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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34850916

RESUMO

G-quadruplex is an essential element in gene transcription that serves as a promising drug target. Guanine-vacancy-bearing G-quadruplex (GVBQ) is a newly identified G-quadruplex that has distinct structural features from the canonical G-quadruplex. Potential GVBQ-forming motifs are widely distributed in gene promoter regions. However, whether GVBQ can form in genomic DNA and be an effective target for manipulating gene expression is unknown. Using photo-crosslinking, dimethyl sulfate footprinting, exonuclease digestion and in vitro transcription, we demonstrated the formation of a GVBQ in the G-rich nuclease hypersensitivity element within the human PDGFR-ß gene promoter region in both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA. The formation of GVBQ in dsDNA could be induced by negative supercoiling created by downstream transcription. We also found that the PDGFR-ß GVBQ was specifically recognized and stabilized by a new synthetic porphyrin guanine conjugate (mPG). Targeting the PDGFR-ß GVBQ in human cancer cells using the mPG could specifically alter PDGFR-ß gene expression. Our work illustrates that targeting GVBQ with mPG in human cells can regulate the expression level of a specific gene, thus indicating a novel strategy for drug development.

2.
J Neurotrauma ; 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34861788

RESUMO

Clinically, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is intensely activated in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Increased angiotensin II in circulatory blood after TBI can enter the brain through the disrupted blood-brain barrier. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an enzyme that metabolizes angiotensin II into angiotensin (1-7), which has been shown to have neuroprotective results. However, the expression and role of ACE2 in the brain after TBI remains elusive. We found that ACE2 protein abundance was downregulated around the contusional area in the brains of both humans and mice. Endogenous ACE2 was expressed in neurons, astrocytes, and microglia in the cortex of the mouse brain. Administration of recombinant human ACE2 intracerebroventricularly alleviated neurological defects after TBI in mice. Treatment of recombinant human ACE2 suppressed TBI-induced increase of angiotensin II and the decrease of angiotensin (1-7) in the brain, mitigated neural cell death, reduced the activation of NLRP3 and Caspase3, decreased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, and nuclear factor kappa B, and reduced inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1ß. Administration of ACE2 enzyme activator diminazene aceturate intraperitoneally rescued downregulation of ACE2 enzymatic activity and protein abundance in the brain. Diminazene aceturate treatment once per day in the acute stage after TBI alleviated long-term cognitive defects and neuronal loss in mice. Collectively, these results indicated that restoration of ACE2 alleviated neurological deficits after TBI by mitigation of pyroptosis and apoptosis.

3.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 298, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34847868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The spread of spinal anesthesia was influenced by many factors, and the effect of body height on spinal anesthesia is still arguable. This study aimed to explore the impact of height on the spread of spinal anesthesia and the stress response in parturients. METHODS: A total of ninety-seven parturients were allocated into two groups according to their height: the shorter group (body height was shorter than 158 cm) and taller group (body height was taller than 165 cm). Spinal anesthesia was performed with the same amount of 12 mg plain ropivacaine in mothers of different heights. The primary outcome of the study was the success or failure of the spinal anesthesia. The secondary outcomes of the study were stress response, time to T6 sensory level, the incidence of hypotension, the satisfaction of abdominal muscle relaxation and patient VAS scores. RESULTS: The rate of successful spinal anesthesia in the shorter group was significantly higher than that in the taller group (p = 0.02). The increase of maternal cortisol level in the shorter group was lower than that in the taller group at skin closure (p = 0.001). The incidence of hypotension (p = 0.013), time to T6 sensory block (p = 0.005), the quality of abdominal muscle relaxation (p <  0.001), and VAS values in stretching abdominal muscles and uterine exteriorization (p <  0.001) in the shorter group were significantly different from those in the taller group. Multivariate analysis showed that vertebral column length (p <  0.001), abdominal girth (p = 0.022), amniotic fluid index (p = 0.022) were significantly associated with successful spinal anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: It's difficult to use a single factor to predict the spread of spinal anesthesia. Patient's vertebral column length, amniotic fluid index and abdominal girth were the high determinant factors for predicting the spread of spinal anesthesia. TRIALS REGISTRATION: ChiCTR-ROC-17012030 ( Chictr.org.cn ), registered on 18/07/2017.

