PCR, Western blot, fluorescent microscopy assay were used to measure the expression levels of viral or cellular factors. Overexpression and silencing expression techniques were used to determine the role of key cellular factors. RESULTS: Deguelin treatment of Huh7 cells significantly inhibited HCV JFH-1 replication in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Deguelin treatment suppressed autophagy in Huh7 cells, evidenced by the decrease of LC3B-II levels, the conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, and the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta as well as the increase of p62 level in deguelin-treated cells compared with control cells. HCV infection could induce autophagy which was also suppressed by deguelin treatment. Mechanism research reveals that deguelin inhibited expression of Beclin1, which is a key cellular factor for the initiation of the autophagosome formation in autophagy. Overexpression or silencing expression of Beclin1 in deguelin-treated Huh7 cells could weaken or enhance the inhibitory effect on autophagy by deguelin, respectively, and thus partially recover or further inhibit HCV replication correspondingly. CONCLUSIONS: Deguelin may serve as a novel anti-HCV compound via its inhibitory effect on autophagy, which warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for HCV infection.

4.
J BUON ; 24(5): 1870-1875, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786849

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Berbamine is a plant-derived alkaloid with amazing and wide diversity of pharmacological properties which range from antimicrobial and anticancer. Nonetheless, the anticancer properties of Berbamine have not been thoroughly evaluated against colon cancer cells. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anticancer effects of Berbamine against human colon cancer cells (HT-29 colon cancer cells). Μethods: CCK-8 assay was used to determine the cell viability. DAPI and propidium iodide (PI) staining assays were used for the detection of apoptosis. Electron microscopy was used for the determination of autophagy. Wound healing assay was used to monitor cell migration. Protein expression was determined by western blotting. RESULTS: The results showed that Berbamine caused a remarkable decrease in the HT-29 cell viability with an IC50 of 14 µM, while the high IC50 of Berbamine against the normal CDD-18Co cells indicated low toxicity of this molecule against the normal cells. DAPI and PI staining assays showed nuclear fragmentation, indicative of apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Berbamine also caused activation of caspase-3 and 9 and increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Electron microscopic analysis showed that Berbamine triggered the development of autophagic vesicles in the HT-29 cells which was concomitant with the increase in protein levels of LC3B-I, ATG-5, ATG-12 and Beclin-1. Wound healing assay showed that Berbamine decreased the migration potential of the HT-29 and also blocked the MEK/ERK signalling pathway in colon cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Berbamine may prove an efficient lead molecule for the development of more potent anticancer agents through semi-synthetic approaches.

5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 367-376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851879

RESUMO

The dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei (TM) is a common cause of HIV-associated opportunistic infections in Southeast Asia. Cotrimoxazole (CTX) inhibits folic acid synthesis which is important for the survival of many bacteria, protozoa, and fungi and has been used to prevent several opportunistic infections among HIV/AIDS patients. We question whether CTX is effective in preventing TM infection. To investigate this question, we conducted an 11-year (2005-2016) retrospective observational cohort study of all patients on the Chinese national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programme in Guangxi, a province with high HIV and TM burden in China. Survival analysis was conducted to investigate TM cumulative incidence, and Cox regression and propensity score matching (PSM) were used to evaluate the effect of CTX on TM incidence. Of the 3359 eligible individuals contributing 10,504.66 person-years of follow-up, 81.81% received CTX within 6 months after ART initiation, and 4.73% developed TM infection, contributing 15.14/1,000 person-year TM incidence rate. CTX patients had a significantly lower incidence of TM infection than non-CTX patients (4.11% vs. 7.53%; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.50, 95% CI 0.35-0.73). CTX reduced TM incidence in all CD4+ cell subgroups (<50 cells/µL, 50-99 cells/µL, 100-199 cells/µL), with the highest reduction observed in patients with a baseline CD4+ cell count <50 cells/µL in both Cox regression and the PSM analyses. In conclusion, in addition to preventing other HIV-associated opportunistic infections, CTX prophylaxis has the potential to prevent TM infection in HIV/AIDS patients receiving ART.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775514

