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1.
Food Funct ; 10(8): 5102-5114, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363726

RESUMO

The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (CMP) on STZ-treated DN mice. CMP were identified by FT-IR and HPLC. Diabetic nephropathy (DN) was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by the injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg kg-1) in citrate buffer on 5 consecutive days. Administration of CMP at 200 and 400 mg kg-1 or irbesartan at 60 mg kg-1 in the STZ-treated mice could prevent the damage caused by STZ. CMP significantly reduced the STZ-induced higher expression of the kidney index, TC, TG, MDA, urinary protein, Scr, and BUN, while it markedly increased the STZ-induced decrease in GSH levels compared with the DN group. Histopathology analysis of the kidney by PAS, Masson, and HE staining confirmed the renal injury induced by STZ and the protective effects of CMP. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results confirmed the severe foot process effacement induced by STZ, but CMP treatment inhibited the podocytes' structure defects and ameliorated the function of podocytes. Desmin was measured by immunofluorescence and was related to podocyte injury. The results showed that CMP lessened the expression of desmin induced by STZ. CD68 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry analysis, and the expressions of IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1 mRNA were measured by qRT-PCR. The results showed that CMP suppressed the expressions of CD68, IL-1ß, IL-6, and MCP-1 mRNA induced by STZ. The role of autophagy in the treatment of DN mice with CMP was detected by TEM and western blotting. The results showed that the administration of CMP was able to overcome the STZ-treated autophagy deficiency, significantly increase the rate of autophagy in the kidney, promote the expression of Atg5, beclin1 and LC3 protein, and reduce the expression of p62 protein. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CMP exert a protective effect on DN in STZ-treated mice possibly via activation of autophagy.

2.
Front Immunol ; 10: 652, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30988670

RESUMO

A transplanted organ is usually rejected without any major immunosuppressive treatment because of vigorous alloimmune responsiveness. However, continuous global immunosuppression may cause severe side effects, including nephrotoxicity, tumors, and infections. Therefore, it is necessary to seek novel immunosuppressive agents, especially natural ingredients that may provide sufficient efficacy in immunosuppression with minimal side effects. Shikonin is a bioactive naphthoquinone pigment, an ingredient originally extracted from the root of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. Previous studies have shown that shikonin regulates immunity and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. In particular, it can ameliorate arthritis in animal models. However, it is unclear whether shikonin inhibits alloimmunity or allograft rejection. In this study and for the first time, we demonstrated that shikonin significantly prolonged the survival of skin allografts in wild-type mice. Shikonin increased the frequencies of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) post-transplantation and induced CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs in vitro as well. Importantly, depleting the Tregs abrogated the extension of skin allograft survival induced by shikonin. It also decreased the frequencies of CD8+CD44highCD62Llow effector T cells and CD11c+CD80+/CD11c+CD86+ mature DCs after transplantation. Moreover, we found that shikonin inhibited the proliferation of T cells in vitro and suppressed their mTOR signaling. It also reduced the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IFNγ, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-17A, while increasing the gene expression of anti-inflammatory mediators IL-10, TGF-ß1, and indoleamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) in skin allografts. Further, shikonin downregulated IDO protein expression in skin allografts and DCs in vitro. Taken together, shikonin inhibits allograft rejection via upregulating CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs. Thus, shikonin is a novel immunosuppressant that could be potentially used in clinical transplantation.

3.
Front Immunol ; 10: 306, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863408

RESUMO

A transplanted organ is always rejected in the absence of any immunosuppressive treatment due to vigorous alloimmunity. However, continuously global immunosuppression with a conventional immunosuppressant may result in severe side effects, including nephrotoxicity, tumors and infections. Tregs have been widely used to inhibit allograft rejection, especially in animal models. However, it's well accepted that administration of Tregs alone is not satisfactory in immune-competent wild-type animals. Therefore, it's imperative to promote Treg therapies under the cover of other approaches, including costimulatory blockade. In the present study, we demonstrated that administration of in vitro-expanded CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs synergized with costimulatory blockade of CD40/CD154, but not B7/CD28, to prolong skin allograft survival in wild-type mice and to reduce cellular infiltration in skin allografts as well. Treg treatment and blockade of CD40/CD154, but not B7/CD28, also exhibited an additive effect on suppression of T cell proliferation in vitro and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in skin allografts. Importantly, blocking B7/CD28, but not CD40/CD154, costimulation decreased the number of transferred CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs and their expression of IL-10 in recipient mice. Furthermore, it's B7/CD28, but not CD40/CD154, costimulatory blockade that dramatically reduced IL-10 production by CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs in vitro, suggesting that B7/CD28, but not CD40/CD154, costimulation is critical for their production of IL-10. Indeed, infusion of IL-10-deficient CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs failed to synergize with anti-CD154 Ab treatment to further prolong allograft survival. Our data may explain why blocking B7/CD28 costimulatory pathway does not boost IL-10-dependent Treg suppression of alloimmunity. Thus, these findings could be implicated in clinical organ transplantation.