4.
Clin Transl Med ; 11(11): e635, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34841685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aberrant TAK1 (transforming growth factor ß-activated kinase 1) activity is known to be involved in a variety of malignancies, but the regulatory mechanisms of TAK1 remain poorly understood. GRAMD4 (glucosyltransferase Rab-like GTPase activator and myotubularin domain containing 4) is a newly discovered p53-independent proapoptotic protein with an unclear role in HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma). RESULTS: In this research, we found that GRAMD4 expression was lower in HCC samples, and its downregulation predicted worse prognosis for patients after surgical resection. Functionally, GRAMD4 inhibited HCC migration, invasion and metastasis. Mechanistically, GRAMD4 interacted with TAK1 to promote its protein degradation, thus, resulting in the inactivation of MAPK (Mitogen-activated protein kinase) and NF-κB pathways. Furthermore, GRAMD4 was proved to recruit ITCH (itchy E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) to promote the ubiquitination of TAK1. Moreover, high expression of TAK1 was correlated with low expression of GRAMD4 in HCC patients. CONCLUSIONS: GRAMD4 inhibits the migration and metastasis of HCC, mainly by recruiting ITCH to promote the degradation of TAK1, which leads to the inactivation of MAPK and NF-κB signalling pathways.

5.
Oncogene ; 2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819634

RESUMO

N6-methyladenosine (m6A), the most abundant mRNA modification in mammals, is involved in the metabolism of mRNA. KIAA1429 is regarded as the largest m6A methyltransferase and plays an important role in m6A modification. However, the prognostic value and function of KIAA1429 in colorectal cancer (CRC) are unclear. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemical assays were performed to evaluate the expression of KIAA1429 in CRC tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank tests were used to assess the association between KIAA1429 expression and the prognosis of patients with CRC. CCK-8 assays, colony formation assays, cell cycle assays, and xenograft experiments were performed to investigate the effect of KIAA1429 on cell proliferation. RNA immunoprecipitation, methylated RNA immunoprecipitation assays, and RNA stability assays were conducted to explore the underlying mechanism. KIAA1429 was significantly upregulated in CRC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Patients with higher expression of KIAA1429 had shorter overall survival than those with lower expression. Functionally, KIAA1429 promoted CRC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, KIAA1429 negatively regulated the expression of WEE1 by decreasing its stability in an m6A-independent manner by binding to the third segment in the 3'-UTR of WEE1 mRNA. Moreover, butyrate decreased the expression of KIAA1429 by downregulating the level of the transcription factor NFκB1. Our findings indicated that KIAA1429 plays an oncogenic role in CRC cells by inhibiting the expression of WEE1 in an m6A-independent manner and is associated with poor survival in CRC patients. These results suggested that KIAA1429 might be a potential prognostic marker for CRC.

6.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(11)2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34829713

RESUMO

Evodia lepta (E. lepta) is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine with various biological activities. One of the active components of this widely used medicinal plant is believed to be an oligosaccharide. The extraction yields, structural characteristics, antioxidant, and antitumor activities of four oligosaccharide extracts obtained by hot water extraction (HEO), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UEO), enzyme-assisted (EEO), and microwave-assisted extraction (MEO) were investigated. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results indicated that the extraction methods had a difference on the molecular mass distribution, structure, and morphology of the EOs. In addition, HEO and MEO showed strong antioxidant activities, which might be related to their uronic acid and protein contents. More interestingly, MEO was more active toward MDA-MB-231 cells compared to other cells, and cell growth inhibition was proposed to occur through apoptosis. Overall, microwave-assisted extraction is a promising technique for the extraction of high quality EO.