RESUMO

Dynamic recombination is the driving force in the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). When multiple subtypes are circulating in the same area of a population, new HIV-1 strains are likely to be generated through recombination. In this study, we report a novel recombinant strain (2018GXQZLSHET001) of HIV-1, isolated from a HIV-1 positive heterosexual individual infected in Guangdong province, who recently lived in Guangxi province, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length genome (NFLG) suggested that 2018GXQZLSHET001 was a recombinant of strains CRF01_AE and subtype B. Similarity plotting and bootscaning showed that three subtype B segments were inserted into the CRF01_AE genome with five breakpoints. Genomic mosaic structures were identified in a comparison between 2018GXQZLSHET001 and CRF55_01B, indicating that 2018GXQZLSHET001 was similar to CRF55_01B, but with an additional subtype B fragment inserted in the nef and 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) region. Further sub-region phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the CRF01_AE segments all originated from Thailand. For the subtype B segments, region II was from Europe and the USA, while regions IV and VI were more similar to a Thai B lineage. This indicated that the strain might be a novel recombinant, comprising sequences of both CRF_AE and B. The emergence of this unique recombinant strain illustrated the complexity of the HIV-1 epidemic, and the need to strengthen molecular epidemiological surveillance and measures to reduce its spread. Key words: HIV-1, NFLG, URF, CRF, genetic diversity.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547666

RESUMO

Recently, an increasing number of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms of HIV-1 have been identified in China, contributing substantially to the genetic variability of this virus. This study reports a novel second-generation recombinant form of HIV-1 (GX2015QZLS204), composed of segments from the CRF07_BC and CRF01_AE strains, which was isolated from an HIV-positive male individual infected through heterosexual contact, while residing in the Guangxi province of southwest China. Analysis of the near full-length genome sequence showed that one segment of the CRF01_AE virus subtype was inserted into the CRF07_BC subtype backbone. Recombination analysis demonstrated that the genome of GX2015QZLS204 was separated into seven segments with six breakpoints. Subregion trees constructed by the neighbor-joining method confirmed that the CRF01_AE segment was from the previously identified CRF01_AE cluster 2, and the CRF07_BC segment correlated with the CRF07_BC strain originating from the Jiangxi and Xinjiang provinces of China. The emergence of GX2015QZLS204 highlights the frequent generation of novel recombinant forms and the increasing complications of the HIV-1 epidemic among heterosexual transmission (HET) groups in China. This highlights the importance of monitoring HIV-1 molecular epidemiological characteristics and the urgent need for reduction of the HIV-1 epidemic among HET groups in China.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482724

RESUMO

Recently, more and more kinds of circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) and unique recombinant forms (URFs) were identified in the population in China. A novel HIV-1 recombinant virus (2016GXNNIDU016) was identified in this study, which was isolated from an HIV-1 infected intravenous drug user in Nanning, the capital of Guangxi, China. Phylogenetic analysis of the near full-length genome (NFLG) indicated that the sequence (2016GXNNIDU016) was a monophyletic branch that did not cluster with any previously identified genotype. Recombinant analysis showed that the NFLG of 2016GXNNIDU016 is composed of CRF07_BC, CRF01_AE, and CRF08_BC, including nine mosaic segments. Differing from previously documented CRF01_AE and CRF07/08_BC recombinant forms, 2016GXNNIDU016 increases the genetic complexity of HIV-1 in Guangxi. The constant emergence of novel recombinant forms should draw our attention to make more efforts in supervising and preventing the spread of HIV infection.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7816, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127157

RESUMO

Previous studies investigating HIV-infected patients suggested a direct link between underweight and the mortality rate of AIDS. However, there was a lack of evidence showing the optimal range of initial body mass index (BMI) patients maintain during antiretroviral therapy (ART). We aimed to evaluate associations of the BMI values pre-ART and during the entire ART duration with mortality among HIV-positive individuals. In total, 5101 HIV/AIDS patients, including 1439 (28.2%) underweight, 3047 (59.7%) normal-weight, 548 (10.7%) overweight and 67 (1.3%) obese patients, were included in this cohort. The cumulative mortality of underweight, normal-weight, and overweight were 2.4/100 person-years (95% CI 1.9-2.9), 1.1/100 person-years (95% CI 0.9-1.3), and 0.5/100 person-years (95% CI 0.1-0.9), respectively. Cumulative mortality was lower in both the normal-weight and overweight populations than in the underweight population, with an adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) of 0.5 (95% CI 0.4-0.7, p < 0.001) and 0.3 (95% CI 0.1-0.6, p = 0.002), respectively. Additionally, in the 1176 patients with available viral load data, there was significant difference between the underweight and normal-weight groups after adjustment for all factors, including viral load (p = 0.031). This result suggests that HIV-infected patients in Guangxi maintaining a BMI of 19-28 kg/m2, especially 24-28 kg/m2, have a reduced risk of death.