4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 109: 1296-1305, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30551379

RESUMO

Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is characterized by proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and edema. The disorder of sodium and water metabolism is a critical mechanism regulating the origination and progression of NS. Zhen-wu-tang (ZWT) has been traditionally used to treat edema disease in China and Japan. The present study was carried out to assess the protective effect of ZWT in Adriamycin-induced (ADR) NS rats and investigate the potential anti-NS mechanisms of ZWT. We found that ZWT treatment ameliorate impaired kidney function and regulate water balance of kidney. Importantly, ZWT increased the expression of Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) which play key roles in maintaining body water homeostasis. Additionally, we determined miRNAs expression patterns in NS rats. Using bioinformatics prediction and miR-92b mimic or inhibitor in vitro, we identified miR-92b as a possible modulator of AQP2. Also we found that ZWT can decrease the expression of miR-92b and reverse the effect of miR-92b on AQP2 in vitro. We further demonstrated that miR-92b directly regulated AQP2 expression by targeting 3'-UTR of AQP2. These finding suggest that ZWT may reduce renal edema in Adriamycin-induced nephropathy via regulating AQP2 and miR-92b.


Assuntos
Aquaporina 2/metabolismo , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Animais , China , Japão , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2359, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369931

RESUMO

Cellular therapies with polyclonal regulatory T-cells (Tregs) in transplantation and autoimmune diseases have been carried out in both animal models and clinical trials. However, The use of large numbers of polyclonal Tregs with unknown antigen specificities has led to unwanted effects, such as systemic immunosuppression, which can be avoided via utilization of antigen-specific Tregs. Antigen-specific Tregs are also more potent in suppression than polyclonal ones. Although antigen-specific Tregs can be induced in vitro, these iTregs are usually contaminated with effector T cells during in vitro expansion. Fortunately, Tregs can be efficiently engineered with a predetermined antigen-specificity via transfection of viral vectors encoding specific T cell receptors (TCRs) or chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). Compared to Tregs engineered with TCRs (TCR-Tregs), CAR-modified Tregs (CAR-Tregs) engineered in a non-MHC restricted manner have the advantage of widespread applications, especially in transplantation and autoimmunity. CAR-Tregs also are less dependent on IL-2 than are TCR-Tregs. CAR-Tregs are promising given that they maintain stable phenotypes and functions, preferentially migrate to target sites, and exert more potent and specific immunosuppression than do polyclonal Tregs. However, there are some major hurdles that must be overcome before CAR-Tregs can be used in clinic. It is known that treatments with anti-tumor CAR-T cells cause side effects due to cytokine "storm" and neuronal cytotoxicity. It is unclear whether CAR-Tregs would also induce these adverse reactions. Moreover, antibodies specific for self- or allo-antigens must be characterized to construct antigen-specific CAR-Tregs. Selection of antigens targeted by CARs and development of specific antibodies are difficult in some disease models. Finally, CAR-Treg exhaustion may limit their efficacy in immunosuppression. Recently, innovative CAR-Treg therapies in animal models of transplantation and autoimmune diseases have been reported. In this mini-review, we have summarized recent progress of CAR-Tregs and discussed their potential applications for induction of immunological tolerance.

