Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 76
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4865, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381041

RESUMO

Supported metal nanoparticles are of universal importance in many industrial catalytic processes. Unfortunately, deactivation of supported metal catalysts via thermally induced sintering is a major concern especially for high-temperature reactions. Here, we demonstrate that the particle distance as an inherent parameter plays a pivotal role in catalyst sintering. We employ carbon black supported platinum for the model study, in which the particle distance is well controlled by changing platinum loading and carbon black supports with varied surface areas. Accordingly, we quantify a critical particle distance of platinum nanoparticles on carbon supports, over which the sintering can be mitigated greatly up to 900 °C. Based on in-situ aberration-corrected high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron and theoretical studies, we find that enlarging particle distance to over the critical distance suppress the particle coalescence, and the critical particle distance itself depends sensitively on the strength of metal-support interactions.

3.
Environ Health ; 20(1): 63, 2021 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022907

RESUMO

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have been found to be associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) development, a maternal health disorder in pregnancy with negative effects that can extend beyond pregnancy. Studies that report on this association are difficult to summarize due to weak associations and wide confidence intervals. One way to advance this field is to sharpen the biologic theory on a causal pathway behind this association, and to measure it directly by way of molecular biomarkers. The aim of this review is to summarize the literature that supports a novel pathway between PFAS exposure and GDM development. Epidemiological studies demonstrate a clear association of biomarkers of thyroid hormones and glucose metabolism with GDM development. We report biologic plausibility and epidemiologic evidence that PFAS dysregulation of maternal thyroid hormones and thyrotropin (TSH) may disrupt glucose homeostasis, increasing the risk of GDM. Overall, epidemiological studies demonstrate that PFAS were positively associated with TSH and negatively with triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). PFAS were generally positively associated with glucose and insulin levels in pregnancy. We propose dysregulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism may be a critical and missing component in the accurate estimation of PFAS on the risk of GDM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Fluorcarbonetos/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/metabolismo , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Gravidez , Risco , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3135, 2021 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34035287

RESUMO

Supported metal nanoclusters consisting of several dozen atoms are highly attractive for heterogeneous catalysis with unique catalytic properties. However, the metal nanocluster catalysts face the challenges of thermal sintering and consequent deactivation owing to the loss of metal surface areas particularly in the applications of high-temperature reactions. Here, we report that sulfur-a documented poison reagent for metal catalysts-when doped in a carbon matrix can stabilize ~1 nanometer metal nanoclusters (Pt, Ru, Rh, Os, and Ir) at high temperatures up to 700 °C. We find that the enhanced adhesion strength between metal nanoclusters and the sulfur-doped carbon support, which arises from the interfacial metal-sulfur bonding, greatly retards both metal atom diffusion and nanocluster migration. In catalyzing propane dehydrogenation at 550 °C, the sulfur-doped carbon supported Pt nanocluster catalyst with interfacial electronic effects exhibits higher selectivity to propene as well as more stable durability than sulfur-free carbon supported catalysts.

5.
Chemistry ; 27(1): 145-157, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706127

RESUMO

The development of low-cost catalysts containing earth-abundant elements as alternatives to Pt-based catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is crucial for the large-scale commercial application of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Nonprecious metal-nitrogen-carbon (M-N-C) materials represent the most promising candidates to replace Pt-based catalysts for PEMFCs applications. However, the high-temperature pyrolysis process for the preparation of M-N-C catalysts frequently leads to high structural heterogeneity, that is, the coexistence of various metal-containing sites and N-doped carbon structures. Unfortunately, this impedes the identification of the predominant catalytic active structure, and thus, the further development of highly efficient M-N-C catalysts for the ORR. This Minireview, after a brief introduction to the development of M-N-C ORR catalysts, focuses on the commonly accepted views of predominant catalytic active structures in M-N-C catalysts, including atomically dispersed metal-Nx sites, metal nanoparticles encapsulated with nitrogen-doped carbon structures, synergistic action between metal-Nx sites and encapsulated metal nanoparticles, and metal-free nitrogen-doped carbon structures.

