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1.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 166: 105975, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391880

RESUMO

Anti-cutaneous melanoma activity of the skin-delivered gambogic acid (GA) has been reported in our previous study. However, it is difficult for GA to diffuse passively through intact skin without any enhancement means. In this study, a combination of chemical enhancers (EN: azone and propylene glycol) and physical ultrasound (US) was used to improve the percutaneous permeation of GA and enhance the anti-melanoma activity. The enhancement effect of the combination of EN and US (EN-US) on GA in vitro and in vivo was studied, and the enhancement mechanism and skin irritation were also evaluated. We showed that the parameters of US application at a constant frequency (30 kHz) with a duty cycle of 100% and intensity of 1.75 W/cm2 for 20 min were optimal. In vitro, EN-US showed a considerable enhancement of the permeation of GA, and the enhancement effect was stronger than that with the use of EN or US alone. In vivo antitumor study showed that the tumor growth was significantly inhibited after percutaneous administration of GA by EN-US, more than in the intravenous injection group. The penetration enhancement mechanism revealed that EN-US not only altered the structure of lipid bilayers and keratins to reduce the barrier effect of the stratum corneum but also produced diffusion channels in the skin under the cavitation effect of US, thereby promoting the skin penetration of GA. In addition, there was no observable skin irritation in mice after treatment with EN-US. Our study demonstrated that the combination of EN and US improved the skin permeation and retention of GA to enhance the anti-melanoma activity. This method also provides technical guidance for the future development of topical and transdermal therapeutic system of GA.


Assuntos
Melanoma , Neoplasias Cutâneas , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/metabolismo , Camundongos , Permeabilidade , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Xantonas
2.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(12): 3792-3803, 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949731

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) displays alterations in regional brain activity represented by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), but the time-varying characteristics of this local neural activity remain to be clarified. We aimed to investigate the dynamic changes of intrinsic brain activity in a relatively large sample of drug-naïve OCD patients using univariate and multivariate analyses. We applied a sliding-window approach to calculate the dynamic ALFF (dALFF) and compared the difference between 73 OCD patients and age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HCs). We also utilized multivariate pattern analysis to determine whether dALFF could differentiate OCD patients from HCs at the individual level. Compared with HCs, OCD patients exhibited increased dALFF mainly within regions of the cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex and striatum, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Decreased dALFF was identified in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL), posterior cingulate cortex, insula, fusiform gyrus, and cerebellum. Moreover, we found negative correlations between illness duration and dALFF values in the right IPL and between dALFF values in the left cerebellum and Hamilton Depression Scale scores. Furthermore, dALFF can distinguish OCD patients from HCs with the most discriminative regions located in the IPL, dlPFC, middle occipital gyrus, and cuneus. Taken together, in the current study, we demonstrated a characteristic pattern of higher variability of regional brain activity within the CSTC circuits and lower variability in regions outside the CSTC circuits in drug-naïve OCD patients.

3.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 332, 2021 05 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34050130

RESUMO

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been widely used as an alternative treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the most effective rTMS parameters, such as the targets and stimulation frequencies, remain controversial. Therefore, we aimed to compare and rank the efficacy and tolerability of different rTMS strategies for OCD treatment. We searched five electronic databases from the date of their inception to March 25, 2020. Pairwise meta-analyses and network meta-analyses were performed to synthesize data. We assessed the quality of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework. Twenty-two eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. For efficacy, low-frequency (LF) rTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; mean difference (MD) 6.34, 95% credible interval (CrI) 2.12-10.42) and supplementary motor area (MD 4.18, 95% CrI 0.83-7.62), and high-frequency rTMS over the DLPFC (MD 3.75, 95% CrI 1.04-6.81) were more effective than sham rTMS. Regarding tolerability, all rTMS treatment strategies were similar to the sham rTMS. The estimated ranking probabilities of treatments showed that LF-rTMS over the DLPFC might be the most effective intervention among all rTMS strategies. However, the quality of evidence regarding efficacy was evaluated as very low. Current evidence suggested a marginal advantage for LF-rTMS over the DLPFC on OCD treatment. High-quality RCTs with low selection and performance bias are needed to further verify the efficacy of specific rTMS strategies for the OCD treatment.


