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1.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755871

RESUMO

The Brassicaceae Database (BRAD version 3.0, BRAD V3.0; http://brassicadb.cn) has evolved from the former Brassica Database (BRAD V2.0), and represents an important community portal hosting genome information for multiple Brassica and related Brassicaceae plant species. Since the last update in 2015, the complex genomes of numerous Brassicaceae species have been decoded, accompanied by many omics datasets. To provide an up-to-date service, we report here a major upgrade of the portal. The Model-View-ViewModel (MVVM) framework of BRAD has been re-engineered to enable easy and sustainable maintenance of the database. The collection of genomes has been increased to 26 species, along with optimization of the user interface. Features of the previous version have been retained, with additional new tools for exploring syntenic genes, gene expression and variation data. In the 'Syntenic Gene @ Subgenome' module, we added features to view the sequence alignment and phylogenetic relationships of syntenic genes. New modules include 'MicroSynteny' for viewing synteny of selected fragment pairs, and 'Polymorph' for retrieval of variation data. The updated BRAD provides a substantial expansion of genomic data and a comprehensive improvement of the service available to the Brassicaceae research community.

2.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(27): 31624-31634, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219452

RESUMO

Solar steam generation is considered as an efficient way for addressing water shortage issues via seawater desalination and wastewater purification. In a solar evaporator, an absorber would convert optical energy to heat for evaporating nearby water. In this process, many low-boiling-point contaminants can also be evaporated along with water steam, which compromises the effectiveness of purification. There is, so far, no study on the removal of such low-boiling-point contaminants such as organic pesticides in wastewater. To address this problem, we demonstrate a versatile carbon hybrid aerogel (CHA) as a solar powered water purification platform. With an elaborate absorber design, the maximum solar evaporation rate of 2.1 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved under 1 sun illumination. More importantly, CHA can effectively suppress the evaporation of low-boiling-point contaminants including common pesticides and mercury ion via its strong adsorption and retention effect. Synergetic steaming and the adsorption of CHA will inspire more paradigms of solar steam generation technologies for applications relevant to detoxification and water remediation.

3.
Genome Biol ; 22(1): 166, 2021 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34059118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the prevalence and recurrence of polyploidization in the speciation of flowering plants, its impacts on crop intraspecific genome diversification are largely unknown. Brassica rapa is a mesopolyploid species that is domesticated into many subspecies with distinctive morphotypes. RESULTS: Herein, we report the consequences of the whole-genome triplication (WGT) on intraspecific diversification using a pan-genome analysis of 16 de novo assembled and two reported genomes. Among the genes that derive from WGT, 13.42% of polyploidy-derived genes accumulate more transposable elements and non-synonymous mutations than other genes during individual genome evolution. We denote such genes as being "flexible." We construct the Brassica rapa ancestral genome and observe the continuing influence of the dominant subgenome on intraspecific diversification in B. rapa. The gene flexibility is biased to the more fractionated subgenomes (MFs), in contrast to the more intact gene content of the dominant LF (least fractionated) subgenome. Furthermore, polyploidy-derived flexible syntenic genes are implicated in the response to stimulus and the phytohormone auxin; this may reflect adaptation to the environment. Using an integrated graph-based genome, we investigate the structural variation (SV) landscapes in 524 B. rapa genomes. We observe that SVs track morphotype domestication. Four out of 266 candidate genes for Chinese cabbage domestication are speculated to be involved in the leafy head formation. CONCLUSIONS: This pan-genome uncovers the possible contributions of allopolyploidization on intraspecific diversification and the possible and underexplored role of SVs in favorable trait domestication. Collectively, our work serves as a rich resource for genome-based B. rapa improvement.