6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5892, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208746

RESUMO

Metal single-atom catalysts (M-SACs) have emerged as an attractive concept for promoting heterogeneous reactions, but the synthesis of high-loading M-SACs remains a challenge. Here, we report a multilayer stabilization strategy for constructing M-SACs in nitrogen-, sulfur- and fluorine-co-doped graphitized carbons (M = Fe, Co, Ru, Ir and Pt). Metal precursors are embedded into perfluorotetradecanoic acid multilayers and are further coated with polypyrrole prior to pyrolysis. Aggregation of the metals is thus efficiently inhibited to achieve M-SACs with a high metal loading (~16 wt%). Fe-SAC serves as an efficient oxygen reduction catalyst with half-wave potentials of 0.91 and 0.82 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode) in alkaline and acid solutions, respectively. Moreover, as an air electrode in zinc-air batteries, Fe-SAC demonstrates a large peak power density of 247.7 mW cm-2 and superior long-term stability. Our versatile method paves an effective way to develop high-loading M-SACs for various applications.

7.
Inorg Chem ; 59(21): 15953-15961, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085476

RESUMO

Catalytic biomass conversions are sustainable processes to produce value-added fuels and chemicals but need stable catalysts that can tolerate harsh hydrothermal conditions. Herein, we report a hydrothermally stable catalyst by alloying Pt with a high-melting-point metal Nb. The Pt/Nb alloy catalysts are prepared by H2 reduction at a high temperature of 900 °C with a high-surface-area carbon black support, which can suppress metal sintering at high temperatures and thus lead to small-sized alloyed Pt/Nb particles of only 2.2 nm. Taking the advantages of surface acid property provided by the Nb sites and the size effect, the prepared C-supported small-sized Pt/Nb alloy catalysts exhibit attractive activities for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone and the water-gas shift reaction. More significantly, benefiting from the inherent stability of high-melting-point Nb, the Pt/Nb alloy catalysts show much enhanced hydrothermal stability compared to commercial Pt/C and Ru/C catalysts.

8.
Adv Mater ; 32(46): e2005433, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063406

RESUMO

Heterostructures exhibit considerable potential in the field of energy conversion due to their excellent interfacial charge states in tuning the electronic properties of different components to promote catalytic activity. However, the rational preparation of heterostructures with highly active heterosurfaces remains a challenge because of the difficulty in component tuning, morphology control, and active site determination. Herein, a novel heterostructure based on a combination of RuMo nanoalloys and hexagonal N-doped carbon nanosheets is designed and synthesized. In this protocol, metal-containing anions and layered double hydroxides are employed to control the components and morphology of heterostructures, respectively. Accordingly, the as-made RuMo-nanoalloys-embedded hexagonal porous carbon nanosheets are promising for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), resulting in an extremely small overpotential (18 mV), an ultralow Tafel slope (25 mV dec-1 ), and a high turnover frequency (3.57 H2 s-1 ) in alkaline media, outperforming current Ru-based electrocatalysts. First-principle calculations based on typical 2D N-doped carbon/RuMo nanoalloys heterostructures demonstrate that introducing N and Mo atoms into C and Ru lattices, respectively, triggers electron accumulation/depletion regions at the heterosurface and consequently reduces the energy barrier for the HER. This work presents a convenient method for rational fabrication of carbon-metal heterostructures for highly efficient electrocatalysis.

9.
Small ; 16(31): e2002203, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521114

RESUMO

The rational design of catalytically active sites in porous materials is essential in electrocatalysis. Herein, atomically dispersed Fe-Nx sites supported by hierarchically porous carbon membranes are designed to electrocatalyze the hydrazine oxidation reaction (HzOR), one of the key techniques in electrochemical nitrogen transformation. The high intrinsic catalytic activity of the Fe-Nx single-atom catalyst together with the uniquely mixed micro-/macroporous membrane support positions such an electrode among the best-known heteroatom-based carbon anodes for hydrazine fuel cells. Combined with advanced characterization techniques, electrochemical probe experiments, and density functional theory calculation, the pyrrole-type FeN4 structure is identified as the real catalytic site in HzOR.

10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(22): 25211-25220, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401490

RESUMO

Hierarchically porous carbons (HPCs) with multimodal pore systems exhibit great technological potentials, especially in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis, energy storage, and conversion. Here, we establish a simple and general approach to HPCs by carbonization of nonporous coordination polymers that are produced by mixing metal salts with polytopic ligands in alkaline aqueous solutions at room temperature. The proposed approach is applicable to a wide scope of ligand molecules (18 examples), thus affording the synthesized HPCs with high diversity in porosity, morphology, and composition. In particular, the prepared HPCs exhibit high specific surface areas (up to 2647 m2 g-1) and large pore volumes (up to 2.39 cm3 g-1). The HPCs-supported atomically dispersed Fe-Nx catalysts show much-improved fuel cell cathode performance over the micropore-dominated carbon black-supported catalysts, demonstrating the structural superiority of the HPCs for enhancing the mass transport properties.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 59(8): 5694-5701, 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32216345