Assuntos
Córtex Motor , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Adulto , Humanos , Metanálise em Rede , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3073, 2021 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34031386

RESUMO

Follicular helper T (TFH) cells control antibody responses by supporting antibody affinity maturation and memory formation. Inadequate TFH function has been found in individuals with ineffective responses to vaccines, but the mechanism underlying TFH regulation in vaccination is not understood. Here, we report that lower serum levels of the metabolic hormone leptin associate with reduced vaccine responses to influenza or hepatitis B virus vaccines in healthy populations. Leptin promotes mouse and human TFH differentiation and IL-21 production via STAT3 and mTOR pathways. Leptin receptor deficiency impairs TFH generation and antibody responses in immunisation and infection. Similarly, leptin deficiency induced by fasting reduces influenza vaccination-mediated protection for the subsequent infection challenge, which is mostly rescued by leptin replacement. Our results identify leptin as a regulator of TFH cell differentiation and function and indicate low levels of leptin as a risk factor for vaccine failure.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Imunização , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Leptina/deficiência , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Vacinação/métodos
5.
Ear Nose Throat J ; : 1455613211015754, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977765

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In this study, we investigated the effect of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) on gustatory function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODS: Forty-three patients with CRS who underwent FESS were included in this study. Prior to FESS and 3 months after surgery, the severity of rhinosinusitis was assessed using the Taiwanese version of the 22-item SNOT (SNOT-22), endoscopic examination, and acoustic rhinometry. The olfactory function was evaluated using the phenylethyl alcohol odor detection threshold test and the traditional Chinese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, and the gustatory function was evaluated using the whole mouth suprathreshold taste test (WMTT) and the taste quad test (TQT). Subgroup analyses were performed based on CRS phenotypes and endotypes. RESULTS: The SNOT-22 significantly improved 3 months after FESS for all patients with CRS. The endoscopic score and olfactory function significantly improved in patients with eosinophilic CRS and in patients with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). The WMTT sweet and bitter scores were significantly lower after FESS in CRSwNP, but the TQT sweet score was significantly higher in patients without nasal polyps. In addition, patients with noneosinophilic CRS had significantly decreased WMTT and salty scores 3 months after FESS. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that the effect of FESS on gustatory function of patients with CRS was different with the different testing procedures, the association with nasal polyps, and the underlying inflammatory patterns.

6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(18): e25336, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950922

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth and third leading cause of death worldwide and in China, respectively. Sedentary behavior has been shown to increase the risk of respiratory disease, such as asthma. However, the relationship between sedentary behavior and COPD is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the association between sedentary behavior and COPD.Data was extracted from the 2018 a large-scale cross-sectional study of Chronic Disease and Lifestyle Population Survey in Sichuan Province of China, in which sedentary behavior and chronic diseases were self-reported according to medical records. The association between sedentary behavior on risk of COPD was estimated using multivariable regression model in non-matching cohorts and generalized propensity score-weighted (GPSW)cohorts, respectively, controlling for potential confounders.Individuals who remained sedentary for more than 7 hours per day were more likely to have COPD than the control group (<3 hours) both in conventional multivariate logistic regression analysis (OR = 2.020, 95%CI: 1.575-2.585, P < .001) and GPSW analysis (OR = 2.381, 95%CI: 1.778-3.188, P < .001). After GPSW and the sensitivity analysis using refined smoking variable further found a dose-effect between sedentary behavior and COPD, with 1.242 (95%CI: 1.006-1.532, P < .05) times risk of COPD in those sedentary behavior of more than 5 hours per day (GPSW) and 1.377 (95%CI: 1.092-1.736, P < .05) times risk in those sedentary behavior above 5 hours per day (sensitivity analysis), comparing with the control group.Sedentary behavior is independently associated with increased risk of COPD, adjusting for other confounders. The findings of this study have important implications for future research and public health guidance. Reducing sedentary time may have a significant role in COPD prevention.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pontuação de Propensão , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(18): 21482-21498, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33928779