4.
Hortic Res ; 8(1): 68, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790228

RESUMO

The leafy head characteristic is a special phenotype of Chinese cabbage resulting from artificial selection during domestication and breeding. BREVIS RADIX (BRX) has been suggested to control root elongation, shoot growth, and tiller angle in Arabidopsis and rice. In Brassica rapa, three BrBRX homoeologs have been identified, but only BrBRX.1 and BrBRX.2 were found to be under selection in leaf-heading accessions, indicating their functional diversification in leafy head formation. Here, we show that these three BrBRX genes belong to a plant-specific BRX gene family but that they have significantly diverged from other BRX-like members on the basis of different phylogenetic classifications, motif compositions and expression patterns. Moreover, although the expression of these three BrBRX genes differed, compared with BrBRX.3, BrBRX.1, and BrBRX.2 displayed similar expression patterns. Arabidopsis mutant complementation studies showed that only BrBRX.1 could rescue the brx root phenotype, whereas BrBRX.2 and BrBRX.3 could not. However, overexpression of each of the three BrBRX genes in Arabidopsis resulted in similar pleiotropic leaf phenotypes, including epinastic leaf morphology, with an increase in leaf number and leaf petiole length and a reduction in leaf angle. These leaf traits are associated with leafy head formation. Further testing of a SNP (T/C) in BrBRX.2 confirmed that this allele in the heading accessions was strongly associated with the leaf-heading trait of B. rapa. Our results revealed that all three BrBRX genes may be involved in the leaf-heading trait, but they may have functionally diverged on the basis of their differential expression.

5.
Theor Appl Genet ; 133(11): 3187-3199, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32772134

RESUMO

Brassica oleracea is an important vegetable crop that has provided ancestor genomes of the two most important Brassica oil crops, Brassica napus and Brassica carinata. The current B. oleracea reference genome (JZS, also named 02-12) displays problems of large mis-assemblies, low sequence continuity, and low assembly integrity, thus limiting genomic analysis. We reported an updated assembly of the B. oleracea reference genome (JZS v2) obtained through single-molecule sequencing and chromosome conformation capture technologies. We assembled an additional 83.16 Mb of genomic sequences, and the updated genome features a contig N50 size of 2.37 Mb, representing an ~ 88-fold improvement. We detected a new round of long terminal repeat retrotransposon (LTR-RT) burst in the new assembly. Comparative analysis with the reported genome sequences of two other genomes of B. oleracea (TO1000 and HDEM) identified extensive gene order and gene structural variation. In addition, we found that the genome-specific amplification of Gypsy-like LTR-RTs occurred around 0-1 million years ago (MYA). In particular, the athila, tat, and Del families were extensively amplified in JZS around 0-1 MYA. Moreover, we identified that the syntenic genes were modified due to the insertion of genome-specific LTR-RTs. These results indicated that the genome-specific LTR-RT dynamics were associated with genome diversification in B. oleracea.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Retroelementos , Sequências Repetidas Terminais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Ordem dos Genes , Variação Genética , Sintenia
6.
Small ; 16(34): e2002671, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696583

RESUMO

Sodium metal anode, featuring high capacity, low voltage and earth abundance, is desirable for building advanced sodium-metal batteries. However, Na-ion deposition typically leads to morphological instability and notorious chemical reactivity between sodium and common electrolytes still limit its practical application. In this study, a porous BN nanofibers modified sodium metal (BN/Na) electrode is introduced for enhancing Na-ion deposition dynamics and stability. As a result, symmetrical BN/Na cells enable an impressive rate capability and markedly enhanced cycling durability over 600 h at 10 mA cm-2 . Density functional theory simulations demonstrate BN could effectively improve Na-ion adsorption and diffusion kinetics simultaneously. Finite element simulation clearly reveals the intrinsic smoothing effect of BN upon multiple Na-ion plating/stripping cycles. Coupled with a Na3 V2 O2 (PO4 )2 F/Ti3 C2 X cathode, sodium metal full cells offer an ultrastable capacity of 125/63 mA h g-1 (≈420/240 Wh kg-1 ) at 0.05/5 C rate over 500 cycles. These comprehensive analyses demonstrate the feasibility of BN/Na anode for the establishment of high-energy-density sodium-metal full batteries.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2328, 2020 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047197

RESUMO

Anthocyanins have strong antioxidant activity and are believed to be healthy for human beings. The Brassica rapa L. ssp. chinensis var. purpurea "Zicaitai" is rich in anthocyanins. We constructed an F2 population of Zicaitai and "Caixin" (Brassica rapa ssp. parachinensis) and it shows clear segregation of the purple phenotype (i.e., variation in anthocyanin enrichment). Here, quantitative trait locus (QTL)-Seq was performed with two sample groups from the F2 population: one exhibiting an intense purple phenotype and the other showed a completely green phenotype. The results showed that the QTL-Seq and linkage analysis located different major loci. This indicates that there are two major genetic factors that plays different roles in regulating anthocyanin enrichment in Zicaitai. This was further supported by the data simulation of an in silico F2 population that QTL-Seq and linkage analysis can locate different major loci. Furthermore, the draft genomes of the two parents (Zicaitai and Caixin) were assembled and utilized to search for mutations in candidate genes. A ~100-bp insertion was found in the third exon of gene BrMYBL2.1 in Zicaitai. BrMYBL2.1 is a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, while BrEGL3.2-previously located by linkage mapping-is a positive regulator. For these populations with multiple genes contributing large effects to a trait, a strategy of low depth re-sequencing of F2 individuals followed by QTL-Seq analysis with the free combination of sample groups is proposed. Furthermore, draft-sequence assembly of parental genomes together with QTL mapping is suggested as an efficient means for fine-mapping genes rapidly in segregating populations.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/biossíntese , Brassica rapa/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Brassica rapa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cor , Ligação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 364: 654-662, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30396138