RESUMO

The semihydrogenation of phenylacetylene to styrene represents an important process for optimizing the polystyrene production and also a model reaction for the evaluation of selective hydrogenation catalysts. Although the alloying strategy and surface engineering for noble metal (particularly for Pd) catalysts can effectively inhibit the overhydrogenation of styrene, the selectivity of phenylacetylene semihydrogenation to styrene is generally below 95% near the full conversion. Here, we demonstrate the electronic modulation of Pd-based bimetallic nanocluster catalysts based on the strong metal-support interactions for improving the catalytic selectivity for phenylacetylene semihydrogenation. A series of Pd-M (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ga) bimetallic nanoclusters of ∼2 nm are immobilized on mesoporous sulfur-doped carbon (meso_S-C) supports, which exhibit a high selectivity of >97% for the semihydrogenation of phenylacetylene to styrene. The strong interaction between metal and the meso_S-C supports enables the modulation of electronic structure of the bimetallic nanoparticles and thus leads to the selectivity enhancement for the phenylacetylene semihydrogenation.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(4): 1627-1633, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674103

RESUMO

The development of metal-N-C materials as efficient non-precious metal (NPM) catalysts for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) as alternatives to platinum is important for the practical use of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). However, metal-N-C materials have high structural heterogeneity. As a result of their high-temperature synthesis they often consist of metal-Nx sites and graphene-encapsulated metal nanoparticles. Thus it is hard to identify the active structure of metal-N-C catalysts. Herein, we report a low-temperature NH4 Cl-treatment to etch out graphene-encapsulated nanoparticles from metal-N-C catalysts without destruction of co-existing atomically dispersed metal-Nx sites. Catalytic activity is much enhanced by this selective removal of metallic nanoparticles. Accordingly, we can confirm the spectator role of graphene-encapsulated nanoparticles and the pivotal role of metal-Nx sites in the metal-N-C materials for ORR in the acidic medium.

13.
Adv Mater ; 32(2): e1904331, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31773829

RESUMO

Superelastic and fatigue-resistant materials that can work over a wide temperature range are highly desired for diverse applications. A morphology-retained and scalable carbonization method is reported to thermally convert a structural biological material (i.e., bacterial cellulose) into graphitic carbon nanofiber aerogel by engineering the pyrolysis chemistry. The prepared carbon aerogel perfectly inherits the hierarchical structures of bacterial cellulose from macroscopic to microscopic scales, resulting in remarkable thermomechanical properties. In particular, it maintains superelasticity without plastic deformation even after 2 × 106 compressive cycles and exhibits exceptional temperature-invariant superelasticity and fatigue resistance over a wide temperature range at least from -100 to 500 °C. This aerogel shows unique advantages over polymeric foams, metallic foams, and ceramic foams in terms of thermomechanical stability and fatigue resistance, with the realization of scalable synthesis and the economic advantage of biological materials.

14.
Chem Sci ; 11(30): 7933-7939, 2020 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34094162

RESUMO

Small-sized bimetallic nanoparticles that integrate the advantages of efficient exposure of the active metal surface and optimal geometric/electronic effects are of immense interest in the field of catalysis, yet there are few universal strategies for synthesizing such unique structures. Here, we report a novel method to synthesize sub-2 nm bimetallic nanoparticles (Pt-Co, Rh-Co, and Ir-Co) on mesoporous sulfur-doped carbon (S-C) supports. The approach is based on the strong chemical interaction between metals and sulfur atoms that are doped in the carbon matrix, which suppresses the metal aggregation at high temperature and thus ensures the formation of small-sized and well alloyed bimetallic nanoparticles. We also demonstrate the enhanced catalytic performance of the small-sized bimetallic Pt-Co nanoparticle catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of nitroarenes.

15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4977, 2019 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672970

RESUMO

Metal-support interaction is of great significance for catalysis as it can induce charge transfer between metal and support, tame electronic structure of supported metals, impact adsorption energy of reaction intermediates, and eventually change the catalytic performance. Here, we report the metal size-dependent charge transfer reversal, that is, electrons transfer from platinum single atoms to sulfur-doped carbons and the carbon supports conversely donate electrons to Pt when their size is expanded to ~1.5 nm cluster. The electron-enriched Pt nanoclusters are far more active than electron-deficient Pt single atoms for catalyzing hydrogen evolution reaction, exhibiting only 11 mV overpotential at 10 mA cm-2 and a high mass activity of 26.1 A mg-1 at 20 mV, which is 38 times greater than that of commercial Pt/C. Our work manifests that the manipulation of metal size-dependent charge transfer between metal and support opens new avenues for developing high-active catalysts.