10.
BMJ Open ; 9(4): e023140, 2019 04 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterise the association between duration of exposure to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and liver damage in HIV patients with an initially normal baseline liver function and without hepatitis B virus (HBV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in HIV-infected individuals with normal liver function parameters at ART initiation and without HBV/HCV infection, from 14 April 2004 to 13 April 2015 in Guigang city, Guangxi, China. The association between duration of ART and liver damage (grade II-IV liver enzyme elevation [LEE] and/or total bilirubin elevation [TBE]), was analysed. Cox regression was used to examine the factors related to liver damage. RESULTS: Of 2119 eligible patients, 12.41% (263/2119) developed liver damage (grade II-IV LEE/TBE) and contributed 4.11/100 person-years crude incidence rate. The highest liver damage incidence was observed in patients with 6-12 months' ART (15.16/100 person-years). The incidence decreased to 5.56/100 person-years in patients with 12-18 months' ART and 3.13/100 person years in patients with 18-24 months' ART, and then maintained at a relatively low and stable level in patients with 2 years' ART or longer (average of 3.65/100 person-years). Cox regression analysis revealed that current WHO disease stage II, III or IV (compared with stage I) were the risk factors for liver damage, while baseline disease stage II, III (compared with stage I) and current regimen 3TC+AZT+NVP were the protective factors for liver damage. CONCLUSIONS: Liver damage always exists among HIV-infected patients on ART with normal baseline liver function and without HBV/HCV infection. Nevertheless, cumulative ART duration does not increase the risk of liver damage. ART could tend to be long-term, however, monitoring and management of liver damage among patients on ART are also important in clinical therapy.

11.
AIDS Res Ther ; 16(1): 6, 2019 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HIV late presentation and advanced HIV disease and to identify the factors associated with HIV late presentation and advanced HIV disease among patients with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, in Southwestern China. METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed HIV registered in the HIV surveillance system of Guangxi Centers for Disease Control between January 2012 and December 2016 were included in this study. RESULTS: Of 45,118 newly diagnosed patients, 70.2% had late presentation, and 45.1% had advanced HIV disease. A higher prevalence of late presentation and advanced HIV disease was found in male heterosexuals and female people who use drugs (PWID). Heterosexuals (OR 2.11 [95% CI 1.90-2.34]) and PWID (OR 1.55 [95% CI 1.30-1.84]) had a higher risk of late presentation than men who have sex with men (MSM). Blood testing of the blood receivers (OR 1.75 [95% CI 1.36-2.26]) and diagnosed in hospital (OR 1.74 [95% CI 1.65-1.84]) had an increased risk of late presentation compared to those who diagnosis in voluntary counseling and testing (VCT). Heterosexuals (OR 2.86 [95% CI 2.51-3.27]), PWID (OR 2.23 [95% CI 1.83-2.71]), blood testing of the blood receivers (OR 1.58 [95% CI 1.29-1.94]) and diagnosed in hospital (OR 1.85 [95% CI 1.76-1.94]) were also independent risk factors associated with advanced HIV disease. Older age, lower level of education and being divorced or widowed were also associated with late presentation and advanced HIV disease. CONCLUSIONS: Late presentation and advanced HIV disease were very common among patients with newly diagnosed HIV in Guangxi, China during 2012-2016. Targeted programs are urgently required to reduce HIV late diagnosis in Guangxi, especially for male heterosexuals, PWID, and patients with characteristics such as older age, lower level of education, divorced or widowed.