RESUMO

The novel hexagonal boron nitride (BN) bundles, assembled by a plenty of BN fibers with high adsorption capacity and outstanding recyclability, were prepared easily as an efficient adsorbent for antibiotics. It is an excellent substitute for carbonaceous adsorbent to overcome the shortcoming in low adsorption capacity and poor recyclability. Its high surface area can reach up to 871.456 m2 g-1. The adsorption capacity and removal percentage to sulfadiazine (SDZ, 0.328 mmol g-1, 82.192%), oxytetracycline (OTC, 0.202 mmol g-1, 92.890%) and erythromycin (EM, 0.126 mmol g-1, 90.140%) are superior compared with activated carbon and graphene nanoplatelets. It is interesting that BN bundles have a better adsorption to small molecules since huge molecules are easily restricted to enter the micropores, which was defined as micropore-filling effect. Moreover, the adsorption isotherms are well fitted by the Langmuir and Tempkin model, while pseudo-second-order model can better describe the adsorption kinetics. The adsorption mechanisms were deduced to be mainly π-π electron-donor-accepter interaction while electrostatic force and hydrophobic interaction played a significant role. The excellent reusability can be seen from the high removal efficiency after five recycles suggesting the BN bundles was a promising adsorbent for the efficient removal of antibiotics pollutants.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Compostos de Boro/química , Eritromicina/química , Oxitetraciclina/química , Sulfadiazina/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Adsorção , Purificação da Água/métodos
10.
Hortic Res ; 5: 69, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534387

RESUMO

Glucosinolate profiles significantly vary among Brassica rapa genotypes. However, the molecular basis of these variations is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling aliphatic glucosinolate accumulation in B. rapa leaves. The QTL, which encompasses three tandem MAM genes and two MYB genes, was detected in two BC2DH populations. Among the five-candidate genes, only the expression level of BrMAM-3 (Bra013007) was significantly correlated with the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa leaves. We identified a naturally occurring insertion within exon 1 of BrMAM-3, which is predicted to be a loss-of-function mutation, as confirmed by qRT-PCR. We determined that the loss of function was associated with the low glucosinolate content in B. rapa accessions. Furthermore, overexpressing the BrMAM-3 gene resulted in an increase in total aliphatic glucosinolates in Arabidopsis transgenic lines. Our study provides insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the accumulation of aliphatic glucosinolates in B. rapa leaves, thereby facilitating in the manipulation of total aliphatic glucosinolate content in Brassica crops.

11.
Hortic Res ; 5: 50, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30131865

RESUMO

Brassica rapa comprises several important cultivated vegetables and oil crops. Current reference genome assemblies of Brassica rapa are quite fragmented and not highly contiguous, thereby limiting extensive genetic and genomic analyses. Here, we report an improved assembly of the B. rapa genome (v3.0) using single-molecule sequencing, optical mapping, and chromosome conformation capture technologies (Hi-C). Relative to the previous reference genomes, our assembly features a contig N50 size of 1.45 Mb, representing a ~30-fold improvement. We also identified a new event that occurred in the B. rapa genome ~1.2 million years ago, when a long terminal repeat retrotransposon (LTR-RT) expanded. Further analysis refined the relationship of genome blocks and accurately located the centromeres in the B. rapa genome. The B. rapa genome v3.0 will serve as an important community resource for future genetic and genomic studies in B. rapa. This resource will facilitate breeding efforts in B. rapa, as well as comparative genomic analysis with other Brassica species.