6.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 50(4): 1560-1573, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30359968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lupus nephritis (LN) is an autoimmune glomerulonephritis that frequently develops secondary to systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients with LN require extensive treatments with global immunosuppressive agents. However, long-term treatment with conventional immunosuppressants may cause various side effects. Therefore, it's important to seek alternative drugs for treating LN. Here we aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory effects of mangiferin (MG), an ingredient that was originally extracted from natural herbs, including Mangifera Indica Linn. and Rhizoma Anemarrhenae. METHODS: FasL-deficient B6/ gld mice were used as a spontaneous LN model. The serum anti-dsDNA Ab and creatinine levels were analyzed via ELISA. Renal histology and immunopathology were determined using H&E and PAS staining, immunofluorescence (IgG and C3), and IHC staining (CD3 and a-SMA). Cytokine gene expression was measured by RT-PCR assays while effector T cells and Tregs were enumerated by flow analysis. Finally, the proliferation and apoptosis of T cells were measured by CFSE staining and flow analysis while their mTOR signaling was detected through Western blotting. RESULTS: We found that administration of MG ameliorated LN in lupus-prone B6/gld mice by reducing the urinary protein and serum creatinine levels, diminishing T cell infiltration in kidneys and improving renal immunopathology. MG also significantly lowered the percentages of CD44highCD62Llow effector T cells in B6/gld mice. Importantly, treatments with MG augmented CD4+FoxP3+ Treg frequencies in spleens, lymph nodes and kidneys of B6/gld mice. It also induced CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs from CD3+ T cells in vitro and promoted Treg proliferation. Furthermore, it inhibited CD3+ T cell proliferation in vitro and suppressed their phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream P70S6K. However, MG did not promote T cell apoptosis, implying that it is not cytotoxic. Depletion of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs in B6/gld mice abrogated its therapeutic effects on LN. CONCLUSION: MG exerts a novel therapeutic effect on murine LN via upregulating CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs, downregulating mTOR/p70S6K pathway and improving renal immunopathology. It may be useful for treating LN in clinic.


Assuntos
Nefrite Lúpica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Xantonas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatinina/sangue , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Rim/imunologia , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Linfonodos/imunologia , Linfonodos/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas 70-kDa/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Xantonas/farmacologia
7.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2092, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258447

RESUMO

Psoriasis is an autoimmune and inflammatory skin disease affecting around 2-3% of the world's population. Patients with psoriasis need extensive treatments with global immunosuppressive agents that may cause severe side effects. Esculetin, a type of coumarins, is an active ingredient extracted mainly from the bark of Fraxinus rhynchophylla, which has been used to treat inflammatory and autoimmune diseases in China. However, the antipsoriatic effects of esculetin have not been reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of esculetin on psoriatic skin inflammation in a mouse model and explored the potential molecular mechanisms underlying its action. We found that esculetin ameliorated the skin lesion and reduced PASI scores as well as weight loss in imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like mice, accompanied with weakened proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes and T cell infiltration in esculetin-treated psoriatic mice. In addition, esculetin reduced the frequency of CD8+CD44highCD62Llow effector T cells in psoriatic mice. In contrast, it increased the frequency of CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs in both lymph nodes and spleens of the psoriatic mice while promoting the differentiation of CD4+CD25- T cells into CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs in vitro. Interestingly, depleting CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs largely reversed esculetin-mediated reduction in PASI scores, indicating that esculetin attenuates murine psoriasis mainly by inducing CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the psoriatic mouse skin, including IL-6, IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, were dramatically decreased by the treatment with esculetin. Finally, we found that esculetin inhibited the phosphorylation of IKKα and P65 in the psoriatic skin, suggesting that it inhibits the activation of NF-κB signaling. Thus, we have demonstrated that esculetin attenuates psoriasis-like skin lesion in mice and may be a potential therapeutic candidate for the treatment of psoriasis in clinic.

8.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 88, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29483872

RESUMO

A recipient usually rejects a transplanted organ and thus needs immunosuppressive treatments to prevent rejection. Achieving long-term allograft survival without continuous global immunosuppression is highly desirable in transplantation as long-term immunosuppression causes various side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to search for medicine with potentially less side effects. Traditional Chinese medicine PSORI-CM01 (Yin Xie Ling), a formula with seven natural herbs, has been used to treat patients with psoriasis. Here, we investigated a "sharpened" formula, PSORI-CM02 consisting of only five herbs from PSORI-CM01: Curcumae rhizoma, Radix paeoniae rubra, Rhizoma smilacis glabrae, Mume fructus, and Sarcandrae herba. We examined whether or not PSORI-CM02 would suppress alloimmunity and found that PSORI-CM02 significantly inhibited murine skin allograft rejection and reduced graft-infiltration of CD3+ T cells. Interestingly, omitting any single herbal component rendered the whole formula ineffective in suppression, indicating that these herbal components exert their effects cooperatively as a whole. Moreover, PSORI-CM02 increased CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Treg frequency with CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs remaining unchanged in recipient mice, whereas CsA reduced CD4+FoxP3+ Treg frequency. PSORI-CM02 also hindered CD11c+ DC maturation posttransplantation. Importantly, PSORI-CM02-induced CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs were more potent in suppression of allograft rejection in Rag-/- mice than control Tregs. On the other hand, PSORI-CM02 suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro and reduced their phosphorylation of P70S6K and P50/P65, suggesting that it inhibits both mTOR and NFκB signaling pathways. It also increased IL-10 production while reducing IFNγ level in the supernatant of activated T cells co-cultured with CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs. Furthermore, HPLC fingerprinting ruled out that PSORI-CM02 contained CsA or rapamycin. PSORI-CM02 also did not cause any illness and toxic injury in recipient mice. Thus, we demonstrate that PSORI-CM02 formula suppresses allograft rejection without toxicity.