12.
Cytotechnology ; 71(1): 329-344, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30603919

RESUMO

hiHep is a new type of hepatocyte-like cell that is predicted to be a potential unlimited source of hepatocytes for a bioartificial liver. However, hiHep cannot currently be used in clinical settings because serum must be added during the culture process. Thus, a defined medium is required. Because serum is complex, an efficient statistical approach based on the Plackett-Burman design was used. In this manner, an original medium and several significant cell growth factors were identified. These factors include insulin, VH, and VE, and the original medium was optimized based on these significant factors. Additionally, hiHep liver-specific functions and metabolism in the optimized serum-free medium were measured. Results showed that hiHep functions, such as glycogen storage, albumin secretion, and urea production, were well maintained in our optimized serum-free medium. In summary, we created a chemically defined, serum-free medium in which cell growth, proliferation, metabolism, and function were well maintained. This medium has the potential to support the clinical use of hiHep.

13.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(9): 898, 2018 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185779

RESUMO

Both alcohol and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection could induce cellular autophagy in liver cells, which is considered to be essential for productive HCV replication. However, whether alcohol-induced autophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of HCV infection is still poorly understood. Alcohol treatment could induce autophagy in Huh7 cells (a hepatoma cell line that supports HCV JFH-1 replication), evidenced by the increase of LC3B-II levels, the conversion of LC3B-I to LC3B-II, and the formation of GFP-LC3 puncta as well as the decrease of p62 level in alcohol-treated cells compared with control cells. Alcohol treatment also significantly increased PIASy (a member of the PIAS family) expression, which can act as a SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier protein) E3 ligase to regulate a broader range of cellular processes including autophagy. Overexpression or the silencing expression of PIASy in alcohol-treated Huh7 cells could increase or decrease autophagic activation caused by alcohol treatment, respectively, and thus affect HCV replication correspondingly. In the absence of alcohol, overexpression or silencing expression of PIASy increase or decrease the level of cellular autophagy, judged by the changes of LC3B-II and p62 levels in the presence or absence of chloroquine (CQ), a lysosome inhibitor. More importantly, in the presence of 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an inhibitor in the early stage of autophagy, the effects of overexpression or silencing expression of PIASy on HCV replication were largely blocked. Furthermore, PIASy could selectively drive the accumulation of SUMO1-conjugated proteins, along with upregulation of the expression of several important autophagy factors, including ATG7 and ATG5-ATG12. In conclusion, alcohol promotes HCV replication through activation of autophagy in Huh7 cells, which partly attributes to its induction of PIASy expression. PIASy-enhanced accumulation of SUMO1-conjugated proteins may contribute to its inducing effect of autophagy. Our findings provide a novel mechanism for the action of alcohol-promoting HCV replication in the context of cellular autophagy.


Assuntos
Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Etanol/farmacologia , Hepacivirus/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de STAT Ativados/genética , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Hepatite C/genética , Hepatite C/virologia , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
14.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0195569, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29621346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To examine the accuracy of Rapid Diagnosis of Talaromyces marneffei (RDTM) in order to improve diagnosis and treatment for clinical measures and reduce the mortality due to associated infections. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we screened PubMed, Ovid (Cochrane library) and Web of Science, Chinese database CNKI and Wanfang for articles published between 1956 and December, 2017. Data were taken from cross-sectional studies as well as from baseline measurements in longitudinal studies with clinical follow-up. Articles were excluded if they did not contain a cohort with T. marneffei and a control cohort or a cohort with standard fungus culture. Data were extracted by two authors and checked by three for accuracy. For quality assessment, modified QUADAS-2 criteria were used. RESULTS: The 26 included diagnostic studies enrolled 5,594 objectives in 632 patients with T. marneffei infections and 2,612 negative controls between 1996 and 2017 in Thailand, Vietnam and China. The total combined sensitivity and specificity of rapid diagnosis of T. marneffei was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.68-0.90) and 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-1.00). According to the experimental method, the included studies can be divided into three subgroups, including PCR-based, ELISA-based and others. The results showed these three subgroups had a highly pooled specificity of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.00), 0.99 (0.98-1.00) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.91-1.00), respectively, while combined sensitivity was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.37-0.98), 0.82 (95% CI: 0.64-0.92) and 0.77 (95% CI: 0.54-0.91), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Although serological methods with a high specificity is essential for potential rapid diagnostic, false-negative results can be obtained in the serum samples, there is no suitable rapid serological test to refer to as is the case with TM infection.