7.
Am J Reprod Immunol ; 2021 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34766396

RESUMO

PROBLEM: The clinical value of endometrial receptivity array (ERA), endometrial immune profiling, or a combination of both for multiple implantation failure patients is unclear. METHOD OF STUDY: One hundred and seventy-two women with a history of at least two or more consecutive implantation failures in IVF/ICSI treatment were included. According to patients' willingness, they were divided into four groups, 'no treatment', 'Immune Profiling', 'ERA' and 'ERA + Immune Profiling'. Endometrial biopsy was examined by ERA, immune profiling alone, or combination, and intention was adopted accordingly. Pregnancy outcomes were compared, and the association between ERA phases and endometrial immune profiling was also assessed. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of the displaced window of implantation (WOI) and endometrial immune dysregulations were 84.9% and 75.3%, respectively. Implantation rate was significantly higher in the 'ERA + Immune Profiling' group than the 'no treatment' group (P = 0.007). Clinical pregnancy rate was somewhat improved in the three treatment groups but with a borderline significance (P = 0.071). After controlling for other confounders, 'ERA + Immune Profiling' treatment was associated with a higher pregnancy rate [aOR (95%CI)  =  3.412 (1.387-8.395), P = 0.008]. There was no association between endometrial immune profiling and ERA phases. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the high incidence of displaced WOI and endometrial immune dysregulation in multiple implantation failure patients. The combination of ERA and endometrial immune profiling is more likely to have clinical value than ERA or immune profiling alone. These data suggested the unsubstitutability of ERA and endometrial immune profiling on the treatment outcome for multiple implantation failure patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

8.
Front Oncol ; 11: 753119, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34733788

RESUMO

Objective: Suppression of bromodomain and extra terminal (BET) proteins has a bright prospect to treat MYC-driven tumors. Bromodomain containing 4 (BRD4) is one of the BET proteins. ARV-825, consisting of a BRD4 inhibitor conjugated with a cereblon ligand using proteolysis-targeting chimera (PROTAC) technology, was proven to decrease the tumor growth effectively and continuously. Nevertheless, the efficacy and mechanisms of ARV-825 in gastric cancer are still poorly understood. Methods: Cell counting kit 8 assay, lentivirus infection, Western blotting analysis, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) staining, RNA sequencing, a xenograft model, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess the efficacy of ARV-825 in cell level and animal model. Results: The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of BRD4 in gastric cancer raised significantly than those in normal tissues, which suggested poor outcome of patients with gastric cancer. ARV-825 displayed higher anticancer efficiency in gastric cancer cells than OTX015 and JQ1. ARV-825 could inhibit cell growth, inducing cell cycle block and apoptosis in vitro. ARV-825 induced degradation of BRD4, BRD2, BRD3, c-MYC, and polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) proteins in four gastric cancer cell lines. In addition, cleavage of caspase 3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) was elevated. Knockdown or overexpression CRBN could increase or decrease, respectively, the ARV-825 IC50 of gastric cancer cells. ARV-825 reduced MYC and PLK1 expression in gastric cancer cells. ARV-825 treatment significantly reduced tumor growth without toxic side effects and downregulated the expression of BRD4 in vivo. Conclusions: High mRNA expression of BRD4 in gastric cancer indicated poor prognosis. ARV-825, a BRD4 inhibitor, could effectively suppress the growth and elevate the apoptosis of gastric cancer cells via transcription downregulation of c-MYC and PLK1. These results implied that ARV-825 could be a good therapeutic strategy to treat gastric cancer.

9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-7, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34613883

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reporting rate of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (4vHPV) and to compare the reporting rate of AEFI following 4vHPV with those following other vaccines. METHODS: Review and describe the AEFI reported to national adverse event following immunization surveillance system (NAEFISS) in Zhejiang province from 2018 to 2020. Reporting rates of AEFI were calculated by age, city, severity of AEFI, categories of AEFI, and reaction categories. The data mining algorithm used in this study was reporting odds ratio (ROR). A value of ROR­1.96SE >1 (standard error [SE]) was considered as positive signal. RESULTS: NAEFISS received 238 reports after receipt of 4vHPV and 899,282 doses of 4vHPV were administered during the study period, with a crude reporting rate of 2.7/10000 doses. Fever/redness/induration (101 reports) was the most common event reported (1.12/10000 doses). Two cases of anaphylactic shock, three cases of Guillain Barre Syndrome and two cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were reported. ROR showed positive signals for seizure (ROR­1.96SE: 2.1), syncope (ROR­1.96SE: 1.3), allergic rash (ROR­1.96SE: 1.6) and headache (ROR­1.96SE: 2.1). CONCLUSION: The present analysis did not identify new/unexpected safety concerns. Further epidemiological studies are required to systematically validate the data provided by NAEFISS.