9.
Front Immunol ; 8: 1519, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167674

RESUMO

Due to vigorous alloimmunity, an allograft is usually rejected without any conventional immunosuppressive treatment. However, continuous global immunosuppression may cause severe side effects, including tumors and infections. Mounting evidence has shown that cyclosporine (CsA), a common immunosuppressant used in clinic, impedes allograft tolerance by dampening regulatory T cells (Tregs), although it inhibits allograft rejection at the same time. Therefore, it is necessary to seek an alternative immunosuppressive drug that spares Tregs with high efficiency in suppression but low toxicity. In this study, we investigated the capacity of emodin, an anthraquinone molecule originally extracted from certain natural plants, to prolong transplant survival in a mouse model and explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its action. We found that emodin significantly extended skin allograft survival and hindered CD3+ T cell infiltration in the allograft, accompanied by an increase in CD4+Foxp3+ and CD8+CD122+ Treg frequencies and numbers but a reduction in effector CD8+CD44highCD62Llow T cells in recipient mice. Emodin also inhibited effector CD8+ T cells proliferation in vivo. However, CD4+CD25+, but not CD8+CD122+, Tregs derived from emodin-treated recipients were more potent in suppression of allograft rejection than those isolated from control recipients, suggesting that emodin also enhances the suppressive function of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. Interestingly, depleting CD25+ Tregs largely reversed skin allograft survival prolonged by emodin while depleting CD122+ Tregs only partially abrogated the same allograft survival. Furthermore, we found that emodin hindered dendritic cell (DC) maturation and reduced alloantibody production posttransplantation. Finally, we demonstrated that emodin inhibited in vitro proliferation of T cells and blocked their mTOR signaling as well. Therefore, emodin may be a novel mTOR inhibitor that suppresses alloimmunity by inducing both CD4+FoxP3+ and CD8+CD122+ Tregs, suppressing alloantibody production, and hindering DC maturation. Thus, emodin is a newly emerging immunosuppressant and could be utilized in clinical transplantation in the future.

10.
Oncotarget ; 8(36): 60201-60209, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28947964

RESUMO

Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease mainly mediated by effector T cells that are activated by autoantigen, thereby resulting in the destruction of pancreatic islets and deficiency of insulin. Cyclosporine is widely used as an immunosuppressant that suppresses autoimmunity in clinic. However, continuous treatments with conventional immunosuppressive drugs may cause severe side effects. Therefore it is important to seek alternative medicine. Chinese medicine Ginseng and Astragalus granule (GAG) was used to successfully treat type 2 diabetes mellitus in clinic in China. Here we found that GAG ameliorated T1DM in autoimmune NOD mice by increasing the level of insulin and reducing the level of blood glucose. Treatments with both GAG and CsA further decreased the blood glucose level. Moreover, GAG increased both CD4+FoxP3+ and CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Treg numbers in both spleens and lymph nodes of NOD mice. In particular, GAG could reverse a decline in CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs resulted from CsA treatments. The percentage of effector/memory CD8+ T cells (CD44highCD62Llow) was significantly reduced by GAG, especially in the presence of low-doses of CsA. Histopathology also showed that GAG attenuated cellular infiltration and lowered CD3+ T cell numbers around and in islets. Thus, we demonstrated that GAG ameliorated autoimmune T1DM by upregulating both CD4+FoxP3+ and CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs while GAG synergized with CsA to further suppress autoimmunity and T1DM by reversing the decline in CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs resulted from CsA treatments. This study may have important clinical implications for the treatment of T1DM using traditional Chinese medicine.