12.
Theor Appl Genet ; 131(10): 2107-2116, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008108

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: A splicing site mutation in BrFLC5, a non-syntenic paralogue of FLOWERING LOCUS C, was demonstrated to be related to flowering time variation in Brassica rapa. Flowering time regulation in Brassica rapa is more complex than in Arabidopsis, as there are multiple paralogues of flowering time genes in B. rapa. Brassica rapa contains four FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) genes, three of which are syntenic orthologues of AtFLC, while BrFLC5 is not. BrFLC1, BrFLC2, and BrFLC3 have been reported to be involved in flowering time regulation. However, BrFLC5 has thus far been deemed a pseudogene. We detected two alternative splicing patterns of BrFLC5 resulting from a nucleotide mutation (G/A) at the first nucleotide of intron 3 (named as Pi3+1(G/A)). Genotyping of BrFLC5Pi3 + 1(G/A) for 301 B. rapa accessions showed that this single nucleotide polymorphism was significantly related to flowering time variation (p < 0.001). In the collection, the frequency of the functional G allele (35.2%) was much lower than that of the nonfunctional A allele (59.1%); however, the frequency of the G allele was very high among the turnips (83.6%). An F2 population segregating at this locus was developed to analyze the genetic effect of BrFLC5. The result showed that the G allele individuals began to bolt two days later than the A allele individuals, indicating that BrFLC5 is a weak regulator of flowering time. BrFLC5 was expressed at the lowest level among the three analyzed BrFLCs. The late allele (G allele) was dominant to the early allele (A allele) at the BrFLC5 locus, which was in contrast to that of BrFLC1 and BrFLC2. This characteristic suggests that BrFLC5 would be more efficient for breeding premature bolting resistance in B. rapa.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Alelos , Processamento Alternativo , Brassica rapa/fisiologia , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/fisiologia , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Nat Plants ; 4(5): 258-268, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725103

RESUMO

All natural plant species are evolved from ancient polyploids. Polyloidization plays an important role in plant genome evolution, species divergence and crop domestication. We review how the pattern of polyploidy within the plant phylogenetic tree has engendered hypotheses involving mass extinctions, lag-times following polyploidy, and epochs of asexuality. Polyploidization has happened repeatedly in plant evolution and, we conclude, is important for crop domestication. Once duplicated, the effect of purifying selection on any one duplicated gene is relaxed, permitting duplicate gene and regulatory element loss (fractionation). We review the general topic of fractionation, and how some gene categories are retained more than others. Several explanations, including neofunctionalization, subfunctionalization and gene product dosage balance, have been shown to influence gene content over time. For allopolyploids, genetic differences between parental lines immediately manifest as subgenome dominance in the wide-hybrid, and persist and propagate for tens of millions of years. While epigenetic modifications are certainly involved in genome dominance, it has been difficult to determine which came first, the chromatin marks being measured or gene expression. Data support the conclusion that genome dominance and heterosis are antagonistic and mechanically entangled; both happen immediately in the synthetic wide-cross hybrid. Also operating in this hybrid are mechanisms of 'paralogue interference'. We present a foundation model to explain gene expression and vigour in a wide hybrid/new allotetraploid. This Review concludes that some mechanisms operate immediately at the wide-hybrid, and other mechanisms begin their operations later. Direct interaction of new paralogous genes, as measured using high-resolution chromatin conformation capture, should inform future research and single cell transcriptome sequencing should help achieve specificity while studying gene sub- and neo-functionalization.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Filogenia , Plantas/genética , Poliploidia , Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Epigênese Genética , Evolução Molecular , Dosagem de Genes , Genes Duplicados , Vigor Híbrido , Seleção Genética
14.
Front Plant Sci ; 8: 1329, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28824667

RESUMO

Sulforaphane, the hydrolytic product of glucoraphanin glucosinolate, is a potent anticarcinogen that reduces the risk of several human cancers. However, in most B. rapa vegetables, glucoraphanin is undetectable or only present in trace amounts, since the glucoraphanin that is present is converted to gluconapin by three functional BrAOP2 genes. In this study, to enrich beneficial glucoraphanin content in B. rapa, the functional BrAOP2 alleles were replaced by non-functional counterparts through marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB). We identified non-functional mutations of two BrAOP2 genes from B. rapa. The backcross progenies with introgression of both non-functional braop2.2 and braop2.3 alleles significantly increased the glucoraphanin content by 18 times relative to the recurrent parent. In contrast, replacement or introgression of single non-functional braop2.2 or braop2.3 locus did not change glucoraphanin content. Our results suggest that replacement of these two functional BrAOP2 genes with non-functional alleles has the potential for producing improved Brassica crops with enriched beneficial glucoraphanin content.