10.
Neurosurg Rev ; 2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657975

RESUMO

Intracranial aneurysms (IAs) remain a major public health concern and endovascular treatment (EVT) has become a major tool for managing IAs. However, the recurrence rate of IAs after EVT is relatively high, which may lead to the risk for aneurysm re-rupture and re-bleed. Thus, we aimed to develop and assess prediction models based on machine learning (ML) algorithms to predict recurrence risk among patients with IAs after EVT in 6 months. Patient population included patients with IAs after EVT between January 2016 and August 2019 in Hunan Provincial People's Hospital, and an adaptive synthetic (ADASYN) sampling approach was applied for the entire imbalanced dataset. We developed five ML models and assessed the models. In addition, we used SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) and local interpretable model-agnostic explanation (LIME) algorithms to determine the importance of the selected features and interpret the ML models. A total of 425 IAs were enrolled into this study, and 66 (15.5%) of which recurred in 6 months. Among the five ML models, gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT) model performed best. The area under curve (AUC) of the GBDT model on the testing set was 0.842 (sensitivity: 81.2%; specificity: 70.4%). Our study firstly demonstrated that ML-based models can serve as a reliable tool for predicting recurrence risk in patients with IAs after EVT in 6 months, and the GBDT model showed the optimal prediction performance.

11.
Phytother Res ; 2021 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34687482

RESUMO

Fucoidan is a marine-origin sulfated polysaccharide that has gained attention for its anticancer activities. However, the inhibitory effect of fucoidan on breast cancers by regulating autophagy and its mechanism are not clear, and the chemotherapeutic sensitization of fucoidan is largely unknown. In the present study, the anticancer potential of fucoidan was revealed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, we also studied the chemotherapeutic sensitization of fucoidan by combining chemotherapeutic drugs doxorubicin (ADM) and cisplatin (DDP) with fucoidan on breast cancer cells. In the two kinds of human breast cancer cells, cell viability was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Apoptosis was examined with flow cytometry. Transfection assay was used to examine autophagy flow. Western blot was used to examine the expressions of related proteins. Results suggested that fucoidan could induce autophagy and might enhance the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Mechanistically, fucoidan induced autophagy in breast cancer cells by down-regulating m-TOR/p70S6K/TFEB pathway. In conclusion, our research revealed that fucoidan could induce autophagy of breast cancer cells by mediating m-TOR/p70S6K/TFEB pathway, thus inhibiting tumor development. Furthermore, fucoidan might enhance the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to ADM and DDP, and this enhancement was related to autophagy.

12.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(5): 847-856, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34652631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether B vitamin treatment was sufficient to reduce cognitive impairment associated with high-fat diets in rats and to modulate transketolase (TK) expression and activity. METHODS: To test this, we separated 50 rats into five groups that were either fed a standard chow diet (controls) or a high-fat diet (experimental groups H0, H1, H2, and H3). H0 group animals received no additional dietary supplementation, while H1 group animals were administered 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) thiamine, 100 mg/kg BW riboflavin, and 250 mg/kg BW niacin each day, and group H2 animals received daily doses of 100 mg/kg BW pyridoxine, 100 mg/kg BW cobalamin, and 5 mg/kg BW folate. Animals in the H3 group received the B vitamin regimens administered to both H1 and H2 each day. RESULTS: Over time, group H0 exhibited greater increases in BW and fat mass relative to other groups. When spatial and memory capabilities in these animals were evaluated via conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and Morris Water Maze (MWM), we found B vitamin treatment was associated with significant improvements relative to untreated H0 controls. Similarly, B vitamin supplementation was associated with elevated TK expression in erythrocytes and hypothalamus of treated animals relative to those in H0 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Together, these findings suggest B vitamin can modulate hypothalamic TK activity to reduce the severity of cognitive deficits in a rat model of obesity. As such, B vitamin supplementation may be a beneficial method for reducing cognitive dysfunction in clinical settings associated with high-fat diets.