11.
Oncotarget ; 8(15): 24187-24195, 2017 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28445940

RESUMO

Mounting evidence has shown that naturally occurring CD8+CD122+ T cells are regulatory T cells (Tregs) that suppress both autoimmunity and alloimmunity. We have previously shown that CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs not only suppress allograft rejection, but also are more potent in suppression than conventional CD4+CD25+ Tregs. However, the mechanisms underlying their suppression of alloimmunity are not well understood. In an adoptive T-cell transfer model of mice lacking lymphocytes, we found that suppression of skin allograft rejection by CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs was mostly dependent on their expression of Fas ligand as either lacking Fas ligand or blocking it with antibodies largely abolished their suppression of allograft rejection mediated by transferred T cells. Their suppression was also mostly reversed when effector T cells lacked Fas receptor. Indeed, these FasL+ Tregs induced T cell apoptosis in vitro in a Fas/FasL-dependent manner. However, their suppression of T cell proliferation in vitro was dependent on IL-10, but not FasL expression. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CD8+CD122+PD-1+ Tregs significantly extended allograft survival even in wild-type mice if Tregs lacked Fas receptor or if recipients received recombinant IL-15, as these two measures synergistically expanded adoptively-transferred Tregs in recipients. Thus, this study may have important implications for Treg therapies in clinical transplantation.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Proteína Ligante Fas/metabolismo , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Receptor fas/metabolismo , Aloenxertos , Animais , Apoptose/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Imunomodulação , Subunidade beta de Receptor de Interleucina-2/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
12.
Front Immunol ; 8: 127, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28239383

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking (CS) regulates both innate and adaptive immunity and causes numerous diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory, and autoimmune diseases, allergies, cancers, and transplant rejection. Therefore, smoking poses a serious challenge to the healthcare system worldwide. Epidemiological studies have always shown that CS is one of the major risk factors for transplant rejection, even though smoking plays redundant roles in regulating immune responses. The complex roles for smoking in immunoregulation are likely due to molecular and functional diversities of cigarette smoke components, including carbon monoxide (CO) and nicotine. Especially, CO has been shown to induce immune tolerance. Although CS has been shown to impact transplantation by causing complications and subsequent rejection, it is overlooked whether CS interferes with transplant tolerance. We have previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke exposure reverses long-term allograft survival induced by costimulatory blockade. Given that CS impacts both adaptive and innate immunity and that it hinders long-term transplant survival, our perspective is that CS impacts transplant tolerance. Here, we review impacts of CS on major immune cells that are critical for transplant outcomes and propose the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its effects on alloimmunity and transplant survival. Further investigations are warranted to fully understand why CS exerts deleterious rather than beneficial effects on transplant survival even if some of its components are immunosuppressive.

13.
Chin J Integr Med ; 23(10): 770-778, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27048408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the underlying mechanisms of cyclovirobuxinum D (Cvb-D) on alleviating cardiac hypertrophy in rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control group; levothyroxine-induced cardiac hypertrophy group (model); levothyroxine-induced cardiac hypertrophy + Cvb-D group (Cvb-D); levothyroxine-induced cardiac hypertrophy + captopril group (captopril); levothyroxine-induced cardiac hypertrophy + SB203580 group (SB203580), n=10 for each group. Rats were daily administered the respective drugs continuously for14 days by gastric gavage. A rat model of cardiac hypertrophy was established by intraperitoneal injection of levothyroxine to investigate whether Cvb-D protects against cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and preventing apoptosis of cardiac cells. RESULTS: Treatment with Cvb-D significantly deceased left ventricle hypertrophy, improved the histopathology, hemodynamic conditions, and cardiac function in rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Compared with the normal control group, in rats with cardiac hypertrophy, expression of bax in the heart and phospho-p38 MAPK protein levels were significantly up-regulated (P<0.01 or 0.05), whereas the bcl-2 protein level was down-regulated (P<0.01). In contrast, Cvb-D treatment reversed the changes in bax and phospho-p38 MAPK protein levels but increased the bcl-2 protein level (P<0.01 or 0.05), and these effects were similar to those of captopril and SB203580 (a specific p38MAPK inhibitor) treatment. Furthermore, both Cvb-D, captopril and SB203580 reduced mRNA expression of p38α, p38ß, c-fos, and c-jun mRNA, and Cvb-D had a stronger effect (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that Cvb-D protects against cardiac hypertrophy, which is possibly mediated by prevention of cardiac cell apoptosis and inhibition of the p38MAPK signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Cardiomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomegalia/patologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Hipertireoidismo/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases , Miócitos Cardíacos/patologia , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardiomegalia/complicações , Cardiomegalia/enzimologia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Hipertireoidismo/enzimologia , Hipertireoidismo/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/complicações , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertrofia Ventricular Esquerda/patologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Miócitos Cardíacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
Oncotarget ; 8(1): 268-284, 2017 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27902485