15.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 3297, 2017 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28607364

RESUMO

We report on the controllable synthesis of porous BN microfibers and explore their applications as adsorbent for removing dibenzothiophene (DBT) in model oil. The growth evolution of porous BN microfibers has been carefully investigated by correlating their structural characteristics with their synthesis conditions. The as-prepared BN microfibers exhibit very high adsorption capacity for DBT (86 mg S g-1 according to the Langmuir isotherm model), showing excellent adsorptive desulfurization performance. The porous BN after adsorption can be regenerated by a simply heat treatment. After four times recycling, the regenerated adsorption capacity still remains more than 83% of that at the first adsorption. The superb oxidation resistance and chemical inertness, high sulfur adsorption capacity, as well as excellent regeneration performance render the developed porous BN microfibers to be a decent adsorbent for sulfur removal from fuels.

16.
Curr Opin Plant Biol ; 36: 79-87, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28242534

RESUMO

The economically important Brassica genus is a good system for studying the evolution of polyploids. Brassica genomes have undergone whole genome triplication (WGT). Subgenome dominance phenomena such as biased gene fractionation and dominant gene expression were observed in tripled genomes of Brassica. The genome of radish (Raphanus sativus), another important crop of tribe Brassiceae, was derived from the same WGT event and shows similar subgenome dominance. These findings and molecular dating indicate that radish occupies a similar evolutionary origin as that of Brassica species. Here, we extended the Brassica "triangle of U" to a multi-vertex model. This model describes the relationships or the potential of using more Brassiceae mesohexaploids in the creation of new allotetraploid oil or vegetable crop species.


Assuntos
Brassicaceae/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma de Planta , Modelos Genéticos , Poliploidia , Genes Dominantes , Especiação Genética , Seleção Genética
17.
Theor Appl Genet ; 130(1): 71-79, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27704179

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Using map-based cloning, we delimited the Ms - cd1 gene responsible for the male sterile phenotype in B. oleracea to an approximately 39-kb fragment. Expression analysis suggests that a new predicted gene, a homolog of the Arabidopsis SIED1 gene, is a potential candidate gene. A dominant genic male sterile (DGMS) mutant 79-399-3 in Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea) is controlled by a single gene named Ms-cd1, which was genetically mapped on chromosome C09. The derived DGMS lines of 79-399-3 have been successfully applied in hybrid cabbage breeding and commercial hybrid seed production of several B. oleracea cultivars in China. However, the Ms-cd1 gene responsible for the DGMS has not been identified, and the molecular basis of the DGMS is unclear, which then limits its widespread application in hybrid cabbage seed production. In the present study, a large BC9 population with 12,269 individuals was developed for map-based cloning of the Ms-cd1 gene, and Ms-cd1 was mapped to a 39.4-kb DNA fragment between two InDel markers, InDel14 and InDel24. Four genes were identified in this region, including two annotated genes based on the available B. oleracea annotation database and two new predicted open reading frames (ORFs). Finally, a newly predicted ORF designated Bol357N3 was identified as the candidate of the Ms-cd1 gene. These results will be useful to reveal the molecular mechanism of the DGMS and develop more practical DGMS lines with stable male sterility for hybrid seed production in cabbage.


Assuntos
Brassica/genética , Genes Dominantes , Genes de Plantas , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Clonagem Molecular , DNA de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Mutação INDEL , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Sci Data ; 3: 160119, 2016 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27996963

RESUMO

The closely related species Brassica rapa and B. oleracea encompass a wide range of vegetable, fodder and oil crops. The release of their reference genomes has facilitated resequencing collections of B. rapa and B. oleracea aiming to build their variome datasets. These data can be used to investigate the evolutionary relationships between and within the different species and the domestication of the crops, hereafter named morphotypes. These data can also be used in genetic studies aiming at the identification of genes that influence agronomic traits. We selected and resequenced 199 B. rapa and 119 B. oleracea accessions representing 12 and nine morphotypes, respectively. Based on these resequencing data, we obtained 2,249,473 and 3,852,169 high quality SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms), as well as 303,617 and 417,004 InDels for the B. rapa and B. oleracea populations, respectively. The variome datasets of B. rapa and B. oleracea represent valuable resources to researchers working on evolution, domestication or breeding of Brassica vegetable crops.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica/genética , Genoma de Planta , Evolução Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
20.
Nat Genet ; 48(10): 1218-24, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27526322

RESUMO

Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.


Assuntos
Brassica rapa/genética , Brassica/genética , Variação Genética , Seleção Genética , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , DNA de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
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