13.
Front Neurol ; 12: 724946, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630300

RESUMO

Purpose: We examined the macular microvascular changes of the macula in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients and its association with their disability and other clinical variables. Methods: Thirty-four NMOSD (13 patients without optic neuritis, NMOSD-NON, and 21 patients with a history of optic neuritis, NMOSD-ON) and 44 healthy controls (HCs) were included in the study. Optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) was used to image the superficial (SCP), deep (DCP), and whole capillary plexus (WCP) in a 2.5-mm-diameter concentric circle [excluding the foveal avascular zone (FAZ)]. An algorithm (Dbox) was used to quantify the complexity of the three capillary layers by fractal analysis. We also evaluated the expanded disability scale status (EDSS). Results: Dbox values were significantly reduced in SCP (p < 0.001), DCP (p < 0.001), and WCP (p = 0.003) of NMOSD when compared with HCs. Dbox values were significantly reduced in NMOSD eyes with optic neuritis when compared with healthy controls (p < 0.001) and eyes without optic neuritis (p = 0.004) in the SCP. In the DCP, eyes with optic neuritis showed significantly reduced Dbox values when compared with eyes without optic neuritis (p = 0.016) and healthy controls (p < 0.001); eyes without optic neuritis showed significantly reduced Dbox values (p = 0.007) in the DCP when compared with healthy controls. A significant negative correlation (Rho = -0.475, p = 0.005) was shown between the superficial macula Dbox values and the EDSS in NMOSD patients. Additionally, a negative correlation (Rho = -0.715, p = 0.006) was seen in the superficial Dbox values in [e]eyes without optic neuritis and EDSS. Conclusions: Macular microvascular damage in the superficial plexus is associated with disability in NMOSD. Macular microvascular alterations arise independently of the occurrence of ON in NMOSD.

14.
Food Sci Nutr ; 9(10): 5391-5401, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34646510

RESUMO

Excessive alcohol and iron intake can reportedly cause liver damage. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus casei on liver injury in rats co-exposed to alcohol and iron and evaluated its possible mechanism. Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups for 12 weeks: the Control group (administered normal saline by gavage and provided a normal diet); alcohol +iron group (Model group, treated with alcohol [3.5-5.3 g/kg/day] by gavage and dietary iron [1,500 mg/kg]); Model group supplemented with L. casei (8 × 108 CFU kg-1 day-1) (L. casei group). Using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and transmission electron microscopy, we observed that L. casei supplementation could alleviate disorders associated with lipid metabolism, inflammation, and intestinal mucosal barrier injury. Moreover, levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, triglyceride (TG), and hepatic TG were significantly increased in the model group; however, these levels were significantly decreased following the 12-week L. casei supplementation. In addition, we observed notable improvements in intestinal mucosal barrier function and alterations in T lymphocyte subsets and natural killer cells in L. casei-treated rats when compared with the model group. Furthermore, L. casei intervention alleviated serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß, accompanied by decreased serum endotoxin levels and downregulated expression of toll-like receptor 4 and its related molecules MyD88, nuclear factor kappa-B p65, and TNF-α. Accordingly, supplementation with L. casei could effectively improve liver injury induced by the synergistic interaction between alcohol and iron. The underlying mechanism for this improvement may be related to immune regulation and inhibition of enterogenic endotoxin-mediated inflammation.

15.
Fish Physiol Biochem ; 47(6): 1893-1907, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581919

RESUMO

Memory drove a critical process of feeding habit transformation in Chinese perch when they re-trained to eat dead prey fish. To investigate the regulatory mechanism of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway on the memory of Chinese perch during feeding habit transformation, the phosphorylation levels of upstream signal proteins of CREB between the control group (trained once) and the experimental group (trained twice) were measured. The results illustrated that the re-training was correlated to phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and dephosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) of Chinese perch. Inhibition of ERK1/2-CREB pathway decreased the mRNA levels of memory-related genes ((fos-related antigen 2 (fra2), CCAAT enhancer-binding protein delta (c/ebpb), immediate-early gene zif268 (zif268), proto-oncogenes c-fos (c-fox) and synaptotagmin-IV (sytIV)) and mRNA levels of appetite-related genes (agouti-related peptide (agrp) and ghrelin), and activation of PP1-CREB pathway increased the phosphorylated levels of CREB, the mRNA levels of memory-related genes (fra2, c/ebpb, zif268, and c-fox), and the mRNA levels of appetite-related genes (pro-opiomelanocortin (pomc) and leptin) in primary brain cells of Chinese perch. The memory in Chinese perch feeding habit transformation was associated with the ERK1/2-CREB and PP1-CREB pathways, which could regulate the transcription of memory-related genes and appetite-related genes.