Assuntos
Micoses/diagnóstico , Talaromyces , Humanos , Testes Sorológicos
15.
Gene ; 662: 21-27, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) is critical for monitoring AIDS epidemic and assessing the effectiveness of intervention measures. However, current methods for distinguishing new infections from newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients are still imperfect. We explored utilizing miRNAs as biomarker to identify HIV new infections. METHODS: According to the HIV-1 status and the estimated duration of infection (EDI), we enrolled participants and divided them into three groups: healthy control, new infection (within 1 year), and old infection (longer than 1 year). Participants were assigned into screening set or validation set. miRNA microarray was performed in screening set and the differentially expressed miRNAs were screened out. The differentially expressed miRNAs were further confirmed in validation set and HIV-1 IIIB-MT2 cells infection system. RESULTS: In screening set, 5 miRNAs including miR-1291, miR-3609, miR-3162-3p, miR-874-5p and miR-4258 were screened out for their differential expression in plasma among three groups. In validation set, down- trend of miR-3162-3p was validated from healthy control, new infection to old infection groups. In HIV-1 IIIB-MT2 system, the levels of miR-3162-3p also decreased along with infection duration in vitro. Sensitivity and specificity for miR-3162-3p to distinguish new infection from old infection were 100.0% and 71.43%, respectively, with the cut-off value of 0.916. CONCLUSION: miR-3162-3p in plasma could be a potential microRNA biomarker to identify HIV new infections in HIV-1 infected patients.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/genética , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , MicroRNAs/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
BMC Public Health ; 18(1): 450, 2018 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sex workers (FSW) are a population that are at high risk for HIV infection, and their HIV/AIDS knowledge levels and sexual behaviors are of concern. This study describes changes in HIV prevalence and factors associated among female sex workers in Guigang City, Guangxi, one of the highest HIV prevalence areas in China. METHODS: Data were derived from an annual cross-sectional venue-based survey, 2008 to 2015, in the form of sentinel surveillance. The participants were recruited using cluster sampling. FSW aged 16 years and above who completed a questionnaire and HIV testing. Both descriptive and multi-level analyses were used to explore factors associated with changes in HIV prevalence. RESULTS: Seven thousand four hundred ninety-six FSW were recruited in this study. HIV prevalence among FSW in Guigang City fell into two periods, one with an increasing trend (2008-2011) and one with a decline (2012-2015). Differences between these time periods included age, relationship status, HIV knowledge, consistent condom use, lifetime illicit drug use, history of sexually transmitted infection in the past year, HIV testing, receipt of a condom distribution and education program or HIV counseling and testing, and peer education services. CONCLUSIONS: Since 2012, a reduction in HIV prevalence among FSW in Guigang City has been observed. The decline of HIV prevalence was associated with coinciding changes in demographic characteristics of FSW, improvement of HIV knowledge and safer sexual behaviors, and a program that promotes condom use, HIV counseling & testing, and peer education.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Vigilância de Evento Sentinela , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2018: 4390318, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29568753

RESUMO

Objectives: Identifying recent infections is necessary to monitor HIV/AIDS epidemic; however, it needs to be further developed. Methods and Results: Participants were defined as having recent infection or older infection according to the estimated duration of HIV-1 infection and further assigned into training set and validation set according to their entering time points. Western blot (WB) confirmatory test and BED-CEIA were performed. The performance of the two methods on recent HIV-1 diagnosis was evaluated and compared. 81 subjects were enrolled in the training set and 72 in the validation set. Relative grey ratios of p24, p39, p31, p66, gp41, and gp160 were significantly higher in older infected patients of the training set. The present status of p55 was more frequently missing in recently infected patients in both sets. The logistic stepwise regression analysis of WB method shows sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 93.02%, 92.11%, and 92.59%. For BED-CEIA, they were 76.74%, 86.84%, and 81.48%. In the validation set, overall agreement rate, sensitivity, and specificity were 88.46%, 84.78%, and 86.11% in the WB-based method and 50.00%, 84.78%, and 72.22% in the BED-CEIA method. Conclusions: WB-based method is a promising approach to predict recent HIV-1 infection, especially in resource-limited regions.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/metabolismo , Western Blotting/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
18.
J Med Virol ; 90(6): 1112-1120, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446489