RESUMO

Aromatics from selective hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of biomass-derived bio-oil are an ideal feedstock for replacing industrial fossil products. In this study, biochar-modified Hß/Ni-V catalysts were prepared and tested in the atmospheric HDO of guaiacol and bio-oil to produce aromatics. Compared with unmodified Hß/Ni-V, higher HDO activity was achieved in catalysts with all kinds of biochar modifications. Especially, the pine nut shell biochar (PB)-modified PB-Hß-8/Ni-V showed the highest selectivity to aromatics (69.17%), mainly including benzene and toluene. Besides, under the conditions of 380 °C and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 0.5 h-1, the cleavage of CAr-OH (CAr means the carbon in the benzene ring) was promoted to form more aromatics. Moreover, great recyclability (58.77% aromatics for the reactivated run-3 test) and efficient HDO of bio-oil (44.9% aromatic yield) were also achieved. Based on the characterization results, the enhanced aromatic selectivity of PB-Hß-8/Ni-V was attributed to the synergetic effect between PB and Hß/Ni-V. In detail, a stable surface migrated-carbon layer was formed on Hß/Ni-V via the metal catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process of the pyrolysis PB volatiles. Simultaneously, a carbothermal reduction driven by the migrated-carbon took place to decorate the surface metals, obtaining more Ni0 and V3+ active sites. With this synergism, increased Ni0 sites promoted H2 adsorption and dissociation, which improved the hydrogenation activity. Furthermore, the higher affinity of the reactant and increased oxygen vacancies both contributed to enhancing the selective surface adsorption of oxygenous groups and the cleavage of the CAr-OH bond, thus improving the deoxygenation activity. Therefore, the HDO activity was improved to form more target aromatics over biochar-modified catalysts. This work highlighted a potential avenue to develop economic and environmental catalysts for the upgrading of bio-oil.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Carvão Vegetal/química , Níquel/química , Óleos/química , Oxigênio/química , Vanádio/química , Adsorção , Catálise , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Propriedades de Superfície , Termogravimetria , Difração de Raios X
8.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801167

RESUMO

Transoral robotic surgery (TORS) has been used for treating pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers for many years. However, the application of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) before TORS, the sparing rate of adjuvant irradiation after TORS, and the long-term oncologic/functional outcomes of TORS are seldom reported. From September 2014 to May 2018, 30 patients with clinical T1 to T3 cancers of oropharynx (7), larynx (3), and hypopharynx (20) were prospectively recruited for TORS in a tertiary referral medical center. Twelve (40%) patients had clinical early stage (I or II) disease, and 18 (60%) patients had late-stage (III or IV) disease. All 30 patients were suggested to receive TORS with neck dissection. Cisplatin-based NACT was given to 11 patients before the surgery, and it led to a 100% reduction in tumor size. Only 40% of patients needed adjuvant irradiation with a mean dosage of 5933 cGY after TORS. After a mean follow up of 38.9± 14.7 months, the Kaplan-Meier method estimated 5-year disease-specific survival, and organ preservation was 86.3% and 96.2%, respectively. Twenty-five patients were alive without tracheostomy and tube feeding. We found that NACT is a potential method for facilitating tumor resection and TORS effectively de-escalated adjuvant irradiation with a satisfactory 5-year survival and functional outcomes.

9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 42(7): 2147-2158, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33566375

RESUMO

The hippocampus and amygdala are important structures in the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, the exact relationship between these structures and stress or PTSD remains unclear. Moreover, they consist of several functionally distinct subfields/subregions that may serve different roles in the neuropathophysiology of PTSD. Here we present a subregional profile of the hippocampus and amygdala in 145 survivors of a major earthquake and 56 non-traumatized healthy controls (HCs). We found that the bilateral hippocampus and left amygdala were significantly smaller in survivors than in HCs, and there was no difference between survivors with (n = 69) and without PTSD (trauma-exposed controls [TCs], n = 76). Analyses revealed similar results in most subfields/subregions, except that the right hippocampal body (in a head-body-tail segmentation scheme), right presubiculum, and left amygdala medial nuclei (Me) were significantly larger in PTSD patients than in TCs but smaller than in HCs. Larger hippocampal body were associated with the time since trauma in PTSD patients. The volume of the right cortical nucleus (Co) was negatively correlated with the severity of symptoms in the PTSD group but positively correlated with the same measurement in the TC group. This correlation between symptom severity and Co volume was significantly different between the PTSD and TCs. Together, we demonstrated that generalized smaller volumes in the hippocampus and amygdala were more likely to be trauma-related than PTSD-specific, and their subfields/subregions were distinctively affected. Notably, larger left Me, right hippocampal body and presubiculum were PTSD-specific; these could be preexisting factors for PTSD or reflect rapid posttraumatic reshaping.