16.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-6, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491888

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To summarize reports to the national adverse event following immunization surveillance system (NAEFISS) following inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) in Zhejiang province from 2018 to 2020. METHODS: We analyzed adverse events following immunization (AEFI) reports following QIV, with a comparison, with the AEFI reports following inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV). Reporting rates of AEFI were calculated by age, severity of AEFI, categories of AEFI, and reaction categories. The data mining algorithm used in this study was reporting odds ratio (ROR). A value of ROR­1.96SE >1 (standard error [SE]) was considered as positive signal. These reporting rates between vaccine types were compared through chi-square tests. RESULTS: NAEFISS received 514 AEFI reports following QIV and 536 reports following TIV, with a reporting rate of 13.66/100,000 100,000 doses/100,000 doses (χ2 = 7.11, P> .05). Of the 514 reports following QIV, 410 were vaccine product-related reactions and 51 were severe AEFI. Fever/redness/induration was the most frequent clinical diagnosis of the QIV AEFI, with a reporting rate of 12.42/100,000 doses in the age group of 3-17 years, and 12.44/100,000 doses in the age group of ≥18 years. The positive signal of QIV AEFI was observed for the allergic rash and asthma/wheezing. CONCLUSION: The present analysis did not identify any new/unexpected safety concerns. We suggested that NAEFISS continue to monitor the safety of QIV.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531917

RESUMO

Ischemic stroke poses a serious threat to human health. Its high morbidity, disability, and lethality rates have led to it being a research hotspot. Cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury is a difficult point in the treatment of ischemic stroke. In recent years, studies have shown that repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can enhance cerebral ischemic tolerance and have a significant protective effect on reperfusion injury after ischemia, but its specific mechanism is unknown. The Nrf2/pathway plays a vital role in ischemia-reperfusion injury in the body environment. Therefore, in this experiment, the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) reperfusion model of SD rats was made to simulate the occurrence of experimental cerebral infarction by the suture method. After treatment with rTMS, it was studied whether it can regulate the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1, affect the content of MDA and SOD activity, and then activate the Nrf2 pathway to exert its brain protection. The results showed that after MCAO reperfusion, the neurological deficit score of rats increased, and the time to remove the bilateral stickers and the time to cross the balance beam increased, suggesting the successful establishment of the experimental cerebral infarction model. Detecting the brain tissue of experimental cerebral infarction rats found that the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 decreased, the content of MDA increased, and the activity of SOD decreased. After rTMS treatment, the neuromotor function of experimental cerebral infarction rats improved, the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in the brain tissue gradually increased, the content of MDA decreased, and the activity of SOD increased. It indicates that the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 in experimental cerebral infarction rats is reduced. After treatment with rTMS, it can improve the neuromotor function damage of the rats and reduce the level of oxidative stress. The mechanism may be through promoting the activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, acting on the expression of antioxidant proteins, such as HO-1 and SOD1, reducing oxidative stress damage, and playing a protective effect on brain tissue.

18.
World J Diabetes ; 12(8): 1164-1186, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512885

RESUMO

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the most common metabolic disorders of pregnancy and can cause short- and long-term adverse effects in both pregnant women and their offspring. However, the etiology and pathogenesis of GDM are still unclear. As a metabolic disease, GDM is well suited to metabolomics study, which can monitor the changes in small molecular metabolites induced by maternal stimuli or perturbations in real time. The application of metabolomics in GDM can be used to discover diagnostic biomarkers, evaluate the prognosis of the disease, guide the application of diet or drugs, evaluate the curative effect, and explore the mechanism. This review provides comprehensive documentation of metabolomics research methods and techniques as well as the current progress in GDM research. We anticipate that the review will contribute to identifying gaps in the current knowledge or metabolomics technology, provide evidence-based information, and inform future research directions in GDM.