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells. Complex roles of cigarette smoke have resulted in numerous diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory and autoimmune diseases, allergies, cancers and transplant rejection etc. Although previous reviews have described the effects of smoking on various diseases and regional immunity associated with specific diseases, a comprehensive and updated review is rarely seen to demonstrate impacts of smoking on general immunity and, especially on major components of immune cells. Here, we aim to systematically and objectively review the influence of smoking on major components of both innate and adaptive immune cells, and summarize cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system. The molecular pathways impacted by cigarette smoking involve NFκB, MAP kinases and histone modification. Further investigations are warranted to understand the exact mechanisms responsible for smoking-mediated immunopathology and to answer lingering questions over why cigarette smoking is always harmful rather than beneficial even though it exerts dual effects on immune responses.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/química , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Humanos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24812565

RESUMO

Zhen-wu-tang (ZWT), a well-known formula in China, is widely used to treat chronic kidney diseases. However, very little information on ZWT's mechanism of action is currently available. In this study, we investigated the possible protective role and underlying mechanism of ZWT on nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced by Adriamycin (intravenous injection, 6.0 mg/kg) in rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches. ZWT decreased urine protein excretion and the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin was also recorded in nephropathic rats. Pathological results show an improved pathological state and recovering glomerular structure in ZWT treatment groups. ZWT decreased renal IL-8 level but increased renal IL-4 level. In addition, rats subjected to ZWT exhibited less IgG deposition in glomerulus compared with model group. RT-PCR results showed that ZWT decreased the mRNA expression of NF- κ B p65 and increased the mRNA expression of I κ B. Furthermore, ZWT reduced the level of MDA and increased SOD activity. These results demonstrated that ZWT ameliorated Adriamycin-induced NS in rats possibly by inhibiting Adriamycin-induced inflammation damage, enhancing body's antioxidant capacity, thereby protecting glomerulus from injury.

16.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 151(3): 1124-1132, 2014 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24389029

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical syndrome with a variety of causes, mainly characterized by heavy proteinuria. Podocyte injury plays a key role in proteinuria, one of the principal means for the control of NS is to prevent podocyte injury. Qi-Dan Fang consists of two of the most extensively applied herbal remedies among Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) (Radix Astragali Mongolici and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, with a weight ratio of 5:1) which are specifically used for the treatment of various kidney diseases. In previous studies, we found that Qi-Dan Fang provides improvement to patients with adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome by alleviating proteinuria and serum lipid. The aim of this study is to study the efficiency of Qi-Dan Fang on NS model rat with renal dysfunction and podocyte injury, something which has not been carried out yet. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The rats were divided into Normal, Model, Jin Gui Shen Qi Pill (4.12 g/kg), Qi-Dan Fang (3.09, 6.17 and 12.34 g/kg/d) groups, they were each given a single tail intravenous injection of Adriamycin (6.0 mg/kg) except for the Normal group and were orally administered dosages of Qi-Dian Fang and Jin Gui Shen Qi pills once daily for 7 weeks. Following the treatment, the content of cystation C (CysC), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) were measured with an autobiochemical analyser. The pathomorphological changes to the glomeruli, the mRNA expressions of nephrin, podocin, CD2AP genes and p53, bax, bcl-2 proteins expressions were also carried out to probe the effects of Qi-Dan Fang. RESULTS: (1) Qi-Dan Fang treatment raised the level of CysC in blood serum while lowering the content of BUN and Scr in the adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome rat model; (2) Long-term administration of Qi-Dan Fang was able to ameliorate pathomorphological change of glomeruli and repair the organization structure of Glomerulus; (3) Qi-Dan Fang could increase the mRNA expression of nephrin, podocin and CD2AP genes, down-regulate the expression of p53, bax proteins, while increased bcl-2 protein to protect the podocyte and restore Glomerular selective filtration function. CONCLUSIONS: Results of our present studies reveal that Qi-Dan Fang is able to enhance renal function, inhibit podocyte injury to provide improvements to the Adriamycin-induced nephrotic syndrome.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Síndrome Nefrótica/tratamento farmacológico , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doxorrubicina , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Rim/ultraestrutura , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Síndrome Nefrótica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Nefrótica/metabolismo , Síndrome Nefrótica/patologia , Fitoterapia , Podócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Podócitos/metabolismo , Podócitos/patologia , Podócitos/ultraestrutura , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Proteína X Associada a bcl-2/metabolismo
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