10.
Brain Commun ; 2(2): fcaa113, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215081

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has been identified to involve the impairment of large-scale functional networks within grey matter, and recent studies have suggested that white matter, which also encodes neural activity, can manifest intrinsic functional organization similar to that of grey matter. However, the alterations in white matter functional networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder remain unknown. We recruited a total of 99 children, including 66 drug-naive patients and 33 typically developing controls aged from 6 to 14, to characterize the alterations in functional networks within white matter in drug-naive children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Using clustering analysis, resting-state functional MRI data in the white matter were parsed into different networks. Intrinsic activity within each network and connectivity between networks and the associations between network activity strength and clinical symptoms were assessed. We identified eight distinct white matter functional networks: the default mode network, the somatomotor network, the dorsal attention network, the ventral attention network, the visual network, the deep frontoparietal network, the deep frontal network and the inferior corticospinal-posterior cerebellum network. The default mode, somatomotor, dorsal attention and ventral attention networks showed lower spontaneous neural activity in patients. In particular, the default mode network and the somatomotor network largely showed higher connectivity with other networks, which correlated with more severe hyperactive behaviour, while the dorsal and ventral attention networks mainly had lower connectivity with other networks, which correlated with poor attention performance. In conclusion, there are two distinct patterns of white matter functional networks in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, with one being the hyperactivity-related hot networks including default mode network and somatomotor network and the other being inattention-related cold networks including dorsal attention and ventral attention network. These results extended upon our understanding of brain functional networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder from the perspective of white matter dysfunction.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0227014, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530917

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age and sex on the taste functions of healthy Taiwanese. Subjects were divided into groups based on their sex and age: 20-39 years, 40-59 years, or ≥ 60 years. We evaluated the taste functions of subjects using the whole mouth suprathreshold taste test and the taste quad test. For the whole-mouth test, subjects were instructed to sip and swish sweet, sour, salty, and bitter solutions, each at 5 different suprathreshold concentrations. Each subject was required to indicate the taste quality, and to rate the intensity and unpleasantness/pleasantness of each taste of the solutions. For the quad test, the 4 quadrants of the tongue surface were tested by applying a drop of one concentration of sweet, sour, salty, or bitter solutions 6 times. Subjects then indicated the taste quality and rated the intensity of the solution. We found that in the whole mouth test, the total correct identification score dropped with age, but the ability to identify sweet and salty qualities was not affected by age. No differences were found between males and females, except women scored better than men for sweetness in the 40-59 years age group. The intensity rating scores were higher in the 20-39 years age group, regardless of sex. With regard to the pleasantness of tastants, female subjects in the 20-39 years age group found sweet solution more pleasant than the older subjects did. In the quad test, the total correct identification score decreased with age, but there were no differences between males and females. Thus, our findings showed that both age and sex affected the taste functions of healthy Taiwanese to some extent, and differences were dependent on tongue region and taste quality.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Caracteres Sexuais , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
12.
Front Pharmacol ; 11: 291, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32256362

RESUMO

Objectives: Luteolin is the active component of Perilla frutescens, an herb for the treatment of allergy in Asia. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of luteolin treatment. Methods: BALB/c mice sensitized with house dust mite (HDM) to induce allergic rhinitis (AR), and treated with dexamethasone or luteolin. In addition, mononuclear cells from peripheral blood (PBMC) of AR patients were co-cultured with dexamethasone or luteolin, and were re-stimulated with HDM. Results: Luteolin-treated mice had decreased allergic symptoms, and serum HDM-specific IgE when compared to the untreated group. Flow cytometric analyses of splenocytes and nasal lymphoid tissues from AR mice found that luteolin decreased CD4+ IL-4-secreting T cells when compared to those from vehicle treated AR mice. Histopathology sections showed reduced infiltration of eosinophils and decreased mucus secretion of mouse nasal epithelium. In the in vitro study, the results showed that luteolin reduced the percentage of CD4+ IL-4-secreting splenocytes expression was through reducing expression of pSTAT6 and GATA3. PBMCs from AR patients pretreated with luteolin could decrease percentage of CD4+ IL-4-secreting cells. Conclusion: Our study identified that luteolin attenuates allergic nasal inflammation via inhibition of IL-4 production, which supports the potential pharmaceutical application of luteolin treatment for AR.