19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 143: 112141, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509822

RESUMO

AIM: Modified Suanzaoren Decoction (MSZRD) is obtained by improving Suanzaoren Decoction (SZRT), a traditional Chinese herbal prescription that has been used to treat insomnia for more than thousands of years. Our previous study showed that MSZRD can improve the gastrointestinal discomfort related insomnia by regulating Orexin-A. This study is the first study to evaluate the effects and possible mechanisms of MSZRD in mice with insomnia caused by p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) combined with multifactor random stimulation. METHODS: After 14 days of multifactor stimulation to ICR mice, a PCPA suspension (30 mg/mL) was injected intraperitoneally for two consecutive days to establish an insomnia model. Three different doses of MSZRD (3.6, 7.2, and 14.4 g/kg/day) were given to ICR mice for 24 days. The food intake and back temperature were measured, and behavioral tests and pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep tests were conducted. The levels of Orexin-A, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and adrenocortical hormones (CORT) in the serum and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), dopamine (DA), and norepinephrine (NE) in hypothalamus were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. The levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamic acid (Glu) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression of 5HT1A receptor (5-HTRIA) and orexin receptor 2 antibody (OX2R) was measured by Western blot (WB) and immunohistochemical staining (ICH). Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and Nissl staining were used to assess the histological changes in hypothalamus tissue. RESULTS: Of note, MSZRD can shorten the sleep latency of insomnia mice (P < 0.05, 0.01), prolonged the sleep duration of mice (P < 0.05, 0.01), and improve the circadian rhythm disorder relative to placebo-treated animals. Furthermore, MSZRD effectively increased the content of 5-HT and 5-HTR1A protein in the hypothalamus of insomnia mice (P < 0.05, 0.01), while downregulated the content of DA and NE (P < 0.05, 0.01). Importantly, serum GABA concentration was increased by treatment with MSZRD (P < 0.05), as reflected by a decreased Glu/GABA ratio (P < 0.05). Moreover, MSZRD decreased the levels of CORT, ACTH, and CRH related hormones in HPA axis (P < 0.05, 0.01). At the same time, MSZRD significantly downregulated the serum Orexin-A content in insomnia mice (P < 0.05), as well as hypothalamic OX2R expression (P < 0.05). In addition, MSZRD also improved the histopathological changes in hypothalamus in insomnia mice. CONCLUSION: MSZRD has sleep-improvement effect in mice model of insomnia. The mechanism may be that regulating the expression of Orexin-A affects the homeostasis of HPA axis and the release of related neurotransmitters in mice with insomnia.

20.
Obes Surg ; 31(10): 4436-4451, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373988

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of the transtheoretical model (TTM)-based exercise training on TTM variables, exercise adherence, and physical function in patients in the early stages after bariatric surgery (BS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a single-blinded, prospective, randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effects of TTM-based exercise training on BS patients immediately after surgery. Participants (n = 120) were randomized into a TTM-based exercise training group (n = 60) and a control group (n = 60). Main outcomes included TTM variables (measured by exercise stages of change (ESCs), exercise self-efficacy (ESE), and decisional balance), exercise adherence, and physical function (determined by the 6-min walk distance (6MWD)). Secondary outcomes were physical activity, anthropometrics, and body composition. We performed all analyses in accordance with the intention-to-treat principle. RESULTS: Retention rates for the interventions were 91.7% for the intervention group and 90.0% for the control group. Compared with the control group, the 12-week TTM-based intervention significantly helped participants advance through ESCs, demonstrate higher ESE, perceive more benefits and fewer barriers to exercise, and show higher exercise adherence and better physical function afterward (all P < 0.05). However, we observed no statistically significant difference between the two groups in anthropometric parameters or body composition after intervention. CONCLUSION: The TTM-based exercise intervention had significant positive effects on the TTM variables, which could further help increase patients' exercise adherence and physical function immediately after BS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered at the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (website: www.chictr.org.cn , registry number: ChiCTR2000039319).


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Obesidade Mórbida , China , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Modelo Transteórico
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