RESUMO

Alcohol could compromise the anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) function of interferon-alpha (IFN-α). However, little information is available about the effect of alcohol on interferon-lambda (IFN-λ, type III IFN), a novel candidate for development of therapy for HCV infection. Huh7 cells were infected with HCV JFH-1 virus, then treated with alcohol, and/or IFN-λ1. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the levels of HCV and key cellular factors. Overexpression or silencing expression was performed to verify the role of key factors in alcohol-attenuated anti-HCV function of IFN-λ1. Alcohol treatment compromised anti-HCV effect of IFN-λ1 in HCV JFH-1-infected Huh7 cells, evidenced by the significantly increased levels of HCV RNA, and HCV core protein in alcohol-/IFN-λ1-treated cells compared to cells with IFN-λ1 treatment alone. Investigation of the mechanisms responsible for the alcohol action revealed that alcohol enhanced the expression of protein inhibitor of activated STAT (PIASy). Overexpression of PIASy compromised anti-HCV ability of IFN-λ1, whereas silencing expression of PIASy partly restored the alcohol-attenuated anti-HCV effect of IFN-λ1. More importantly, overexpression of PIASy significantly down-regulated the level of IFN-λ1-indcued phosphorylation of STAT1 (p-STAT1), an important adaptor in IFN-λ pathway, as well as reduced the expression of IFN-λ1-induced IFN-stimulated genes 56 (ISG56), and myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1), two antiviral effectors in in IFN-λ pathway. These findings indicate that alcohol, through inducing the expression of negative regulator in IFN-λ pathway, inhibits IFN-λ-mediated anti-HCV action in human hepatic cells, which may lead to the poor efficacy of IFN-λ-based therapy against HCV infection.


Assuntos
Álcoois/metabolismo , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Hepatócitos/imunologia , Interleucinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose/biossíntese , Proteínas Inibidoras de STAT Ativados/biossíntese , Regulação para Cima , Western Blotting , Linhagem Celular , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepacivirus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/virologia , Humanos , Interferons , RNA Viral/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Proteínas do Core Viral/análise
19.
Intervirology ; 61(6): 281-291, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31018203

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The epidemiological evidence is inconsistent about whether HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs) are at higher risk of developing antiretroviral resistance than any other HIV-positive populations. This study aims to investigate and compare transmitted drug resistance (TDR) between IDUs and non-IDUs in Lingshan County, an HIV-hit region in Guangxi, China, where IDU and heterosexual transmission were the two dominant transmission routes and roughly equally contributed to the local HIV transmission. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among newly diagnosed and antiretroviral-treatment (ART)-naïve HIV-1 patients from Lingshan County. The pol gene of HIV-1 from the individuals was sequenced followed by genotyping and TDR analysis. RESULTS: Two dominant transmission routes, heterosexual contact and IDU, accounted for 49.2 and 45.9% of 183 HIV-1 infection cases, respectively. Three genotypes, including CRF08_BC (70.6%), CRF01_AE (24.4%), and CRF07_BC (5.0%), and three unique recombinant forms (1.6%), were identified. There was a significant difference in genotype distribution among the different transmission routes (F = 21.814, p < 0.001). The overall TDR prevalence was 5.5%. There were no significant differences in TDR prevalence among the different transmission routes (F = 1.420, p = 0.439). CONCLUSIONS: Injection drug use has little impact on TDR prevalence compared with other routes of transmission.


Assuntos
Farmacorresistência Viral , Usuários de Drogas , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Filogenia , Prevalência , Recombinação Genética , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
20.
Org Lett ; 19(24): 6463-6465, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29182286

RESUMO

A free-radical-mediated intermolecular hydroheteroarylation of simple alkenes was developed. Through simply mixing heteroarenes, alkenes, Fe(III), and NaBH4 at 0 °C together, a wide range of alkylated heteroarenes could be afforded in moderate to excellent yields within 1 h.

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