13.
Int J Otolaryngol ; 2020: 8073726, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32292482

RESUMO

Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of endoscopic olfactory cleft (OC) opening on olfaction in patients with obstructed OC disease. Materials and Methods. Patients with obstructed OC disease who underwent endoscopic OC opening for treatment were enrolled. The endoscopic olfactory cleft opening was performed under local anesthesia. Under an endoscopy, the middle and superior turbinates were gently lateralized to open the OC using an elevator. The phenyl ethyl alcohol threshold test was performed to evaluate the olfactory function both before and after surgery. Results: An endoscopic OC opening was performed on 42 patients. Amongst them, the etiology of OC obstruction revealed anatomic anomalies in 14 patients, inflammatory process in 14, and anatomic anomalies as well as inflammatory process in 14. The phenyl ethyl alcohol threshold levels improved in 32 (76.2%) of the patients after surgery. The olfactory function was better improved in patients experiencing OC obstructed by inflammatory process than those by anatomic anomalies. Conclusions: This study showed that endoscopic OC opening seemed to be effective in treating olfactory dysfunction in patients with obstructed OC disease caused by inflammatory process.

14.
Analyst ; 145(6): 2152-2158, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125312

RESUMO

A Y-type-DNA-functionalized nanogold probe was synthesized to identify telomerase and trigger drug release in cancer cells. This system involved a DNA-functionalized nanogold probe centered on gold nanoparticles with a dense modification of Y-type DNA molecular beacons on the surface. The Y-type DNA molecular beacons consisted of telomerase primers (TPs), a FAM-labeled single-strand DNA (Mismatch-DNA), and a single-strand DNA of two templates (Linker-DNA1 and Linker-DNA2). Doxorubicin (Dox), an anti-cancer drug molecule, was inserted into DNA double strands. When telomerase existed, TP was extended and the Mismatch-DNA was released, leading to the emission of fluorescent light from FAM while releasing Dox. This probe specifically detected cancer cells and did not affect normal cells. This drug delivery system will reduce the tumour size and cause minimal injury to normal tissues.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Ouro/metabolismo , Ácidos Nucleicos Imobilizados/metabolismo , Telomerase/metabolismo , Animais , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Antibióticos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doxorrubicina/farmacocinética , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Feminino , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/metabolismo
15.
Head Neck ; 42(8): 1765-1774, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32011052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated treatment results, the effects of different treatment modality, and pretreatment Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral load for stage III nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. METHODS: The initial definitive treatment for 356 stage III NPC patients consisted of concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) or induction chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (IndCT-RT). The pretreatment EBV DNA level separated patients into a high (n = 106) or low (n = 250) viral load (≥ or < 1000 copies/mL) subgroup. Outcome measures include relapse rates and various survivals. RESULTS: The 5-year rates of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastasis failure-free survival (DMFFS), and locoregional failure-free survival (LRFFS) were 88.6%, 83.0%, 90.5%, and 90.5%, respectively. Patient characteristics and pretreatment viral load between IndCT-RT and CCRT were no significant differences except for a higher percentage of N2 disease in the IndCT-RT subgroup. Both treatment modality resulted in similar relapse rates (P = .56), OS (P = .20), PFS (P = .53), DMFFS (P = .89), and LRFFS (P = .35). However, patients with a high viral load experienced a higher relapse rate (33.0% vs 12.4%, P < .001) and worse OS (5-year rate, 79.0% vs 92.8%, P < .001), PFS (73.7% vs 88.4%, P < .001), DMFFS (80.2% vs 95.0%, P < .001), and LRFFS (85.6% vs 92.6%, P = .005) than those with a low viral load. CONCLUSION: Long-term treatment results for stage III NPC patients are rather good. IndCT-RT can achieve the same treatment outcome as CCRT. Risk grouping by pretreatment viral load identified a subgroup (30%) of patients associated with a significantly higher relapse rates and worse survivals. These high-risk patients need to strengthen treatment intensity in future trials.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Quimiorradioterapia , DNA Viral , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/terapia , Herpesvirus Humano 4/genética , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/terapia , Prognóstico , Carga Viral
16.
Talanta ; 207: 120285, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594625