16.
Chem Sci ; 10(35): 8236-8240, 2019 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31673323

RESUMO

The development of high-performance non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is still of significance in promoting the commercialization of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this work, a "hierarchically porous carbon (HPC)-supporting" approach was developed to synthesize highly ORR active Fe-phenanthroline (Fe-phen) derived Fe-N x -C catalysts. Compared to commercial carbon black supports, utilizing HPCs as carbon supports can not only prevent the formation of inactive iron nanoparticles during pyrolysis but also optimize the porous morphology of the catalysts, which eventually increases the amount of reactant-accessible and atomically dispersed Fe-N x active sites. The prepared catalyst therefore exhibits a remarkable ORR activity in both half-cells (half-wave potential of 0.80 V in 0.5 M H2SO4) and H2-air PEMFCs (442 mA cm-2 at a working voltage of 0.6 V), making it among the best non-PGM catalysts for PEMFCs.

17.
Sci Adv ; 5(10): eaax6322, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692785

RESUMO

Metals often exhibit robust catalytic activity and specific selectivity when downsized into subnanoscale clusters and even atomic dispersion owing to the high atom utilization and unique electronic properties. However, loading of atomically dispersed metal on solid supports with high metal contents for practical catalytic applications remains a synthetic bottleneck. Here, we report the use of mesoporous sulfur-doped carbons as supports to achieve high-loading atomically dispersed noble metal catalysts. The high sulfur content and large surface area endow the supports with high-density anchor sites for fixing metal atoms via the strong chemical metal-sulfur interactions. By the sulfur-tethering strategy, we synthesize atomically dispersed Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt catalysts with high metal loading up to 10 wt %. The prepared Pt and Ir catalysts show 30- and 20-fold higher activity than the commercial Pt/C and Ir/C catalysts for catalyzing formic acid oxidation and quinoline hydrogenation, respectively.

18.
Adv Mater ; 31(51): e1902807, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566828

RESUMO

1D nanomaterials with high aspect ratio, i.e., nanowires and nanotubes, have inspired considerable research interest thanks to the fact that exotic physical and chemical properties emerge as their diameters approach or fall into certain length scales, such as the wavelength of light, the mean free path of phonons, the exciton Bohr radius, the critical size of magnetic domains, and the exciton diffusion length. On the basis of their components, aspect ratio, and properties, there may be imperceptible connections among hundreds of nanowires prepared by different strategies. Inspired by the heredity system in life, a new concept termed the "nanowire genome" is introduced here to clarify the relationships between hundreds of nanowires reported previously. As such, this approach will not only improve the tools incorporating the prior nanowires but also help to precisely synthesize new nanowires and even assist in the prediction on the properties of nanowires. Although the road from start-ups to maturity is long and fraught with challenges, the genetical syntheses of more than 200 kinds of nanostructures stemming from three mother nanowires (Te, Ag, and Cu) are summarized here to demonstrate the nanowire genome as a versatile toolbox. A summary and outlook on future challenges in this field are also presented.

19.
Research (Wash D C) ; 2019: 6262719, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31549073

RESUMO

Solid acid catalysts (SACs) have attracted continuous research interest in past years as they play a pivotal role in establishing environmentally friendly and sustainable catalytic processes for various chemical industries. Development of low-cost and efficient SACs applicable to different catalysis processes are of immense significance but still very challenging so far. Here, we report a new kind of SACs consisting of sulfonated carbon nanofibers that are prepared via incomplete carbonization of low-cost natural nanofibrous cellulose followed by sulphonation with sulfuric acid. The prepared SACs feature nanofibrous network structures, high specific surface area, and abundant sulfonate as well as hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Remarkably, the nanofibrous SACs exhibit superior performance to the state-of-the-art SACs for a wide range of acid-catalyzed reactions, including dimerization of α-methylstyrene, esterification of oleic acid, and pinacol rearrangement. The present approach holds great promise for developing new families of economic but efficient SACs based on natural precursors via scalable and sustainable protocols in the future.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(77): 11579-11582, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495841

RESUMO

We report a general metal-catalyzed thermal polymerization strategy for the preparation of atomically dispersed catalysts that consist of isolated metal atoms (Fe, Co and Ni) hosted by a polymer-like carrier containing phenanthroline substructure. The prepared atomically dispersed cobalt catalysts exhibit high selectivity, activity, and reusability in catalyzing aromatic alkane oxidation.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...