RESUMO

Detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) in cells improves our understanding of their physiological functions and facilitates exploration of their roles diseases. The toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction initiates rolling circle amplification (RCA) to achieve signal amplification of the specific miRNA; This process is named as toehold-initiated RCA (TIRCA). The product of TIRCA was ligated to two DNA probes, which were modified with 6-carboxyfluorescein and carboxytetramethylrhodamine, respectively. Qualitative detection of miRNAs was successfully achieved by combining the fluorescence aggregation enhancement effect with fluorescence resonance energy transfer generated by the proximity of the two fluorescent dyes. Thus, this approach helps us analyze the roles of miRNAs in human disease more accurately.


Assuntos
Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência/métodos , MicroRNAs/análise , MicroRNAs/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Sequência de Bases , Linhagem Celular , Sondas de DNA/genética
17.
J Psychiatry Neurosci ; 45(2): 134-141, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765114

RESUMO

Background: The specific role of the corticospinal tract with respect to inattention and impulsive symptoms in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been explored in the past. However, to our knowledge, no study has identified the exact regions of the corticospinal tract that are affected in ADHD. We aimed to determine comprehensive alterations in the white matter microstructure of the corticospinal tract and underlying neuropsychological substrates in ADHD. Methods: We recruited 38 drug-naïve children with ADHD and 34 typically developing controls. We employed a tract-based quantitative approach to measure diffusion parameters along the trajectory of the corticospinal tract, and we further correlated alterations with attention and response inhibition measures. Results: Compared with controls, children with ADHD demonstrated significantly lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity at the level of cerebral peduncle, and higher fractional anisotropy at the level of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in the right corticospinal tract only. As well, increased fractional anisotropy in the posterior limb of the internal capsule was negatively correlated with continuous performance test attention quotients and positively correlated with reaction time on the Stroop Colour­Word Test; increased radial diffusivity in the right peduncle region was positively correlated with omissions in the Stroop test. Limitations: The sample size was relatively small. Moreover, we did not consider the different subtypes of ADHD and lacked sufficient power to analyze subgroup differences. Higher-order diffusion modelling is needed in future white matter studies. Conclusion: We demonstrated specific changes in the right corticospinal tract in children with ADHD. Correlations with measures of attention and response inhibition underscored the functional importance of corticospinal tract disturbance in ADHD.

18.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 39(4): 711-716, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828684

RESUMO

All nontechnical factors were analyzed to predict nasal bacterial culture results in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Four hundred and ninety-six CRS patients, who underwent functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), were enrolled. Prior to FESS, the severity of each patient's CRS was evaluated using a questionnaire, endoscopic examination, acoustic rhinometry, smell test, saccharine transit test, and CT scan. Nasal bacterial cultures were collected from both middle meati using a cotton-tipped stick. Our results showed that the symptom severity complained of by patients and their loss of smell function did not influence the bacterial culture rate. We discovered that the bacterial culture rate was significantly higher in nostrils with nasal polyps than those without polyps, along with nostrils experiencing thick, purulent discharge as opposed to those without discharge. Additionally, this result also occurred in nostrils with a saccharin transit time of more than 30 min than it did in those with a saccharin transit time of less than or equal to 30 min. Both the total endoscopic score and anterior group CT score were significantly higher in nostrils with positive culture than those with negative culture, while the second minimal cross-sectional area (MCA2) of the nasal cavity was significantly lower in nostrils with positive culture than those with negative culture. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that both nasal polyps and MCA2 were the predictors for positive nasal bacterial culture results. It was concluded that nasal polyps and MCA2 were the predictors for positive nasal bacterial culture results in CRS patients.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Nariz/microbiologia , Rinite/microbiologia , Sinusite/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Doença Crônica , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Endoscopia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pólipos Nasais/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Immunol ; 4(39)2019 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519813

RESUMO

IL-6 inhibits the expression of IL-2Rß (CD122) in germinal center TFH cells to maintain IL-2 hyporesponsiveness (see the related Research Article by Papillion et al.).


Assuntos
Interleucina-2 , Interleucina-6 , Centro Germinativo , Interleucinas , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores
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